Poster 367 Ultrasound Guidance for Botox Injections to Avoid Vascular Malformations: A Novel Use for Targeted Therapy. A Case Report
M. Caramore: I Have No Relevant Financial Relationships To Disclose. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 1, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Mark Caramore Source Type: research

Poster 112 Ultrasound-Guided Onabotulinum Toxin A (Botox) Injection of the Psoas Muscle Using a Posterior Approach: A Case Report
J. A. Makon: I Have No Relevant Financial Relationships To Disclose. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 1, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Joelle A. Makon, Michael T. Kelly, Douglas P. Murphy Source Type: research

Efficacy of botulinum toxin in pachyonychia congenita type 1: report of two new cases
ABSTRACT Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare genodermatosis caused by a mutation in keratin genes, which can lead to hypertrophic nail dystrophy and focal palmoplantar keratoderma (predominantly plantar), amongst other manifestations. Painful blisters and callosities, sometimes exacerbated by hyperhidrosis, are major issues that can have a significant impact on patient quality of life. Many alternative treatments for this condition have been applied with variable and partial clinical response, but a definitive cure for this disease has yet to be discovered. After obtaining informed consent, two patients with genetically ...
Source: Dermatologic Therapy - September 1, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: Jéssica González‐Ramos, Elena Sendagorta‐Cudós, Guillermo González‐López, Ander Mayor‐Ibarguren, Rosa Feltes‐Ochoa, Pedro Herranz‐Pinto Tags: Therapeutic Hotline Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin type A on cutaneous flap viability in diabetic and tobacco-exposed rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Botulinum toxin A increased skin flap viability in control and diabetic rats on the seventh post-operative day. Increased lumen diameter, external arterial diameter, and lumen/wall thickness ratio were observed in the diabetes+BoNTA group. BoNTA had no effect in the tobacco-exposed group on the seventh postoperative day. PMID: 26465109 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Cirurgica Brasileira)
Source: Acta Cirurgica Brasileira - September 1, 2015 Category: Surgery Authors: Camargo CP, Jacomo AL, Battlehner CN, Lemos M, Saldiva PH, Martins MA, Munhoz AM, Gemperli R Tags: Acta Cir Bras Source Type: research

Is Botox for anal pain an effective treatment option?
CONCLUSION: Botox relieves pain more effectively in AF than in LS. It is an effective option in medically refractory cases of LS. Higher doses of Botox are safe to use in LS; however, this needs to be evaluated. Botox injections have an overall low complication rate. PMID: 26308909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Postgraduate Medicine)
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - August 28, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research

Ten years of experience with intravesical and intrasphincteric botulinum type-A toxin in children
To review 10 years of experience with both intravesical and intrasphincteric botulinum toxin (Botox®) injections in children, and assess the therapeutic efficacy and response time after multiple injections. To describe the positive effects of Botox in three children for separate, novel indications: new-onset hydronephrosis in neurogenic bladder; autonomic dysreflexia in a child with a high cord transection; and trigonal hypersensitivity and pain with clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC). (Source: Journal of Pediatric Urology)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Urology - August 28, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: T. Greer, J. Abbott, W. Breytenbach, D. Mcguane, A. Barker, J. Khosa, N. Samnakay Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A for treatment of Frey's syndrome: evidence from 22 published articles
In conclusion, our study supports that BTXA produces meaningful benefits on the treatment of patients with FS. However, owing to lack of strong evidence, future studies with well‐designed inclusion criteria and multicenter randomized controlled trials are needed to give more credible evidence, if possible. Botulinum toxin type A produces meaningful benefits on the treatment of patients with Frey's syndrome. However, owing to a lack of strong evidence, future studies with well‐designed inclusion criteria and multicenter randomized controlled trials are needed to give more credible evidence, if possible. (Source: Cancer Medicine)
Source: Cancer Medicine - August 26, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shang Xie, Kan Wang, Tao Xu, Xue‐Sheng Guo, Xiao‐Feng Shan, Zhi‐Gang Cai Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Myotendinous Lengthening Improves Function in Children with Spastic Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy
Children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy with dynamic wrist flexion position during tasks, but with volitional wrist extension in isolation are often treated with Botox, which may limit muscle strength and growth. As the dynamic limitations in wrist movement are due to both abnormal myofascial loads as well as to abnormal patterns of muscle activation, we hypothesize that reducing the non-neural component via myotendinous lengthening of the flexor carpi ulnaris can reduce wrist impairment while maintaining muscle strength. (Source: The Journal of Hand Surgery)
Source: The Journal of Hand Surgery - August 25, 2015 Category: Surgery Authors: Matthew B. Burn, Gloria R. Gogola Source Type: research

Role of motor end plate-targeted Botulinum toxin type A injections in children with cerebral palsyitle.
Authors: Van Campenhout A, Bar-On L, Desloovere K, Molenaers G Abstract Botulinum toxin type A (BTX) injections are frequently used in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to control spasticity. Injection variables still lead to variable outcomes of this treatment. Using instrumented spasticity assessment and muscle volume assessment the most effective location of the injection was demonstrated for gracilis and psoas muscles in children with CP. It was found that this treatment is most effective when injected in the motor endplate zones of the selected muscles. This review article presents all available research on th...
Source: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica - August 20, 2015 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Acta Orthop Belg Source Type: research

Physiotherapy rehabilitation for people with progressive Multiple Sclerosis: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that physiotherapy may be effective for the rehabilitation of people with progressive Multiple Sclerosis. However, further appropriately powered studies are required. PMID: 26281954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical Physics)
Source: Medical Physics - August 14, 2015 Category: Physics Authors: Campbell E, Coulter EH, Mattison PG, Miller L, McFadyen A, Paul L Tags: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Source Type: research

Botulinum Toxin A injection of UES in Schizencephaly with dysphagia: Case report
A 4-year-old schizencephaly patient admitted to authors’ institution with dysphagia caused by upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) was done for the diagnosis and the botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) was injected to the cricopharyngeal muscle. UES dysfunction improved and oral feeding was possible after the injection. This normal swallowing function remained for over 79 months which was confirmed by follow up VFSS. To our knowledge, this is first case of schizencephaly patient to be treated by BTX-A for UES dysfunction and longest to maintain its effect with single sess...
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - August 13, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ki Yeun Nam, Changjae Kim, Jin Woo Park, Ho Jun Lee, Bum Sun Kwon Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Evaluation of using botulinum toxin (A) in the treatment of myofacial pain syndrome
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2015 Source:Tanta Dental Journal Author(s): O.M. Zayed, M.M.S. Khedr, A.A.M. Sadakah, A.E. El-deeb Myofacial pain syndrome (MPS) is a disorder which has become a topic over the past two decades and nowadays .10 patients (9 female & 1 male) complaining of unilateral MPS were injected with botulinum toxin type A(BTX-A) in masseter and temporalis muscles extra orally under electromyographic guidance (EMG) since they are the primary muscles responsible for pain in ear region and temporal headache respectively, which cause limitation of mandibular movement and devel...
Source: Tanta Dental Journal - August 9, 2015 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

A case of thrombosis of subcutaneous anterior chest veins (Mondor's disease) as an unusual complication of botulinum type A injection
Mondor's disease is a rare entity, characterized by sclerosing thrombophlebitis classically involving one or more of the subcutaneous veins, including the anterior chest wall. It is usually a self-limited, benign condition, although it may be rarely associated with cancer. The intramuscular administration of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), and also, more recently, type B, is a well-established treatment of many neurological, other medical and cosmetic disorders, including strabismus, blepharospasm, cervical and other focal/segmental dystonia, and also hyperhidrosis. Herein, we describe a case of thrombosis of the subcutan...
Source: Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis - August 5, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A on Differentiation of Fibroblasts Derived from Scar Tissue
Conclusion: The authors’ results show that botulinum toxin type A directly inhibits fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation in vitro, and indicate its potential for use in treating wounds expected to develop into hypertrophic scars after trauma, burn, or surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V. (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - July 31, 2015 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Experimental: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Effect in Topical Use of Lycogen(TM) via Sonophoresis for Anti-aging on Facial Skin.
Abstract Anti-aging skin care is a growing popular topic in cosmetic and aesthetic fields, and skin care rather then makeup tips draw more attention nowadays. The phenomenon of skin aging includes thinning of skin losses of elasticity and moisture, pigmented spot formation, and wrinkle development. Along with growth in age, the decreased rates of epithelium renewal and cellular recovery as well as the reduced contents of elastin, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans all contribute to creases or folds of skin. Available strategies for wrinkle treatments include topical use of skin care products with anti-aging contents...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - July 31, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hsin-Ti L, Wen-Sheng L, Yi-Chia W, Ya-Wei L, Wen ZH, David WH, Su-Shin L Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

eComment. Alternative approaches to pyloric disruption after oesophagectomy: Stapled pyloroplasty versus dilatation and botox injection
(Source: Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery)
Source: Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery - July 22, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Markakis, C., Wan, A., Spartalis, E., Vasilikostas, G. Tags: E-Comment Source Type: research

Effect of botulinum toxin type A in the contraction of lesions treated with full-thickness grafts
The objective was to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin type A (in different doses) in the contraction of full-thickness wounds treated with full-thickness grafts. Methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were used, with an average weight of 350 g, divided into three groups. In group 1, two full-thickness wounds were produced on their back. The first wound was subjected to graft + 1 Ui/cm2 and the second one was subjected only to skin graft. The same routine was done in group 2, except with a dose of 2 Ui/cm2. In group 3, aiming at a 14-day histological anal...
Source: European Journal of Plastic Surgery - July 21, 2015 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of NABOTA in Post-stroke Upper Limb Spasticity: A phase 3 multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial
Botulinum toxin A is widely used in the clinics to reduce spasticity and improve upper limb function for post-stroke patients. Efficacy and safety of a new botulinum toxin type A, NABOTA (DWP450) in post-stroke upper limb spasticity was evaluated in comparison with Botox (Onabotulinum toxin A). A total of 197 patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity were included in this study and randomly assigned to NABOTA group (n=99) or Botox group (n=98). Wrist flexors with modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) grade 2 or greater, and elbow flexors, thumb flexors and finger flexors with MAS 1 or greater were injected with either drug. ...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - July 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hyung Seok Nam, Yoon Ghil Park, Nam-Jong Paik, Byung-Mo Oh, Min Ho Chun, Hea-Eun Yang, Dae Hyun Kim, Youbin Yi, Han Gil Seo, Kwang Dong Kim, Min Cheol Chang, Jae Hak Ryu, Shi-Uk Lee Source Type: research

Myasthenia gravis exacerbation with low dose ocular botulinum toxin for epiphoria
We present a man with clinically stable systemic myasthenia gravis (MG) which flared with a low dose of peripherally injected botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A). Botulinum toxin drugs generally have an excellent safety profile, however, they are contentious in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Despite this, there remain limited reports on the systemic effects of botulinum therapy in patients with MG. This man is one of less than 10 reported patients worldwide in whom MG was exacerbated by a peripheral BTX-A injection. This is an important reminder to Australian clinicians of the potential risks of this common place medica...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - July 17, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Knee flexion contracture treated with botulinum toxin type A in patients with haemophilia (PWH)
IntroductionKnee flexion contracture (KFC) remains a common complication of haemoarthrosis in children and young adults with haemophilia. If the KFC is not treated properly it produces disability, postural and gait abnormalities. ObjectiveEvaluate the effectiveness of conservative treatment of KFC with Botulinum toxin type A (BTX‐A) in PWH. MethodsSeventeen patients were treated, with 21 affected knees. Mean age was 26 years. The mean follow up was 12 months. We evaluated flexion and KFC pretreatment BTX‐A and up to 12 months posttreatment. BTX‐A application was in hamstring and calf muscles. To evalua...
Source: Haemophilia - July 17, 2015 Category: Hematology Authors: C. Daffunchio, H. Caviglia, J. Nassif, N. Morettil, G. Galatro Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A for limb spasticity on improving activity restriction and quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis using the GRADE approach.
CONCLUSION: Botulinum Toxin A may improve active outcomes in the upper limb but further evidence is needed. No conclusion can be drawn about the effect on active outcomes for the lower limb or for quality of life measures in either limb. PMID: 26150020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Rehabilitation)
Source: Clinical Rehabilitation - July 6, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Baker JA, Pereira G Tags: Clin Rehabil Source Type: research

Cosmetic Microdroplet Botulinum Toxin A Forehead Lift: A New Treatment Paradigm
Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of a microdroplet, cosmetic, periocular botulinum toxin A method that extensively treats the eyebrow depressors but leaves the brow elevators untreated. Methods: This is a 5-year retrospective, consecutive, nonrandomized series of botulinum toxin treatments. The study was reviewed by an institutional review board and complied with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Patients were treated with 33 U onabotulinum toxin (BOTOX, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, U.S.A.) injected in microdroplets of 10 to 20 μl. Sixty to 100 injections of microdropl...
Source: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - July 1, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

The Effects of Manual Therapy on Aging and Older Adults With Neurological Disease
Conclusion: There was limited evidence on the effects of manual therapy to treat and prevent joint contracture. Stretching, combined with Botox (botulinum toxin A), was found more effective at improving range of motion than stretching alone. Joint mobilizations showed immediate improvements in range of motion and balance, but higher-quality studies investigating the long-term impact of joint mobilization on patient function need to be conducted. The amount of therapy (dosage) plays a role in recovery of function. Continued research is needed to determine the best practice for the use of manual therapy for individuals with ...
Source: Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation - July 1, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Manual Therapy for Aging and Older Adults Source Type: research

Aesthetic Policy and Procedure Protocols: A “Must Have” for Every Aesthetic Medical Provider
This article describes why an “Aesthetic Policy and Procedure” manual is a necessary tool in every aesthetic provider's armamentarium, what it is composed of, as well as how these guidelines serve as a protective mechanism for the aesthetic provider's clinic if legal action is brought against their staff, their medical director, and/or their clinic. (Source: Plastic Surgical Nursing)
Source: Plastic Surgical Nursing - July 1, 2015 Category: Nursing Tags: Departments: Aesthetic Department Source Type: research

Muscle Histopathology in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Receiving Botulinum toxin Type A
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) is routine treatment for hypertonicity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: Single blind prospective cross sectional study of 10 participants (mean age 11 years,7 months) was done to determine the relationship between muscle histopathology and BoNTA in treated medial gastrocnemius muscle of children with CP. Open muscle biopsies were taken from medial gastrocnemius muscle and vastus lateralis (control) during orthopedic surgery. RESULTS: Neurogenic atrophy in the medial gastrocnemius was seen in 6 participants between 4 months to 3 years post BoNTA. Type 1 fiber los...
Source: Muscle and Nerve - July 1, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jane Valentine, Katherine Stannage, Vicki Fabian, Kevin Ellis, Siobhan Reid, Christian Pitcher, Catherine Elliott Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin type A for Holmes tremor secondary to thalamic hemorrhage
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - June 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Persistence of Upper Blepharoptosis After Cosmetic Botulinum Toxin Type A
CONCLUSION: Upper eyelid ptosis after cosmetic botulinum toxin can persist for many months after treatment. Based on this series, the authors propose that apraclonidine drops can be used at the time of initial assessment to predict the relative longevity of ptosis after cosmetic botulinum toxin treatment (Level 4 evidence recommendation). After a 1-week trial, responders can be advised that ptosis is likely to resolve in 4 to 6 weeks. Nonresponders should be counseled that resolution may take longer than 6 weeks. (Source: Dermatologic Surgery)
Source: Dermatologic Surgery - June 25, 2015 Category: Dermatology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The cost‐effectiveness of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) for the treatment of idiopathic medically refractory overactive bladder (wet) in the UK
ConclusionIn the management of patients with idiopathic OAB wet, the results of this cost‐utility analysis favours SNS (PNE or TLE) over PTNS or OMT, and the most efficient treatment strategy is SNS PNE over BoNT‐A over a 10‐year period. (Source: BJU International)
Source: BJU International - June 25, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Silke Walleser Autiero, Natalie Hallas, Christopher D. Betts, Jeremy L. Ockrim Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Effect of Botox on the Implant Stabilization and Capsular Formation: An Experimental Study
Background: Breast augmentation is one of the most common esthetic procedures with increasing frequency throughout the past years. The most demanding complications involving esthetic and reconstructive breast surgery are the malpositioning of the implant and capsular contracture. The etiology, prevention, and management remain to be fully explained. Botulinum toxin (BTX) administration has anti-inflammatory effects that can possibly decrease capsular contracture, and chemical denervation of the pectoral muscle theoretically may decrease incidence of malrotation. In our literature search, we found only 1 clinical study usin...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - June 24, 2015 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined With Cast Immobilization for Treating Recurrent Peroneal Spastic Flatfoot Without Bone Coalitions: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
We describe a 27-year-old female who experienced recurrent peroneal spastic flatfoot after an injury. She was treated successfully with a combination of botulinum toxin type A and immobilization of the foot in a neutral position with a cast. After 3 years, the condition had not recurred, and she was pain free and walked normally, with no increase in muscle tone. This unique treatment could be of potential use to treat many patients with such conditions. (Source: The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery)
Source: The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - June 24, 2015 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Editorial Comment from Dr Manning to Botulinum toxin type A injection for refractory interstitial cystitis: A randomized comparative study and predictors of treatment response
(Source: International Journal of Urology)
Source: International Journal of Urology - June 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jane Manning Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research

Characterization of idiopathic esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction
Conclusions & InferencesPrimary EGJ outflow obstruction has an unclear clinical significance. A substantial part of patients has unrelated symptoms, spontaneous symptom relief, or no stasis. Treated patients showed a beneficial response to botox injections. A small proportion develops achalasia at follow‐up. We describe a cohort of patients with EGJ outflow obstruction. We aimed for a better understanding of this rare disease and a more evidence‐based treatment. A substantial part of patients has no symptoms correlating to outflow obstruction or no stasis on barium esophagography. Treated patients showed a benefic...
Source: Neurogastroenterology and Motility - June 22, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: F. B. van Hoeij, A. J. P. M. Smout, A. J. Bredenoord Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of hemifacial spasm over 16years
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015 Source:Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Author(s): Mine Hayriye Sorgun , Rezzak Yilmaz , Yusuf Alper Akin , Fatma Nazli Mercan , Muhittin Cenk Akbostanci The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and side effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) in the treatment of hemifacial spasm (HFS). We also focused on the divergence between different injection techniques and commercial forms. We retrospectively evaluated 470 sessions of BTX injections administered to 68 patients with HFS. The initial time of improvement, duration and degree of improvement, and frequency and durati...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - June 20, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale
This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward–backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for facial palsy. Analyses for internal consistency, test–retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness were perform...
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - June 19, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Lessons Learned in the Surgical Treatment of Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Over 10 Years
Objective: To evaluate our extensive experience over a decade in the treatment of patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) who underwent first rib resection and scalenectomy (FRRS). Methods: Patients treated with FRRS for NTOS from 2003 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed using a prospectively maintained database. Results: Over 10 years, 286 patients underwent 308 FRRS. During the first 5-year period, 127 FRRS were performed (96 F, 31 M), with an average age of 36.9 years. During the second 5-year period, 181 FRRS were performed (143 F, 38 M), with an average age of 33 years. A total of 24 children (age...
Source: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery - June 18, 2015 Category: Surgery Authors: Likes, K. C., Orlando, M. S., Salditch, Q., Mirza, S., Cohen, A., Reifsnyder, T., Lum, Y. W., Freischlag, J. A. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Possible pathophysiology of ketamine‐related cystitis and associated treatment strategies
Abstract Ketamine‐related cystitis is characterized by ketamine‐induced urinary frequency and bladder pain. It has become a serious problem in recent years. The most typical grossly pathological bladder change with ketamine related cystitis is a contracted bladder and bladder wall thickening. Ulcerative cystitis with an easily bleeding mucosa is a common cystoscopic finding. Microscopically, the urothelium is denuded and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells, such as mast cells and eosinophils. The pathogenesis of ketamine‐related cystitis is complicated and involves many different pathways. Past evidence suggests a d...
Source: International Journal of Urology - June 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jia‐Fong Jhang, Yung‐Hsiang Hsu, Hann‐Chorng Kuo Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The role of botulinum toxin type a‐induced motor endplates after peripheral nerve repair
Conclusion: Although BTX‐A injection increases the number of motor endplates, they are not functional. Muscle Nerve, 2015 (Source: Muscle and Nerve)
Source: Muscle and Nerve - June 18, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Zeynep D. Akdeniz, Mehmet Bayramiçli, Filiz Ateş, Naziye Özkan, Can A. Yucesoy, Feriha Ercan Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Botox as an adjuvant to tendon transfer for foot drop.
Authors: Eckel TT, Nunley JA Abstract The authors' hypothesis was that weakening the gastrocnemius muscle at the time of tendon transfer will reduce the risk of rupture and facilitate faster rehabilitation with increased active dorsiflexion and improved overall outcome, because the transferred tendon is spared the antagonistic effect of the gastrocnemius during the early recovery period. A retrospective chart review identified 12 patients who underwent a tibialis posterior tendon (PTT) transfer with gastrocnemius Botox injection for foot drop. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.2 (SAS Insti...
Source: Journal of surgical orthopaedic advances - June 5, 2015 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Surg Orthop Adv Source Type: research

A Clinically Relevant BTX-A Injection Protocol Leads to Persistent Weakness, Contractile Material Loss, and an Altered mRNA Expression Phenotype in Rabbit Quadriceps Muscles
Botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) injections have become a common treatment modality for patients suffering from muscle spasticity. Despite its benefits, BTX-A treatments have been associated with adverse effects on target muscles. Currently, application of BTX-A is largely based on clinical experience, and research quantifying muscle structure following BTX-A treatment has not been performed systematically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate strength, muscle mass, and contractile material six months following a single or repeated (2 and 3) BTX-A injections into the quadriceps femoris of New Zealand white rabbits. (Sou...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - June 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fortuna Rafael, A. Vaz Marco, Sawatsky Andrew, A. Hart David, Herzog. Walter Source Type: research

Physicians and Clinics Warned of Counterfeit Botox Sales
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Pain Management)
Source: Topics in Pain Management - June 1, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Combining Botulinum Toxin (A) Injection With Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in a Patient for Intractable Ophthalmic Postherpetic Neuralgia
ConclusionsIn a patient with trigeminal PHN, local injection of BTA effectively reduced pain remaining after treatment with PNS. (Source: Neuromodulation)
Source: Neuromodulation - June 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Disen Li, Lizu Xiao Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Editorial Comment from Dr Tomoe to Botulinum toxin type A injection for refractory interstitial cystitis: A randomized comparative study and predictors of treatment response
(Source: International Journal of Urology)
Source: International Journal of Urology - June 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hikaru Tomoe Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research

Intramural Injection with Botulinum Toxin Type A in Piglet Esophagus. The Influencer on Maximum Load and Elongation: A Dose Response Study
Conclusions This study demonstrated that injection of 2 units/kg BTX-A into a nonanastomosed esophageal wall resulted in a modest increase in the maximum load achieved before bursting; this may be due to the muscle-relaxant effect of BTX-A. BTX-A injection produced no significant effects on elongation or esophageal histology. The clinical usefulness of BTX-A in treatment of OA is still unclear.[...]Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery)
Source: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery - May 29, 2015 Category: Surgery Authors: Ellebæk, Mark BremholmQvist, NielsSchrøder, Henrik DaaRasmussen, Lars Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Axillary hyperhidrosis: A review of the extent of the problem and treatment modalities
Conclusion There is a considerable dearth in the literature on the management of axillary hyperhidrosis. Further study in larger populations with longer follow up times is critical to access the long term effects of treatment. Microneedles could be the future treatment of choice with the potential to deliver drugs in a safe and pain free way. (Source: The Surgeon)
Source: The Surgeon - May 27, 2015 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Clinical Analysis of Patients with Primary Blepharospasm: A Report of 100 Cases in China
Conclusions: Regular botulinum toxin type A injections improved both eyelid spasms and subjective ocular symptoms in blepharospasm patients. The differentiation of primary blepharospasm differentiation from dry eye syndrome, conjunctivitis/keratitis and myasthenia gravis must be improved.Eur Neurol 2015;73:337-341 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - May 20, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-term sequelae treatment of peripheral facial paralysis with botulinum toxin type A: Repartition and kinetics of doses used.
CONCLUSION: Our study represents a didactic help in using botulinum toxin for sequelae of peripheral facial paralysis by providing more details on the effective mean doses for each muscle and their progression over time. PMID: 25953657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique)
Source: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique - May 4, 2015 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Risoud M, Aljudaibi N, Duquennoy-Martinot V, Guerreschi P Tags: Ann Chir Plast Esthet Source Type: research

Physical therapy for an adult with chronic stroke after botulinum toxin injection for spasticity: a case report.
CONCLUSIONS: This case report demonstrates that physical therapy after BoNTA injections can result in significant functional improvements for individuals with spasticity after chronic stroke that may not be possible with BoNTA injections alone. PMID: 25931655 [PubMed] (Source: Physiotherapy Canada)
Source: Physiotherapy Canada - May 3, 2015 Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Gallagher S, Phadke CP, Ismail F, Boulias C Tags: Physiother Can Source Type: research

Cost effectiveness of Sacral Neurostimulation for overactive bladder in Mexico
The objective is to develop a full economic evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using sacral neurostimulation versus botulinum toxin type A and augmentation cystoplasty in the treatment of overactive bladder in Mexico, from the perspective of the public health sector. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - May 1, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: H. Soto, K. Sanchez, Y. Escobar Juárez, A. Constanzo, R. Ceballos Source Type: research

Comparative Efficacy of Interventions for Overactive Bladder Syndrome: A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis
There is a plethora of interventions for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome, including a course of supervised pelvic floor muscle training, behavioral therapy, anticholinergic medication, sacral nerve stimulation, and more recently, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and beta-3-adrenergic agonists. Though there is a large and diverse range of treatment options, there is little information of which of them is the most clinically effective. This is largely because trials often compare interventions with a placebo or with interventions of the same class; and so there are a limited number of trials that compare interven...
Source: Value in Health - May 1, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: R.K. Owen, D.G. Tincello, S. Bujkiewicz, K. Abrams Tags: Urinary/Kidney Disorders – Clinical Outcomes Studies Source Type: research

Changes of masseter muscle activity following injection of botulinum toxin type A in adult rats
ConclusionBTXA induced a reduction in masseter muscle activity and an increased toxin dose resulted in greater depression of muscle activity. (Source: Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research)
Source: Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research - May 1, 2015 Category: Dentistry Authors: C. Y. Tsai, Y. Y. Lei, L. Y. Yang, W. C. Chiu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research