The role of tensor veli platini muscle (TVP) and levetor veli platini muscle (LVP) in the opening and closing of pharyngeal orifice of Eustachian tube.
CONCLUSION: This study developed an easy way to induce otitis media in an animal model and find the relation between tensor veli platini muscle (TVP) and levetor veli platini muscle (LVP) in the opening and closing of the pharyngeal orifice of Eustachian tube. It was proved that otitis media is caused due to the dysfunction of Eustachian tube and the only muscle responsible for opening and closing of ETPO (Eustachian tube pharyngeal orifice) is TVP and LVP has no role in the opening and closing of the Eustachian tube pharyngeal orifice. OBJECTIVE: To develop valid animal model for otitis media of effusion and to study...
Source: Acta Oto-Laryngologica - December 1, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Gyanwali B, Li H, Xie L, Zhu M, Wu Z, He G, Tang A Tags: Acta Otolaryngol Source Type: research

Comparison of clinical marking and ultrasound‐guided injection of Botulinum type A toxin into the masseter muscles for treating bruxism and its cosmetic effects
ConclusionsUltrasound can be a potent tool for guiding the injection of Botulinum toxin into the masseter muscles. It may contribute to a more personalized procedure, better cosmetic results, and help to avoid potential complications. (Source: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology)
Source: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology - December 1, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: Natacha Quezada‐Gaon, Ximena Wortsman, Osvaldo Peñaloza, Juan Eduardo Carrasco Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Botulinum Toxin Type a Injections for the Treatment of Continent Catheterizable Ileal-Colic Urinary Diversion Muscularis Overactivity
Continent catheterizable diversions can exhibit long-term complications such as high pressures and involuntary unit contractions within the urinary reservoir, rendering them similar to neurogenic bladders. Given the similarity of these issues to neurogenic detrusor overactivity, the use of Botox injections is a logical treatment option to explore. (Source: Urology)
Source: Urology - November 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Valary T. Raup, Jairam R. Eswara, Stephen D. Marshall, Steven B. Brandes Tags: Surgical Techniques in UROLOGY Source Type: research

Differential characteristics of incobotulinumtoxinA and its use in the management of glabellar frown lines.
CONCLUSION: IncobotulinumtoxinA is an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment for glabellar frown lines. It differs from other BoNT/A preparations, in that it is free from complexing proteins and contains only active neurotoxin, which is relevant clinically, as this reduces the foreign protein load and minimizes the risk of neutralizing antibody production. In practical terms, incobotulinumtoxinA has a long shelf-life, remaining stable without the need for refrigeration, and due to its limited spread is a precise localized treatment. PMID: 23516136 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications)
Source: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications - November 29, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Epidemiologic Overview of Synkinesis in 353 Patients with Longstanding Facial Paralysis under Treatment with Botulinum Toxin for 11 Years
Conclusions: This study determined the high prevalence (55.5 percent) of synkinesis in patients with longstanding facial paralysis. Postparalysis synkinesis was positively associated with infectious and idiopathic causes, electrical stimulation, facial nerve decompression, and no requirement for surgery. Postreanimation synkinesis was present in 28.2 percent of reanimated patients and was significantly associated with microsurgical flaps, transfacial nerve grafting, masseteric-facial anastomosis, and temporalis muscle transfers. (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - November 26, 2015 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Reconstructive: Head and Neck: Original Articles Source Type: research

An Audit into the Management of Chronic Anal Fissure
Conclusions Topical creams were the most successful treatments (50%; n=9/18) in ACPGBI-compliant strategies. Importantly, these data suggests that compliance with the ACPGBI algorithm leads to healing without surgery in 83.3% (n=15/18) of patients, compared to 26.1% (n=6/23) with non-compliant methods (P=0.0004). This highlights the benefit of early conservative and medical management of CAF, before attempting surgery. (Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery - November 25, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Adverse Clinical Effects of Botulinum Toxin Intramuscular Injections for Spasticity.
CONCLUSION: While BoNTA is useful in managing spasticity, future studies need to investigate the factors that can minimize AEs. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the AEs can also improve guidelines for BoNTA administration and enhance outcomes. PMID: 26597813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences)
Source: The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences - November 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Phadke CP, Balasubramanian CK, Holz A, Davidson C, Ismail F, Boulias C Tags: Can J Neurol Sci Source Type: research

Injection frequency of botulinum toxin A for spastic equinus: a randomized clinical trial
AimWe compared two botulinum toxin A (BoNT‐A) injection frequency regimens, 12‐monthly versus 4‐monthly, for spastic equinus in a randomized clinical trial. The primary outcome measure was passive ankle dorsiflexion. MethodForty‐two ambulant children with spastic equinus, secondary to cerebral palsy (23 males and 19 females; mean age 3y 6mo, SD 13mo; GMFCS levels I [n=20], II [n=19], III [n=3]) were randomized to receive either 12‐monthly or 4‐monthly BoNT‐A injections to the calf, over a 26‐month period. Twenty‐one children had spastic hemiplegia, 21 children had spastic diplegia. A fixed 6U/kg dose of B...
Source: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology - November 21, 2015 Category: Child Development Authors: Tandy Hastings‐Ison, Christine Blackburn, Barry Rawicki, Michael Fahey, Pam Simpson, Richard Baker, Kerr Graham Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Successful treatment of refractory pruritic Fox–Fordyce disease with botulinum toxin type A
(Source: British Journal of Dermatology)
Source: British Journal of Dermatology - November 18, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: J. González‐Ramos, M.L. Alonso‐Pacheco, B. Goiburú‐Chenú, A. Mayor‐Ibarguren, P. Herranz‐Pinto Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin injection for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions This evidence-based systematic review and meta-analysis of the BTX-A injection for LUTS/BPH showed no differences in efficacy compared with placebo and also showed no difference in procedure-related adverse events occurred. Thus, the results of this study do not provide evidence of clinical benefits of using the BTX-A injection for LUTS/BPH in real clinical practice. (Source: International Urology and Nephrology)
Source: International Urology and Nephrology - November 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Botulinum neurotoxin effects on masseter muscle fibre in WNIN obese rats—Scanning electron microscope analysis
Summary WNIN/Ob obese mutant rats are unique in comparison to similar rodent models of obesity established in the West. The present study is aimed to evaluate the masticatory function and histological changes in masseter muscle fibres treated with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in WNIN/Ob rats. Twelve WNIN/Ob obese rats and 12 lean rats at 35 days of age were taken and divided into four groups (6 rats in each group): Group‐I (WNIN/Ob) and Group‐II (lean) rats were injected with BoNT/A (1 unit) into right side of masseter muscle. For control left masseter of both phenotypes was injected with saline. Group‐III (WNIN/O...
Source: Scanning - November 5, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Shivaram Nemani, Uday K. Putchha, Madhusudhanachary Periketi, Sailaja Pothana, Giridharan Nappanveettil, Harishankar Nemani Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Botulinum neurotoxin effects on masseter muscle fibre in WNIN obese rats —Scanning electron microscope analysis
Summary WNIN/Ob obese mutant rats are unique in comparison to similar rodent models of obesity established in the West. The present study is aimed to evaluate the masticatory function and histological changes in masseter muscle fibres treated with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in WNIN/Ob rats. Twelve WNIN/Ob obese rats and 12 lean rats at 35 days of age were taken and divided into four groups (6 rats in each group): Group‐I (WNIN/Ob) and Group‐II (lean) rats were injected with BoNT/A (1 unit) into right side of masseter muscle. For control left masseter of both phenotypes was injected with saline. Group‐III (WNIN/O...
Source: Scanning - November 5, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Shivaram Nemani, Uday K. Putchha, Madhusudhanachary Periketi, Sailaja Pothana, Giridharan Nappanveettil, Harishankar Nemani Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Emerging Treatments for Neuropathic Pain
This article reviews the published literature on the treatment of NP. Despite the interesting results, randomized controlled trials are demanded for the majority of the therapies previously mentioned. (Source: Current Pain and Headache Reports)
Source: Current Pain and Headache Reports - November 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Safety of Botulinum Toxin Type A for Children With Nonambulatory Cerebral Palsy
CONCLUSIONS: Children receiving BoNT-A were at no greater risk of moderate/serious AEs compared with a sham control procedure. There was no increased risk of moderate/serious AEs between one and two episodes of BoNT-A. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - November 2, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Edwards, P., Sakzewski, L., Copeland, L., Gascoigne-Pees, L., McLennan, K., Thorley, M., Kentish, M., Ware, R., Boyd, R. N. Tags: Children With Special Health Care Needs, Neurology, Neurologic Disorders Article Source Type: research

Large eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: a novel clinical presentation of disease.
CONCLUSIONS: This article describes a novel clinical presentation of eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: large, erythematous, and slightly indurated plaque localized on the upper back. It emphasizes the role of histopathology in the diagnostic process and botulinum toxin as a viable treatment option. PMID: 26512300 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Dermatological Case Reports)
Source: Journal of Dermatological Case Reports - October 31, 2015 Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatol Case Rep Source Type: research

Comparison of Short Term Outcomes of Sacral Nerve Stimulation and Intradetrusor Injection of OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) in Women With Refractory Overactive Bladder
Conclusions: The SNS resulted in lower failure rates at 6 months when performed for refractory OAB symptoms as compared with the Botox procedure. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of both procedures. (Source: Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery - October 28, 2015 Category: OBGYN Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Muscle structure and stiffness assessment after botulinum toxin type A injection. A systematic review
We present a literature review abiding by the PRISMA statement guidelines. The purpose was to explore the structural and passive biomechanical muscle properties after botulinum toxin type A injections in healthy and spastic limb muscles, on animals and humans, as well as methods for evaluating these properties. We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases using the following keywords: “Botulinum toxin” AND (“muscle structure” OR “muscle atrophy”) and, “Botulinum toxin” AND “muscle elasticity”. Results From the 228 initially identified articles, 21 a...
Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine - October 24, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Botulinum Toxin Type a Treatment for Cerebral Palsy
To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of abobotulinumtoxinA+standard therapy (ST), onabotulinumtoxinA+ST and standard therapy solely in patients with spastic cerebral palsy in Russia for 2-year period. Standard therapy includes centrally acting muscle relaxant, physiotherapy, casting and orthosis. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 23, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: R Yagudina, A Kulikov, D Ugrekhelidze Source Type: research

Real-World Data And Budget Impact Analysis for Incobotulinum Toxin A and Onabotulinum Toxin A for Upper Limb Post-Stroke Spasticity At A Uk Centre
Botulinum toxins (BT) are a valuable treatment option for patients with post-stroke upper-limb spasticity (PS-ULS), which affects 33,000 patients in the UK. Xeomin (incobotulinum toxin A) and Botox (onabotulinum toxin A) are two BTs licensed for the treatment of PS-ULS. The treatment costs for Xeomin and Botox will depend on their real-world usage. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 23, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: A Robertson, P Datta, J Kusel, S Page, J Soon Source Type: research

Budget Impact Analysis of Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment for Cerebral Palsy In The Russian Federation
To conduct budget impact analysis of abobotulinumtoxinA+standard therapy, onabotulinumtoxinA+standard therapy and standard therapy solely in patients with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) in Russia for 2-year period. Total number of patients with spastic cerebral palsy in Russia is 55 899. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 23, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: R Yagudina, A Kulikov, D Ugrekhelidze Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin type A activity in cranial dura: implications for treatment of migraine and other headaches
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSApparently, pericranially injected BoNT/A is taken up by local sensory nerve endings, axonally transported to trigeminal ganglion, and transcytosed to dural afferents. Colocalization of cleaved SNAP‐25 and migraine mediator CGRP in dura suggests that BoNT/A may prevent DNI by suppressing the CGRP transmission. This might explain BoNT/A action in TMJ inflammation as well as in migraine and some other headaches. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - October 22, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zdravko Lacković, Boris Filipović, Ivica Matak, Zsuzsanna Helyes Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Female urology: Botox injections are effective for Fowler's syndrome
Nature Reviews Urology 12, 653 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrurol.2015.258 Author: Annette Fenner OnabotulinumtoxinA improves patient-reported lower urinary tract symptoms and objective measures of bladder function in women with Fowler's syndrome, according to data published in BJU International.Fowler's syndrome is a primary disorder of urethral sphincter relaxation, whereby patients retain large volumes of urine but do (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 20, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin type A as an adjunct in postoperative pain management in dogs undergoing radical mastectomy
The aim of this randomised placebo-controlled, observer-blinded study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) as an adjunct for postoperative pain control in dogs. Sixteen dogs undergoing bilateral radical mastectomy for treatment of mammary tumours were enrolled. Twenty-four hours before surgery, the subjects were distributed into two groups of eight dogs each: 7 iu/kg BoNT-A (BoNT-A) or saline (Control) was administered subcutaneously in each mammary gland. Following sedation with intramuscular 0.03 mg/kg acepromazine and 0.3 mg/kg morphine, anaesthesia was induced intravenously with...
Source: Veterinary Record - October 16, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Vilhegas, S., Cassu, R. N., Barbero, R. C., Crociolli, G. C., Rocha, T. L. A., Gomes, D. R. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Expression of cleaved SNAP‐25 after bladder wall injection of onabotulinumtoxinA or abobotulinumtoxinA: A comparative study in the mice
ConclusionsThese findings confirm that, when injected in the bladder wall, in the same unit amount and same volume, onabotA is 1.6 times more potent to cleave SNAP‐25 than abobotA. The conversion ratio suggested by these experiments is 1:1.6 between onabotA and abobotA. Each injection, although preformed in the same way, may induce substantially different amounts of cSNAP‐25. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics)
Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics - October 16, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Raquel Oliveira, Ana Coelho, Ana Charrua, António Avelino, Francisco Cruz Tags: Original Basic Science Article Source Type: research

Expression of cleaved SNAP ‐25 after bladder wall injection of onabotulinumtoxina or abobotulinumtoxina: A comparative study in the mice
ConclusionsThese findings confirm that, when injected in the bladder wall, in the same unit amount and same volume, onabotA is 1.6 times more potent to cleave SNAP‐25 than abobotA. The conversion ratio suggested by these experiments is 1:1.6 between onabotA and abobotA. Each injection, although preformed in the same way, may induce substantially different amounts of cSNAP‐25. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:86–90, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics)
Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics - October 16, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Raquel Oliveira, Ana Coelho, Ana Charrua, Ant ónio Avelino, Francisco Cruz Tags: Basic Science Article Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin treatment of false vocal folds in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Functional outcomes
Objectives/HypothesisSupraglottic injection of botulinum toxin (Botox) has been described as an effective treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD). Anecdotal evidence suggests that the patients have little to no breathiness after injection, but no formal longitudinal studies have been carried out to date. The purpose of this study was to examine the voice outcomes in patients with ADSD after supraglottic Botox injection. Study DesignRetrospective case series. MethodsPatients with ADSD who were treated with supraglottic Botox injections completed a qualitative self‐evaluation of voice function after injection usi...
Source: The Laryngoscope - October 15, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: C. Blake Simpson, Christopher T. Lee, Jeanne L. Hatcher, Joel Michalek Tags: Laryngology Source Type: research

Clinical Pathways of Third-Line Treatment of Overactive Bladder in the Elderly
Abstract Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome of urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency, nocturia, and sometimes urinary urgency incontinence. There are many guidelines for the OAB treatment which are constructed on a stepwise fashion starting from the least invasive to the more invasive therapy. The emergence of third-line therapy (AUA/SUFU guidelines) has resulted in significant decrease of more invasive surgery and improved patients’ quality of life. The aim of a clinical pathway is to improve the quality of care, reduce risks, increase patient satisfaction, and increase the efficiency in the...
Source: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports - October 9, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A Single Primary Site Obstruction May Lead to Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Multiple Sites: An Animal Model.
CONCLUSIONS: A single obstruction site may constitute the primary pathogenesis in some OSA patients, even when the involvement of multiple sites is indicated. These findings may contribute to the identification of OSA pathogenesis and improve the planning of treatment based on the primary cause of OSA. PMID: 26453488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology)
Source: The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology - October 8, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Lee MC, Rhee CS, Joe S, Yoon IY, Kim JW Tags: Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Source Type: research

Plastic changes in spinal synaptic transmission following botulinum toxin A in patients with post-stroke spasticity.
CONCLUSION: Botulinum toxin treatment induces synaptic plasticity at the Ia-motoneuron synapse in post-stroke paretic patients, which suggests that the effectiveness of botulinum toxin-type A in post-stroke rehabilitation might be partly due to its central effects. PMID: 26424152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine)
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - October 3, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research

Capsular Contracture after Breast Augmentation: An Update for Clinical Practice.
Authors: Headon H, Kasem A, Mokbel K Abstract Capsular contracture is the most common complication following implant based breast surgery and is one of the most common reasons for reoperation. Therefore, it is important to try and understand why this happens, and what can be done to reduce its incidence. A literature search using the MEDLINE database was conducted including search terms 'capsular contracture breast augmentation', 'capsular contracture pathogenesis', 'capsular contracture incidence', and 'capsular contracture management', which yielded 82 results which met inclusion criteria. Capsular contracture is...
Source: Archives of Plastic Surgery - October 3, 2015 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Arch Plast Surg Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin therapy for chronic anal fissures: where are we at currently?
ConclusionBotox is an effective strategy for CAF. Low doses can be given with good efficacy as highlighted by our audit and has the potential for great cost saving. The best predictor of recurrence is the presence of pain at the first post‐procedure visit. (Source: ANZ Journal of Surgery)
Source: ANZ Journal of Surgery - September 30, 2015 Category: Surgery Authors: Anthony Dat, Martin Chin, Stewart Skinner, Chip Farmer, Roger Wale, Peter Carne, Stephen Bell, Satish K. Warrier Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Injection of botulinum toxin for the treatment of post-laryngectomy pharyngoesophageal spasm-related disorders.
Conclusions Our series confirm the safety and objective efficacy of botox injection for PES. QoL measurements were less convincing, and this disparity between subjective and objective measurements must be considered when treating such patients. PMID: 26414361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England)
Source: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England - September 29, 2015 Category: Surgery Authors: Lightbody KA, Wilkie MD, Kinshuck AJ, Gilmartin E, Lewis-Jones H, Jones TM, Lancaster J Tags: Ann R Coll Surg Engl Source Type: research

Ultrasound Guided Botulinum Toxin Type A Salivary Gland Injection in Children for Refractory Sialorrhea: 10 Year Experience at a Large Tertiary Children’s Hospital.
To assess the success and safety of ultrasound guided weight-based botulinum toxin A injection for the management of sialorrhea in children. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - September 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Matthew P. Lungren, Sarah Halula, Sarah Coyne, Douglas Sidell, John M. Racadio, Manish N. Patel Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Toxin Type A Salivary Gland Injection in Children for Refractory Sialorrhea: 10-Year Experience at a Large Tertiary Children's Hospital
This article assesses the success and safety of ultrasound-guided weight-based botulinum toxin A injection for the management of sialorrhea in children. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - September 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Matthew P. Lungren, Sarah Halula, Sarah Coyne, Douglas Sidell, John M. Racadio, Manish N. Patel Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Successful treatmeant of refractory pruritic Fox‐Fordyce disease with botulinum Toxin Type A
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)
Source: British Journal of Dermatology - September 19, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: J. González‐Ramos, M.L. Alonso‐Pacheco, B. Goiburú‐Chenú, A. Mayor‐Ibarguren, P. Herranz‐Pinto Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Successful treatmeant of refractory pruritic Fox-Fordyce disease with botulinum Toxin Type A.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26385128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Dermatology)
Source: The British Journal of Dermatology - September 19, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: González-Ramos J, Alonso-Pacheco ML, Goiburú-Chenú B, Mayor-Ibarguren A, Herranz-Pinto P Tags: Br J Dermatol Source Type: research

The role of Botulinim toxin Type-A injection in the management of anterior knee pain
We read, with interest, a recently published article by Chen et al (2015) titled ‘Anterior knee pain caused by patellofemoral pain syndrome can be relieved by Botulinum toxin type A injection’ [1]. The authors report a case series examining the effect of Botulinum toxin type-A (BoNT-A) injection into the distal aspect of Vastus Lateralis (VL) muscle in 12 individuals with bilateral anterior knee pain (AKP), using the less affected knee as a control. These cases demonstrated improvements in knee pain and function using the WOMAC instrument and increased torque generation post injection into the more affected kne...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - September 17, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Barbara J. Singer, Kevin P. Singer Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Outbreak of Botulism After Consumption of Illicit Prison-Brewed Alcohol in a Maximum Security Prison--Arizona, 2012
The authors investigated the second botulism outbreak to occur in a maximum security prison in Arizona within a 4-month period. Botulism was confirmed in eight men aged 20 to 35 years who reported sharing a single batch of pruno made with potatoes. Initial symptoms included blurred vision, slurred speech, muscle weakness, ptosis, and dysphagia. All patients received heptavalent botulinum antitoxin, seven required mechanical ventilation, and all survived. The median incubation period was 29 hours. Sera from all patients and leftover pruno tested positive for botulinum toxin type A. Botulism should be considered among prison...
Source: Journal of Correctional Health Care - September 16, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Yasmin, S., Adams, L., Briggs, G., Weiss, J., Bisgard, K., Anderson, S., Tsang, C., Henke, E., Vasiq, M., Komatsu, K. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

First bite syndrome: Our experience with intraparotid injections with botulinum toxin type A
ConclusionsUnilateral BTA injection into the affected parotid gland produces a decrease in the severity of symptoms. It is a safe and viable noninvasive treatment for this difficult to treat condition and may lead to permanent resolution of symptoms in some patients. Level of Evidence4 Laryngoscope, 2015 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - September 15, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ankona Ghosh, Natasha Mirza Tags: General Otolaryngology Source Type: research

Hematuria following Botox for upper limb spasticity
Lo TC, Yeung ST, Lee S, Chang EY (Source: Journal of Pain Research)
Source: Journal of Pain Research - September 14, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Cricopharyngeal dysfunction: A systematic review comparing outcomes of dilatation, botulinum toxin injection, and myotomy
ConclusionsThe success rate of myotomy is significantly higher than the success rate of BoT injections in cricopharyngeal dysfunction. Moreover, endoscopic myotomy was found to have a higher success rate compared to open myotomy. Level of EvidenceNA Laryngoscope, 2015 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - September 11, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Pelin Kocdor, Eric R. Siegel, Ozlem E. Tulunay‐Ugur Tags: Laryngology Source Type: research

OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox A) for Neurogenic Detrusor; Evidence for 200 U vs. 300 U
Abstract OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox A) has gone from investigational to a recognized standard for neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) in patients intolerant or inadequately managed by anticholinergics. A large number of initial studies were done using the 300 unit dose, including the initial report on 200 vs. 300 U. There was a suggestion that 300 units may have some advantage but statistical sample size was small. Two pivotal phase 3 studies compare 200 units to 300 units of BotoxA for NDO. The result of these studies did not show an advantage to the higher dose. These studies did lead to the Food and Drug...
Source: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports - September 10, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Pain Perception With Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections
This split-face, patient- and injector-blinded randomized clinical trial compares pain ratings for injection with 30- and 32-gauge needles among women undergoing botulinum toxin type A treatment for moderate forehead and glabellar wrinkles. (Source: JAMA Dermatology)
Source: JAMA Dermatology - September 9, 2015 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Patient preferences for treating refractory overactive bladder in the UK
Abstract Objective To evaluate patient preferences for refractory overactive bladder (OAB) treatments: sacral neuromodulation (SNM), onabotulinum toxin A (Botox®), and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS). Materials and methods A cross-sectional Web survey was conducted with UK idiopathic OAB patients, recruited by a market research company. Preference was explored using direct questioning, comparing SNM, Botox, and PTNS, and via best–worst scaling (BWS). In BWS, patients prioritized subsets of 13 treatment characteristics (attributes) ...
Source: International Urology and Nephrology - September 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Treatment of Glabellar Lines: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trials
Conclusion: This meta-analysis shows that a single 20-unit dose of botulinum toxin type A is considered remarkably effective and safe for the treatment of glabellar lines. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II. (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - September 1, 2015 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Cosmetic: Original Articles Source Type: research

Botulinum Toxin A Injections Into Pelvic Floor Muscles Under Electromyographic Guidance for Women With Refractory High-Tone Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: A 6-Month Prospective Pilot Study
Objectives: High-tone pelvic floor dysfunction (HTPFD) is a debilitating chronic pain disorder for many women with significant impact on their quality of life (QoL). Our objective was to determine the efficacy of electromyography-guided onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox; Allergan, Irvine, Calif) injections in treating patient’s perception of pelvic pain and improving QoL measurement scores. Methods: This is a prospective pilot open-label study of women with chronic pelvic pain and HTPFD who have failed conventional therapy between January 2011 and August 2013. Botox injections (up to 300 U) were done using needle electromyog...
Source: Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery - September 1, 2015 Category: OBGYN Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Comparison of Botox 100 U/mL and Dysport 100 U/mL Using Dose Conversion Ratio 1: 3 and 1: 1.7 in the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Crossover Trial
Conclusion: The primary outcome was the estimated median Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale total score, which was 1.96 points higher for Botox (1:3) compared with Dysport at week 4, but the difference was not statistically significant (confidence interval, −0.88–4.61; P = 0.0799). No significant differences were seen between Botox (1:1.7) and Dysport. At week 12, a statistically significant difference in effect between Botox (1:3) and Dysport was observed, suggesting a shorter duration of effect for Botox when this ratio (low dose) was used. Furthermore, the patients' assessments showed that th...
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - September 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Neurography for Diagnosis of Piriformis Muscle Syndrome and Verification of the Effect After Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection: Two Cases
Abstract: Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is a controversial neuromuscular disorder that is presumed to involve compression neuropathy of the sciatic nerve at the level of the piriformis muscle. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection into the piriformis muscle is widely used as a treatment aimed at relieving sciatic nerve compression. In 2 patients with PMS, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) was taken before and after BTX-A injection. The first MRN was performed as a diagnostic tool, and the second to identify the effect of the treatment. Signal change of the sciatic nerve under the hypertrophied piriformis muscle was con...
Source: Medicine - September 1, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Nonallergic Eyelid Edema After Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection: Case Report and Review of Literature
Abstract: Periocular botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) injections are generally safe. Ptosis is the most common adverse effect, whereas eyelid edema is rarely reported. There is no consensus on the latter's incidence, clinical course, or treatment strategy. Here we managed a 59-year-old woman who received BoNTA injections to her forehead, glabella, and eye corner. At 3-day follow-up, she presented with painless, nonpruritic, bilateral periorbital edema, and erythema. Preliminary diagnosis was a local allergic reaction, and topical corticosteroid was administered, but upon lack of improvement, edema secondary to venous and lym...
Source: Medicine - September 1, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

COX-2 inhibition impairs mechanical stimulation of early tendon healing in rats by reducing the response to microdamage
Early tendon healing can be stimulated by mechanical loading and inhibited by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Therefore, we investigated if impairment of tendon healing by a COX-2 inhibitor (parecoxib) is related to loading. Because loading might infer microdamage, which also stimulates healing, we also investigated if this effect is inhibited by parecoxib. The Achilles tendon was transected in 114 rats. Three degrees of loading were used: full loading, partial unloading, and unloading (no unloading, Botox injections in the plantar flexor muscles, or Botox in combination with tail su...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - September 1, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: Hammerman, M., Blomgran, P., Ramstedt, S., Aspenberg, P. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research