Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy After Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type A for a Patient With Chronic Stroke: One-Year Follow-up Case Report.
DISCUSSION: The improved arm function could reflect improvements in volitional movements and coordination or speed of movements in the paretic arm that resulted from a reduction in spasticity, a reduction of learned nonuse behaviors, or use-dependent plasticity after the combination of BTX type A and constraint-induced movement therapy. If this approach proves useful in future controlled studies, this may halt the rising medical costs of the treatment of stroke. PMID: 25592185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physical Therapy)
Source: Physical Therapy - January 15, 2015 Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Amano S, Takebayashi T, Hanada K, Umeji A, Marumoto K, Furukawa K, Domen K Tags: Phys Ther Source Type: research

Factors that influence the urodynamic results of botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurogenic hyperactivity.
ute;guez A, Esteban-Fuertes M Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine the urodynamic efficacy and factors that influence the urodynamic results of treatment of neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity with intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with a cohort of 70 patients composed of 40 men and 30 women with stable SCI (mean age, 39±13.3 years) who underwent an intradetrusor injection of 300 IUs of BTX-A. A urodynamic study was conducted prior to the injection and 6±4.3 months after the tr...
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - January 9, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gutiérrez-Martín P, Vírseda-Chamorro M, Salinas Casado J, Gómez-Rodríguez A, Esteban-Fuertes M Tags: Actas Urol Esp Source Type: research

Benign familial pemphigus ( Hailey-Hailey disease). White, Forrest; Shvartsbeyn, Marianna; Meehan, Shane A; Urbanek, Richard W
A 56-year-old man presented with a 15-year history of scaly red plaques on the trunk and axillae. Skin biopsy was consistent with Hailey-Hailey disease. His condition was refractory to multiple therapies, which included topical and oral antibiotics and topical, intralesional, and oral glucocorticoids. Treatment with subcutaneous botulinum toxin type A at the axillae and on the back led to a nearly complete resolution of plaques in those areas. Botulinum toxin type A should be considered in patients with extensive Hailey-Hailey disease who are fail traditional therapies. (Source: Dermatology Online Journal)
Source: Dermatology Online Journal - January 1, 2015 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Growth effects of botulinum toxin type A injected unilaterally into the masseter muscle of developing rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Localized BTX-A injection induced a change in craniofacial growth, and the skeletal effect was unilateral despite both sides of the mandible functioning as one unit. PMID: 25559955 [PubMed - in process] (Source: J Zhejiang Univ Sci ...)
Source: J Zhejiang Univ Sci ... - January 1, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Park C, Park K, Kim J Tags: J Zhejiang Univ Sci B Source Type: research

[Axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinium A toxin treatment: Review.]
Abstract Injection of type A botulinum toxin in the armpits is a temporary treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis. This technique described in 1996 by Bushara et al., is known to be efficient and safe. The purpose of this article was to review the data concerning the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin type A, and discuss the other treatment modalities for this socially disabling entity. PMID: 25555435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique)
Source: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique - December 30, 2014 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Clerico C, Fernandez J, Camuzard O, Chignon-Sicard B, Ihrai T Tags: Ann Chir Plast Esthet Source Type: research

Quality of Life and Social Isolation in Greek Adolescents with Primary Focal Hyperhidrosis Treated with Botulinum Toxin Type A: A Case Series
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) in adolescents with primary palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis and to determine its effect on quality of life and social isolation. Thirty‐five individuals (17 girls, 18 boys) with moderate to severe palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis were treated with BTXA (onabotulinum). Patients were examined at baseline and 6 months after treatment. The Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) was used to evaluate disease severity and the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) was used to assess quality of life. The ...
Source: Pediatric Dermatology - December 29, 2014 Category: Dermatology Authors: Anargyros Kouris, Kalliopi Armyra, Christina Stefanaki, Christos Christodoulou, Polixeni Karimali, George Kontochristopoulos Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats.
Authors: Grubbe MC, Thomsen JS, Nyengaard JR, Duruox M, Brüel A Abstract Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone format...
Source: Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact Source Type: research

Reliability and Validity of the Upper Limb Physician's Rating Scale in Children with Cerebral Palsy.
This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the ULPRS in children with spastic CP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty children with spastic CP (M:F=17:13) aged 5 to 13 years old were recruited. The ULPRS was scored based on recorded videotapes by four physicians on two separate occasions. The Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function (MUUL) was scored by an occupational therapist. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), 95% confidence intervals and weighted kappa statistics were calculated for the scores of ULPRS to obtain interrater and intrarater reliability. The relationship between ...
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - December 20, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Park ES, Joo JW, Kim SA, Rha DW, Jung SJ Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX ® ) for the Management of Urinary Incontinence in Adults with Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity: A UK Perspective
Abstract Objectives To evaluate the cost effectiveness of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®, 200 units [200 U]) for the management of urinary incontinence (UI) in adults with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to subcervical spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis that is not adequately managed with anticholinergic drugs (ACHDs). Perspective UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Methods A Markov state-transition model was developed, which compared onabotulinumtoxinA + best supporti...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - December 20, 2014 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Site of botulinum toxin type A administration in craniofacial hyperhidrosis
(Source: Clinical And Experimental Dermatology)
Source: Clinical And Experimental Dermatology - December 19, 2014 Category: Dermatology Authors: A. B. Hussain, G. M. Kavanagh Tags: Viewpoints in dermatology ● Correspondence Source Type: research

The study of cellular cytotoxicity of argireline - an anti-aging peptide.
In conclusion, the considered method resulted in dose-dependent argireline anti-proliferation effects. However, the significant cytotoxicity of argireline solution was observed under 18 to 10 000 fold higher concentrations (depending on cells that were examined) in comparison to doxorubicin. PMID: 24644551 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Acta Biochim Pol)
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - December 16, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Grosicki M, Latacz G, Szopa A, Cukier A, Kieć-Kononowicz K Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research

Patient satisfaction after the treatment of glabellar lines with Botulinum toxin type A (Speywood Unit): a multi‐centre European observational study
ConclusionTreatment of the glabellar lines with BoNT‐A (s.U) led to a high level of patient satisfaction and a more positive self‐perception up to 4 months after the treatment, regardless of whether the patients were naive or not to BoNT‐A treatment. (Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology)
Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology - December 12, 2014 Category: Dermatology Authors: B. Molina, Y. Grangier, B. Mole, N. Ribe, L. Martín Diaz, W. Prager, F. Paliargues, N. Kerrouche Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cost utility analysis of botox vs. anticholinergic medication for urinary incontinence, due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity associated with spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis
Conclusion Based on ICER and CEAC, Botox appears to be a cost-effective intervention for urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity compared with anticholinergic. (Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health)
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health - December 10, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tang, A., Goeree, R., Blackhouse, G., Tsoi, B. Tags: Abstract Source Type: research

Dysport and Botox at a ratio of 2.5:1 units in cervical dystonia: A double‐blind, randomized study
Abstract We aimed to compare Dysport (abobotulinumtoxinA, Ipsen Biopharm, Slough, UK) and Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA, Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA) at a 2.5:1 ratio in the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). A Dysport/Botox ratio of lower than 3:1 was suggested as a more appropriate conversion ratio, considering its higher efficacy and more frequent incidence of adverse effects not only in the treatment of CD but also in other focal movement disorders. A randomized, double‐blind, multicenter, non‐inferiority, two‐period crossover study was done in CD, with a duration of at least 18 months. Patients were randomly assigne...
Source: Movement Disorders - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ji Young Yun, Jae Woo Kim, Hee‐Tae Kim, Sun Ju Chung, Jong‐Min Kim, Jin Whan Cho, Jee‐Young Lee, Ha Neul Lee, Sooyeoun You, Eungseok Oh, Heejeong Jeong, Young Eun Kim, Han‐Joon Kim, Won Yong Lee, Beom S. Jeon Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of multiuse botulinum toxin vials for intralaryngeal injection
ConclusionsThe low rates of adverse events following the use of Botox in a multipatient fashion are consistent with other percutaneous injections. No evidence of infection was found with multidose Botox use. Given the low incidence of side effects and high success rate, Botox can be used both safely and effectively in a multipatient fashion. Level of Evidence4 Laryngoscope, 2014 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - December 4, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Emily M. Barrow, Clark A. Rosen, Edie R. Hapner, Sarah Smith, Jeanne L. Hatcher, Blake Simpson, Michael M. Johns Tags: Laryngology Source Type: research

Use of botulinum toxin type A in the management of patients with neurological disorders: a national survey.
Authors: Smania N, Colosimo C, Bentivoglio AR, Sandrini G, Picelli A Abstract The aim of this survey was to provide an overview of important issues relating to therapeutic strategies based on botulinum toxin type A injection for the treatment of patients with neurological disorders. Two hundred and ten physicians from neurology and neurorehabilitation units in Italian hospitals answered a questionnaire exploring some clinical aspects of the use of botulinum toxin type A in patients with spasticity/dystonia. 66% of the physicians treated patients with dystonia, 80% treated adults with spasticity, and 35% treated chi...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effect of the refrigerator storage time on the potency of botox for human extensor digitorum brevis muscle paralysis.
Authors: Park MY, Ahn KY Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is recommended that Botox be used within 5 hours of reconstitution, which results in substantial quantities being discarded. This is not only uneconomic, but also inconvenient for treating patients. The aim of this study was to determine the potencies of Botox used within 2 hours of reconstitution with unpreserved saline, the same Botox refrigerated (at +4℃) 72 hours after reconstitution, and during the next 4 consecutive weeks (weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4). This comparison was used to determine the length of refrigeration time during which reconstituted Botox...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research

Efficacy of Onabotulinum Toxin A (Botox) versus Abobotulinum Toxin A (Dysport) Using a Conversion Factor (1 : 2.5) in Treatment of Primary Palmar Hyperhidrosis.
Conclusion. The efficacy and safety of Botox and Dysport injections were similar using a conversion factor of 1 : 2.5. There was a trend towards a more rapid action after Dysport treatment but without significant importance. PMID: 24250334 [PubMed] (Source: Dermatology Research and Practice)
Source: Dermatology Research and Practice - December 2, 2014 Category: Dermatology Tags: Dermatol Res Pract Source Type: research

Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled pilot study of intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of refractory overactive bladder persisting following surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Authors: Chughtai B, Dunphy C, Lee R, Lee D, Sheth S, Marks L, Kaplan SA, Te AE Abstract INTRODUCTION: We assessed the efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) in patients with refractory overactive bladder (OAB) after treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a two-center, randomized, double-blinded pilot study conducted in patients with OAB secondary to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), refractory to anticholinergic medication and persistent for greater than 3 months after surgical intervention to relieve obstruction, with an International ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Urology - December 1, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Can J Urol Source Type: research

Role and Rationale for Extended Periarterial Sympathectomy in the Management of Severe Raynaud Syndrome
There is no consensus regarding etiology or best surgical technique for severe Raynaud syndrome in patients with connective tissue disease. Observations after 30 years’ experience in more than 100 cases led to the conclusion that an extended periarterial sympathectomy (with or without vein-graft reconstruction) and adjunctive use of Botox topically will offer benefits that exceed palliation and reduce recurrent ulcerations. In this article the rationale for this approach is reviewed, techniques and results are outlined, and a hypothesis for the mechanism of Raynaud attacks is offered. (Source: Hand Clinics)
Source: Hand Clinics - November 26, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Wyndell H. Merritt Source Type: research

[Diagnostics and therapy of achalasia.]
Abstract The low incidence (1:100,000) makes primary idiopathic achalasia a problem of special importance. Patients often have a long medical history of suffering before the diagnosis is established and adequate therapy provided. Surgeons who perform antireflux surgery must be certain of detecting achalasia patients within their collective of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients to avoid contraindicated fundoplication. The current gold standard for establishing the diagnosis of achalasia is manometry. Especially in early stages, symptom evaluation, endoscopy and barium swallow lack adequate sensitivity....
Source: Der Chirurg - November 26, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: von Rahden BH, Filser J, Seyfried F, Veldhoen S, Reimer S, Germer CT Tags: Chirurg Source Type: research

Botulinum Toxin Type B: pH Change Reduces Injection Pain, Retains Efficacy
CONCLUSION: Botulinum toxin Type A resistance is documented to 3 BTX-A brands in 2 patients. They had received low doses of Type A toxin, they responded to Type B toxin. Injection pain of the acidic solution of BTX-B neurotoxin was reduced and efficacy not compromised by changing pH of BTX-B solution to pH 7.5. This method improved patient tolerance to BTX-B injections. (Source: Dermatologic Surgery)
Source: Dermatologic Surgery - November 25, 2014 Category: Dermatology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin in neurogenic detrusor overactivity.
CONCLUSIONS: A botulinum toxin type A showed a significantly improved response in urodynamics parameters and specific and general quality of life. PMID: 23094220 [PubMed] (Source: International Neurourology Journal)
Source: International Neurourology Journal - November 25, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Int Neurourol J Source Type: research

Actavis Wins Bid To Buy Allergan
Pharmaceuticals: Botox maker avoids takeover by Valeant, sealing deal to preserve more of its R&D (Source: Chemical and Engineering News)
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - November 21, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ann M. Thayer Source Type: research

The Inhibitory Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Botulinum Toxin Type-A: An Experimental Study in Rabbits
Conclusion Although we could not explain the exact mechanism underlying this interaction, platelet-rich plasma applications result in less onabotulinumtoxinA muscle paralysis activity. No Level Assigned This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table...
Source: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery - November 21, 2014 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Factors influencing secondary non-response to botulinum toxin type A injections in cervical dystonia
The development of secondary non-response (SNR) to botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) is considered a key issue in the management of cervical dystonia (CD). This case-controlled study was performed to systematically identify factors influencing SNR during BoNT-A therapy. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - November 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Joaquim J. Ferreira, Carlo Colosimo, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Maria Jose Marti, Pascal Maisonobe, Om Savary Source Type: research

The cost‐effectiveness of sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of idiopathic medically refractory overactive bladder (wet) in the UK
ConclusionIn the management of patients with idiopathic OAB wet, the results of this cost‐utility analysis favors SNS (PNE or TLE) over PTNS or OMT, and the most efficient treatment strategy is SNS PNE over BoNT‐A over a 10 year period. (Source: BJU International)
Source: BJU International - November 19, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Silke Walleser Autiero, Hallas N, Betts C, Ockrim JL, Tags: Functional Urology Source Type: research

Understanding and treating vaginismus: a multimodal approach
Conclusions With greater awareness among clinicians it is hoped that medical schools, residency programs, and medical meetings will begin teaching the understanding and treatment of vaginismus. (Source: International Urogynecology Journal)
Source: International Urogynecology Journal - November 18, 2014 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Clinical resistance to three types of botulinum toxin type A in aesthetic medicine
Summary Botulinum toxin injections have become the most frequent noninvasive cosmetic procedure carried out worldwide. Botulinum toxin has also multiple other indications in different medical fields. However, with the repetition of injections, a new concern has emerged: clinical resistance and loss of effectiveness of the treatment. After reporting a case of primary nonresponsiveness to three types of botulinum toxin type A injections, we conducted a review about all factors leading to the primary or secondary nonresponsiveness, as well as the factors affecting the immunogenicity of this neurotoxin. Most of the reports and...
Source: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology - November 17, 2014 Category: Dermatology Authors: Farid Stephan, Maya Habre, Roland Tomb Tags: Parting Thought Source Type: research

Blockade of spinal glutamate recycling produces paradoxical antinociception in rats with orofacial inflammatory pain
Publication date: 3 March 2015 Source:Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, Volume 57 Author(s): Kui Y. Yang , Jun H. Mun , Ki D. Park , Min J. Kim , Jin S. Ju , Seong T. Kim , Yong C. Bae , Dong K. Ahn In our current study, we investigated the role of spinal glutamate recycling in the development of orofacial inflammatory pain. DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA) or methionine sulfoximine (MSO) was administered intracisternally to block spinal glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase activity in astroglia. Intracisternal administration of high dose TBOA (10μg) produced thermal hy...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - November 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Bilateral muscular tinnitus due to myoclonus of extrinsic auricular muscles
We report a 33-year-old man with clicking tinnitus caused by focal myoclonic jerks of bilateral posterior auricularis muscle and bilateral temporalis muscle. This muscular tinnitus persisted except for when he was sleeping or breath holding. His symptom responded poorly to medical therapy but was controlled by botulinum toxin type A injection under electromyography monitoring with favorable outcome. (Source: Auris, Nasus, Larynx)
Source: Auris, Nasus, Larynx - November 15, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Kijeong Lee, Jiwon Chang, Sangheon Park, Gi Jung Im, Hyung Joon Choi, Jin Hwan Kim, Hyung-Jong Kim Source Type: research

Functional effects of botulinum toxin type-A treatment and subsequent stretching of spastic calf muscles: A study in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia.
Conclusion: Botulinum toxin type-A treatment and subsequent muscle stretching of the calves improved comfortable gait velocity and reduced muscle tone in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia, while preserving muscle strength. Balance remained unaffected. PMID: 25325386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine)
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - November 14, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research

Treatment for idiopathic toe walking: A systematic review of the literature.
CONCLUSION: There is preliminary evidence for beneficial effects of serial casting and surgery on passive ankle dorsiflexion as well as on walking kinetics and kinematics, although normalization does not seem to occur. Botulinum toxin type A does not improve the results of casting. Only after surgery are sustainable effects lasting> 1 year reported. Effectiveness on functional activities and social participation has yet to be demonstrated. PMID: 25223807 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine)
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - November 14, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research

Accuracy of botulinum toxin type A injection into the forearm muscles of chronic stroke patients with spastic flexed wrist and clenched fist: Manual needle placement evaluated using ultrasonography.
CONCLUSION: Instrumental guidance should be used in order to achieve an acceptable accuracy of needle placement when performing botulinum toxin type A injections into the forearm muscles of chronic stroke patients with spastic flexed wrist and clenched fist. PMID: 25103251 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine)
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - November 14, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research

Sensitivity of the NeuroFlexor method to measure change in spasticity after treatment with botulinum toxin A in wrist and finger muscles.
In this study we investigated the sensitivity of the NeuroFlexor to changes in spasticity induced by treatment with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A). Design: Prospective observational design. Subjects: A convenience sample of 22 adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity scheduled for botulinum toxin treatment. Methods: BoNT-A was given according to individual treatment plans. NeuroFlexor assessments were made before treatment and 4 and 12 weeks after. Results: At group level, spasticity decreased significantly at 4 weeks (expected time of maximum effect) (p = 0.04). At 12 weeks, spasticity had rebounded an...
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - November 14, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research

Lower facial remodeling with botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of masseter hypertrophy
CONCLUSION: The use of abobotulinum toxin A for masseter hypertrophy is effective in Brazilians and reached its maximum effect of facial thinning at 12 weeks. Smile limitation had a higher incidence compared to that reported in the literature and may result from risorius muscle blockage caused by toxin dissemination. Despite its side effects, 80% of the patients would like to repeat the treatment. (Source: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia)
Source: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia - November 12, 2014 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

An unusual complication of Botox treatment for sialorrhoea
CONCLUSION Botox is a novel and effective treatment for reducing saliva production. Its clinical efficacy is supported by this case and correlates with the recent literature. Although rare, significant side effects can happen and the case presented illustrates the care needed when administering injections, particularly in a subgroup of patients. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - November 9, 2014 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Esophageal Hypomotility and Spastic Motor Disorders: Current Diagnosis and Treatment
Abstract Esophageal hypomotility (EH) is characterized by abnormal esophageal peristalsis, either from a reduction or absence of contractions, whereas spastic motor disorders (SMD) are characterized by an increase in the vigor and/or propagation velocity of esophageal body contractions. Their pathophysiology is not clearly known. The reduced excitation of the smooth muscle contraction mediated by cholinergic neurons and the impairment of inhibitory ganglion neuronal function mediated by nitric oxide are likely mechanisms of the peristaltic abnormalities seen in EH and SMD, respectively. Dysphagia and chest pain a...
Source: Current Gastroenterology Reports - November 6, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Case Report: An unusual complication of Botox treatment for sialorrhoea
Conclusions Botox is a novel and effective treatment for reducing saliva production. Its clinical efficacy is supported by this case and correlates with the recent literature. Although rare, significant side effects can happen and the case presented illustrates the care needed when administering injections, particularly in a subgroup of patients (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - November 6, 2014 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Basic research and clinical investigations of the neural basis of orofacial pain
Conclusions (1) Neurotransmitters released from the somata of TG neurons are involved in peripheral sensitization. (2) Neurotransmitter release from TG neurons is decreased by botulinum toxin-type A administration, suggesting that this toxin suppressed neurotransmitter release and alleviated the neuropathic pain-related behavior. (3) Altered states of glial cells and nociceptive neurons, in the Vc and C1–C2 are involved in pathological orofacial pain associated with trigeminal nerve injury or orofacial inflammation. (4) The trigeminal sensory nuclear complex, especially the trigeminal spinal subnucleus oralis, is inv...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Changes in prostaglandin E2 in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome after botulinum toxin type A treatment: is there a clinical benefit?
Background: The causality of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is still not fully understood. Several studies indicate a significant increase of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with OAB. However, in order to clarify whether these compounds can help to objectify the clinical diagnosis, further studies are needed. This prospective study aims to analyze PGE2 blood levels (sPGE2) in patients with OAB before and after botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 56 patients (52y, 18-87) with idiopathic OAB. sPGE2 levels were measured before and 4 weeks after BoNT-A treatment by enzyme l...
Source: BMC Urology - November 4, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Axel HegeleSonja KnippschildCarsten FrohmeJörg HänzePeter OlbertRainer Hofmann Source Type: research

Injection of botulinum toxin A in lateral pterygoid muscle as a novel method for prevention of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas, Volume 9, Issue 1 Author(s): Jiewen Dai , Hongbo Yu , Min Zhu , Steve Guofang Shen Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis can restrict the mandibular movement, followed by resulting in numerous problems. To understand the mechanism of TMJ ankylosis (TMJA) and prevent the generation of TMJA is urgent necessary. Although many factors contribute to it, trauma is the most common cause of TMJA. The mechanisms of TMJA are still unclear, and the distraction osteogenesis of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) may play an important role. Injection of ver...
Source: Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas - November 3, 2014 Category: Research Source Type: research

Outcome After Anal Intrasphincteric Botox Injection in Children With Surgically Treated Hirschsprung Disease
Conclusions: Intrasphincteric Botox injections in surgically treated HD are an effective long-term therapy in approximately half of our patients with obstructive symptoms. The possibility of adverse effects should be noticed. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - November 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Endoscopic botulinum toxin injection: Benefit and limitation
Publication date: June 2014 Source:Gastrointestinal Intervention, Volume 3, Issue 1 Author(s): Chan Sup Shim Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder of unknown cause that manifests as symptoms of difficulty in swallowing, with pooling of food and secretions in the lower esophagus. Endoscopic treatment for achalasia is directed at disrupting or weakening the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). As botulinum toxin (botox) is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholine release from nerve endings, it counteracts the unopposed LES contraction that is mediated by cholinergic nerves, thereby lowering LES pressure. In general, a total...
Source: Gastrointestinal Intervention - November 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness Comparison Of Botulinum Toxin Type A Plus Best Supportive Care Versus Best Supportive Care Alone In The Treatment Of Idiopathic Overactive Bladder With Urinary Incontinence Among Patients Not Adequately Managed By Anticholinergic Therapy In France
To assess the cost-effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA; BOTOX®) 100 U in the treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) with urinary incontinence (UI) among patients inadequately managed by anticholinergic therapy in France. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Authors: A. Ruffion, M. Velard, C. Loveman, K. Khalaf, S. Roze, M. Pignata, S. Stanisic, J. Lister Source Type: research

Hierarchical Network Meta-Analysis Incorporating Ordering Constraints on Increasing Doses of Interventions - Application to Overactive Bladder Syndrome
For the conservative treatment of Overactive Bladder (OAB) symptoms, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK currently recommends a course of supervised pelvic floor muscle training, behavioural therapy, anticholinergic medication, sacral nerve stimulation, and more recently, botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) and Mirabegron. Given the large number of interventions and relatively few primary trials, network meta-analyses (NMAs) produce considerable uncertainty in the estimated treatment effects and consequently, there is little evidence of the most clinically effective intervention. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Authors: R.K. Owen, D.G. Tincello, S. Bujkiewicz, K. Abrams Source Type: research

Comparison of Systemic Toxicity between Botulinum Toxin Subtypes A1 and A2 in Mice and Rats
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yasushi Torii, Yoshitaka Goto, Shinji Nakahira, Shunji Kozaki, Ryuji Kaji, Akihiro Ginnaga Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin A injection for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity secondary to spinal cord injury: Multi‐institutional experience in Japan
ConclusionsThe present findings show the efficacy and tolerability of onabotulinumtoxinA injection for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity in Japanese spinal cord injury patients. (Source: International Journal of Urology)
Source: International Journal of Urology - November 1, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Atsushi Sengoku, Kikuo Okamura, Yasusuke Kimoto, Takatoshi Ogawa, Takashige Namima, Tomonori Yamanishi, Teruhiko Yokoyama, Hironobu Akino, Yoshiko Maeda Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A on experimental abdominal pain.
Abstract Visceral pain, especially in the abdominal region, represents one of the most common types of pain. Its chronic form is usually very hard to treat by conventional analgesic agents and adjuvants. We investigated the antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in male Wistar rats in two models of visceral pain: peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal injection of 1% acetic acid and colitis induced by intracolonic instillation of 0.1% capsaicin. Pain was measured as the number of abdominal writhes. Additionally, referred mechanical sensitivity in the ventral abdominal area was evaluated by von Fr...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - October 30, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Drinovac V, Bach-Rojecky L, Babić A, Lacković Z Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research

Anatomical Considerations Regarding the Location and Boundary of the Depressor Anguli Oris Muscle with Reference to Botulinum Toxin Injection
Conclusion: These results suggest that the fan-shaped area bounded by LP2, LP3, and the mandibular border is the safest and most effective depressor anguli oris muscle injection site. (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - October 29, 2014 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Cosmetic: Original Articles Source Type: research