Bites by Tomodon dorsatus (serpentes, dipsadidae): Clinical and epidemiological tudy of 86 cases.
Abstract A total of 86 proven cases of Tomodon dorsatus bites admitted to Hospital Vital Brazil (HVB) of Butantan Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil, between 1945 and 2018, were retrospectively analyzed. The cases included were those in which the snake was brought to HVB and was correctly identified. Of the 86 cases of snake bites, it was possible to describe the sex of the snake in 52 cases; 31 (59.6%) snakes were male. Only 52 snakes out of 86 could be studied because of their preservation status. The length of snakes (snout-vent length) ranged from 180 to 770 mm. Of the 86 snakes, 72 could be distinguishe...
Source: Toxicon - March 7, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: de Medeiros CR, de Souza SN, da Silva MC, de Souza Ventura J, de Oliveira Piorelli R, Puorto G Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Zearalenone and its metabolites: Effect on human health, metabolism and neutralisation methods.
Abstract Mycotoxins are natural compounds produced as secondary metabolites by mold fungi belonging mainly to the Fusarium family, commonly found on plants such as corn or small grains in the temperate climate zone. One of these mycotoxins is zearalenone, which is classified as a xenoestrogen, an exogenous compound which resembles the structure of naturally occurring estrogens with its chemical structure. This property of zearalenone determines its ability to bind to estrogen receptors of cell and its bioaccumulation. This leads to disorders of the hormonal balance of the body, which in consequence may lead to num...
Source: Toxicon - March 6, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Rogowska A, Pomastowski P, Sagandykova G, Buszewski B Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease alters microcystin-LR toxicokinetics and acute toxicity.
In conclusion, rodent models of NAFLD alter MCLR toxicokinetics and acute toxicity and may have implications for liver and kidney pathologies in NAFLD patients. PMID: 30849452 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - March 5, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Clarke JD, Dzierlenga A, Arman T, Toth E, Li H, Lynch KD, Tian DD, Goedken M, Paine MF, Cherrington N Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Effect of short-term sterigmatocystin exposure on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system and expression of glutathione redox system regulatory genes in common carp liver.
zes M, Balogh K Abstract Sterigmatocystin (STC) is structurally close to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 as it shares its biosynthetic pathway with aflatoxins. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the short-term (24 h) effects of STC contaminated diet at different doses (1 mg, 2 mg and 4 mg STC kg-1 feed) in one year old common carp juveniles. Liver samples were taken in 8-h intervals. The markers of the lipid peroxidation showed moderate changes after the application of sterigmatocystin-contaminated diet, significant elevations were only observed in the lowest applied dose group of sterigmatocys...
Source: Toxicon - March 5, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Kövesi B, Pelyhe C, Zándoki E, Mézes M, Balogh K Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Elevated plasma levels of hepatocyte growth factor in rats experimentally envenomated with Bothrops jararaca venom: Role of snake venom metalloproteases.
ns IS Abstract The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met pathway, which mainly consists of HGF activator (HGFA) and its substrate HGF, protects various types of cells via anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory signals. Thrombin is the main physiological activator of such plasmatic pathway, and increased plasma concentrations of HGF have been considered as a molecular marker for some pathological conditions, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation. Since thrombin generation is often linked to tissue injury, and these events are common during snake venom-induced consumption coagulopathies (VICC), our goals were ...
Source: Toxicon - March 5, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Prezoto BC, Kato EE, Gonçalves LRC, Sampaio SC, Sano Martins IS Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Lonomia obliqua bristle extract modulates Rac1 activation, membrane dynamics and cell adhesion properties.
Abstract Lonomia obliqua is a caterpillar of potential therapeutic interest whose venom is able to induce severe blood leakage and modulate leukocyte migration. Since both phenotypes are associated with changes in cytoskeleton dynamics and cell adhesion properties, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of Lonomia obliqua bristle extract (LOBE) in cell adhesion and migration signaling. Proteomic analysis revealed that epithelial cells (CHO-K1) exposed to LOBE (30 μg/mL, 30 min) exhibited changes in levels of actin regulatory proteins, including RhoGTPases. These changes correlated with an increase in ...
Source: Toxicon - March 5, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Bernardi L, Pinto AFM, Mendes E, Yates JR, Lamers ML Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Assessment of the efficacy of a grape seed waste in counteracting the changes induced by aflatoxin B1 contaminated diet in performance, plasma, liver and intestinal tissues of pigs after weaning.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a grape seed byproduct to mitigate the harmful damage produced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at systemic level in plasma and liver as well as at local level in the gastrointestinal tract in weaned piglets. Twenty four crossbred pigs (TOPIG) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental diets: 1)- control diet (normal compound feed for starter piglets without mycotoxin), 2)- AFB1 diet (compound feed contaminated with 320 ppb pure AFB1), 3)- GS diet (compound feed including 8% of grape seed meal-GS), 4)- AFB1+GS diet (compound feed containing 8% o...
Source: Toxicon - March 5, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Taranu I, Marin DE, Palade M, Pistol GC, Chedea VS, Gras MA, Rotar C Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

A case study of Lepiota brunneoincarnata poisoning with endoscopic nasobiliary drainage in Shandong, China.
We present a case of L. brunneoincarnata poisoning with endoscopic nasobiliary drainage known to be the first in China. The patient suffered gastrointestinal symptoms 9 h post ingestion of mushrooms. The patient was hospitalized 4 days after eating the mushrooms with jaundice. The peak ALT, AST, APTT, TBIL and DBIL values of the patient were as follow: ALT, 2980 U/L(day 4 post ingestion); AST, 1910 U/L(day 4 post ingestion); APTT, 92.8 seconds(day 8 post ingestion), TBIL, 136 μmol/L(day 10 post ingestion), DBIL 74 μmol/L(day 10 post ingestion). UPLC-ESI-MS/MS was used to detect the peptide toxins in the mushroom and ...
Source: Toxicon - March 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Sun J, Zhang HS, Li HJ, Zhang YZ, He Q, Lu JJ, Yin Y, Sun CY Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Parasitoid wasp venom elevates sorbitol and alters expression of metabolic genes in human kidney cells.
Abstract Venom from the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis dramatically elevates sorbitol levels in its natural fly hosts. In humans, sorbitol elevation is associated with complications of diabetes. Here we demonstrate that venom also induces this disease-relevant phenotype in human cells, and investigate possible pathways involved. Key findings are that (a) low doses of Nasonia venom elevate sorbitol levels in human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) without changing glucose or fructose levels; (b) venom is a much more potent inducer of sorbitol elevation than glucose; (c) low venom doses significantly alter expressi...
Source: Toxicon - March 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Siebert AL, Doucette LA, Simpson-Haidaris PJ, Werren JH Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Deoxynivalenol-induced Oxidative Stress and Nrf2 Translocation in maternal Liver on Gestation Day 12.5 d and 18.5 d.
In conclusion, DON-induced ROS accumulation may cause maternal liver damage in the initial stages, but the related stimulation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway improves the removal of ROS and decreases the level of oxidative stress thereby protecting the liver damage. Therefore, upregulating the Nrf2-dependent response is one of the potential methods that protects maternal liver from DON-induced oxidative damage. PMID: 30826469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 28, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Yu M, Peng Z, Liao Y, Wang L, Li D, Qin C, Hu J, Wang Z, Cai M, Cai Q, Zhou F, Shi S, Yang W Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Marine toxins and nephrotoxicity:Mechanism of injury.
Abstract Marine toxins are known among several causes of toxin induced renal injury. Enzymatic mechanism by phospholipase A2 is responsible for acute kidney injury (AKI) in sea snake envenoming without any change in cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. Cnidarian toxins form pores in the cell membrane with Ca influx storm resulting in cell death. Among plankton toxins domoic acid, palytoxin and maitotoxin cause renal injury by ion transport into the cell through ion channels resulting in renal cell swelling and lysis. Okadaic acid, calyculin A, microcystin LR and nodularin cause AKI by serine threonine ...
Source: Toxicon - February 28, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Sitprija V, Sitprija S Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Severity of manchineel fruit (Hippomane mancinella) poisoning: a retrospective case series of 97 patients from French Poison Control Centers.
Abstract In this retrospective series of 97 cases of manchineel fruit ingestion reported to French Poison Control Centers between 2009 and 2017, we investigated cases of poisoning due to manchineel fruit (from the Hippomane mancinella tree). This fruit is known to be responsible for oropharyngeal and gastrointestinal tract lesions and possibly hypotension and bradycardia (previously attributed to the presence of physostigmine). The most commonly observed clinical signs were oropharyngeal pain, abdominal pain, diarrhea and oropharyngeal irritation. No major gastrointestinal tract lesions were observed in the five c...
Source: Toxicon - February 28, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Boucaud-Maitre D, Cachet X, Bouzidi C, Riffault-Valois L, Dupuy C, Garnier R, Langrand J Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Evaluation of Noninvasive Specimens to Diagnose Livestock Exposure to Toxic Larkspur (Delphinium spp.).
This study demonstrates the potential of earwax, oral fluid, and nasal mucus as noninvasive specimens for chemical analyses to aid in the diagnosis of livestock that may have been exposed to and poisoned by larkspur plants. PMID: 30826472 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 28, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Stonecipher CA, Lee ST, Green BT, Cook D, Welch KD, Pfister JA, Gardner DR Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Spontaneous poisoning by Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae) in a sheep herd in southeastern Brazil.
This study describes an outbreak of spontaneous poisoning by P. marcgravii in sheep. Forty-nine sheep died while showing clinical signs of sudden death after having access to the plant. During the necropsy, P. marcgravii leaves were observed in the rumens of the animals. Histopathological analysis demonstrated hydropic degeneration of the kidneys. Monofluoracetate concentration obtained in Palicourea samples was 0.53% (5.3 μg/mg). These findings collectively indicate that the affected animals died from poisoning due to P. marcgravii. PMID: 30825462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Koether K, Lee ST, Belluci RS, Garcia R, Pfister JA, Cunha PHJ, Rocha NS, Borges AS, Oliveira-Filho JP Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidative Properties of Honey Bee Venom on Freund's Complete Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model in Rats.
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-genotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of honey bee venom (HBV) on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Thirty-five rats were equally divided into a negative control (NC), a positive control (PC) and low, moderate and high doses (2, 4 and 20 mg/kg, respectively) of HBV treatment groups. Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) was given to the rats to form arthritis. The treatment groups were treated with HBV for 3 consecutive weeks. After the treatment, plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β1, total oxidant status ...
Source: Toxicon - February 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Kocyigit A, Guler EM, Kaleli S Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Expression of an scFv antibody fragment in Nicotiana benthamiana and in vitro assessment of its neutralizing potential against the snake venom metalloproteinase BaP1 from Bothrops asper.
Abstract Human accidents with venomous snakes represent an overwhelming public health problem, mainly in rural populations of underdeveloped countries. Their high incidence and the severity of the accidents result in 81,000 to 138,000 deaths per year. The treatment is based on the administration of purified antibodies, produced by hyper immunization of animals to generate immunoglobulins (Igs), and then obtained by fractionating hyper immune plasma. The use of recombinant antibodies is an alternative to conventional treatment of snakebite envenoming, particularly the Fv fragment, named the single-chain variable fr...
Source: Toxicon - February 22, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Gomes M, Alvarez MA, Quellis LR, Becher ML, Maria de Andrade Castro J, Gameiro J, Caporrino MC, Moura-da-Silva AM, de Oliveira Santos M Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Evaluating the physicochemical properties and efficacy of recently expired and aged antivenom products from Thailand and Taiwan.
Abstract Gel filtration chromatography and gel electrophoresis revealed minimal protein degradation in lyophilized antivenoms which were 2-year expired (Hemato Polyvalent, Neuro Polyvalent; Thailand) and 18-year expired (Hemato Bivalent, Neuro Bivalent; Taiwan). All expired antivenoms retained immunological binding activity, and were able to neutralize the hemotoxic or neurotoxic as well as lethal effects of the homologous snake venoms. The findings show that antivenoms under proper storage conditions may remain relatively stable beyond the indicated shelf life. (
Source: Toxicon - February 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Tan KY, Liew ST, Tan QY, Abdul-Rahman FN, Azmi NI, Sim SM, Tan NH, Khomvilai S, Sitprija V, Tan CH Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Toxin and toxicity identification of mangrove horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from South China.
Abstract The presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues (11-oxoTTX, 4.9-anhydro-11-oxoTTX, 4.9-anhydroTTX, 5-deoxyTTX, 5.11-dideoxyTTX, 5.6.11-trideoxyTTX and 4.9-anhydro-5.6.11-trideoxy TTX) were initially investigated in Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from south China with Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and mouse bioassay. The TTX toxicity was 10.8±3.9 MU/g muscle, 6.3±0.6 MU/g viscera and 6.3±0.6 MU/g eggs in mean value. Merely dcGTX2 and dcSTX were detected in ten Specimens, ...
Source: Toxicon - February 20, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zheng R, Guan Q, Zheng M, Huang Z, Huang H, Fu W, Lin S, Yang Y Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Venom collection and analysis in the pseudoscorpion Chelifer cancroides (Pseudoscorpiones: Cheliferidae).
l R Abstract Pseudoscorpions are very small arthropods with almost worldwide distribution. They possess a unique venom delivery system in the chelal hands of their pedipalps that has evolved independently from that of scorpions and spiders. Studies on the venom composition of pseudoscorpions are very rare. Recently, the potential venom composition of the pseudoscorpion Synsphyronus apimelus Harvey, 1987 (Pseudoscorpiones: Garypidae) has been studied by transcriptome analysis. However, a proteome analysis of venom to identify the genuine venom compounds of pseudoscorpions has not yet been performed. In our study, w...
Source: Toxicon - February 20, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Krämer J, Pohl H, Predel R Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Reply to Rzymski and Klimaszyk regarding comment on "Mushroom poisoning: a proposed new clinical classification.
Reply to Rzymski and Klimaszyk regarding comment on "Mushroom poisoning: a proposed new clinical classification. Toxicon. 2019 Feb 19;: Authors: White J, Weinstein SA, De Haro L, Bédry R, Schaper A, Rumack BH, Zilker T PMID: 30794842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: White J, Weinstein SA, De Haro L, Bédry R, Schaper A, Rumack BH, Zilker T Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Inactivation of lectins from castor cake by alternative chemical compounds.
o AS Abstract Enabling the use of castor cake in animal feeding is an excellent alternative strategy to reduce feed costs. The cake is a by-product derived from the extraction of the castor oil by the biodiesel industry whose chemical composition is satisfactory despite the presence of antinutritional factors like toxic lectins, which require detoxification before it can be used as a dietary ingredient. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alternative chemical sources in the degradation and inactivation of ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), two lectins from castor cake. Ten chemical compounds wer...
Source: Toxicon - February 18, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: de Andrade IRA, Cândido MJD, Pompeu RCFF, Feitosa TS, Bomfim MAD, Salles HO, do Egito AS Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Experimental evidence for maternal provisioning of alkaloid defenses in a dendrobatid frog.
Abstract Dendrobatid frogs sequester alkaloid defenses from dietary arthropods. Here, we provide experimental evidence that mother strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio) provision alkaloids to tadpoles. Captive-raised females were fed the synthetic alkaloid decahydroquinoline (DHQ), which we subsequently quantified in their skin, eggs, and developing tadpoles. DHQ quantity was positively associated with tadpole mass/development, suggesting high sequestration rates by tadpoles. These data confirm that tadpoles obtain nutrition and alkaloids by feeding exclusively on maternally provisioned eggs. PMID: 307905...
Source: Toxicon - February 18, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Saporito RA, Russell MW, Richards-Zawacki CL, Dugas MB Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Individual and combined cytotoxicity of major trichothecenes type B, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and fusarenon-X on Jurkat human T cells.
Abstract Food and feed commodities are often contaminated by more than one mycotoxin. Among the several combinations that frequently occur, fusariotoxins are often mentioned. The multi-mycotoxins contamination is a serious threat for health. In the present study we investigated the toxic interactions between deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and fusarenon-X (FX) in Jurkat T cells by using the MTT assay. The tested mycotoxins alone or in combination had a dose dependent effect on proliferating lymphocytes. According to IC50, it could be classified in decreasing order of toxicity: FX> NIV> DON> DON+FX&...
Source: Toxicon - February 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Aupanun S, Phuektes P, Poapolathep S, Alassane-Kpembi I, Oswald IP, Poapolathep A Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Review : Biotechnology of mycotoxins detoxification using microorganisms and enzymes.
ieb K Abstract Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by various toxigenic fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. They have mutagenic, teratogenic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive and endocrine disrupting effects on both humans and animals. The ubiquitous occurrence and heat stability of these mycotoxins during food and feed processing pose serious health problems in human and animals. Therefore successful biotechnological detoxification tools are in great demand. Recently, the use of bacteria, yeast, moulds and enzymes to mitigate/bind or biodegrade various mycotoxins is a nov...
Source: Toxicon - February 14, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Ben Taheur F, Kouidhi B, Al Qurashi YMA, Ben Salah-Abbès J, Chaieb K Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Sequential administrations of trifluoroacetate induce tolerance to Palicourea maccgravii, a monofluoroacetate-containing plant, in calves.
In conclusion, the administration of TFA to cattle can induce effective resistance against MFA poisoning. PMID: 30772434 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 14, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Costa AG, Último de Carvalho A, Melo MM, Soto-Blanco B Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Occurrence of microcystin-LR in vegetated lagoons used for urban runoff management.
In this study, the contents of MC-LR in four macrophyte-vegetated lagoons were determined by solid phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry technology. Results indicated that MC-LR was found in Nymphaea tetragona lagoon (lagoon-S), Vallisneria spiralis lagoon (lagoon-B) and another Vallisneria spiralis lagoon (lagoon-J). Only in lagoon dominated by Pistia Stratiotes L. (lagoon-D), MC-LR concentration was undiscovered regardless of seasonal variation. The levels of MC-LR varied seasonally and were affected by the different vegetated aquatic macrophytes. The results sugg...
Source: Toxicon - February 14, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Peng XY, Tang YK, Yang WW, Chen YN, Zhou Y, Yuan Y, Huang YF, Liu L Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of the International Society on Toxinology.
Authors: PMID: 30711022 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Comment on "Mushroom poisoning: A proposed new clinical classification".
Comment on "Mushroom poisoning: A proposed new clinical classification". Toxicon. 2019 Jan 22;: Authors: Rzymski P, Klimaszyk P PMID: 30682376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - January 22, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Rzymski P, Klimaszyk P Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Comparative study of platelet aggregation and secretion induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom and thrombin.
Abstract Victims of Bothrops jararaca snakebites manifest bleedings, blood incoagulability, platelet dysfunction, and thrombocytopenia, and the latter has been directly implicated in the genesis of hemorrhagic diathesis. We addressed herein the direct effects of B. jararaca venom (BjV) on ex vivo platelet aggregation and granule secretion in washed human and mouse platelets. BjV directly aggregated platelets, but the extent of platelet aggregation was lower in human than mouse platelets. On the other hand, BjV (24.4 μg/mL) and thrombin (0.1 U/mL) induced a similar extent of ATP and platelet factor 4 (PF4) secre...
Source: Toxicon - January 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Rosa JG, de Albuquerque CZ, de Moura Mattaraia VG, Santoro ML Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

A multi-sectorial approach for addressing the problem of snakebite envenoming in Honduras.
tiérrez JM PMID: 30677415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - January 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Alger J, Boza-Oviedo EE, Mejía RE, Navas F, Simons-Morales P, Velázquez RT, Gutiérrez JM Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

A randomized comparative study between intravenous and intramuscular scorpion antivenom regimens in children.
CONCLUSION: The results of the present study and other experimental and clinical trials confirmed that the administration of the scorpion antivenom by intravenous route has a lower incidence of systemic toxicity, a better outcome of fatal complication resulted from envenomation especially cardiogenic shock, decreased need for ICU facilities and mechanical ventilation, shorter hospital stay, and better overall outcome than the intramuscular route. PMID: 30664882 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - January 18, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: El-Asheer OM, Hammad EEM, Mohamad IL, Saad K, Aziz NA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Neurotoxic envenomation by the South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus): a case report.
Abstract The South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus, Elapidae) has not previously been reported to cause any neurotoxic envenomations in humans. We recently treated a 44-year-old man who was bitten twice, once in each hand, by a captive South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus) while feeding the female snake who had recently laid eggs. Approximately one hour after receiving the bite, he developed vomiting, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and paralysis of the bulbar and upper extremity muscles, with retention of voluntary motor control in the lower extremities. Supportive care wa...
Source: Toxicon - January 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Barton DJ, Shao S, Marino RT, Reichmeider A, Yanta JH, Pizon AF Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Intra-articular botulinum toxin injection in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: case report and review of the literature.
We report a case of CRPS treated with intra articular injection of BTX-A (IaBI). BTX-A 100 U in 2 cc Na Cl 0,9% was injected into the gleno-humeral joint. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) were administered at T0 (baseline), T1 (one month after IaBI) and T2 (four months after IaBI). Autonomic and trophic skin disorders were clinically monitored. Pain decreased at T1, with a lasting effect at T2, associated with improvement range of motion (ROM). No improvement in terms autonomic and trophic skin disorders were reported neither at T1 nor T2. . These findings support a possible antino...
Source: Toxicon - January 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Bellon G, Venturin A, Masiero S, Del Felice A Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Comparison of Amnesic, Paralytic and Lipophilic Toxins profiles in cockle (Acanthocardia tuberculata) and smooth clam (Callista chione) from the central Adriatic Sea (Croatia).
Abstract Searching for Amnesic (ASP), Paralytic (PSP) and Lipophilic (LT) toxins in seafood is of great importance for consumer protection. Studies are usually focused on the most aquacultured species, the mussel. But, there are a number of potentially commercially important shellfish species as rough cockle Acanthocardia tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) and smooth clam Callista chione (Linnaeus, 1758) which are common in the Croatian Adriatic Sea. Investigation of marine biotoxins accumulation in these two species of shellfish from Adriatic Sea has not been conducted up to now. In order to detect the potential marine...
Source: Toxicon - January 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Ujević I, Roje-Busatto R, Ezgeta-Balić D Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Okadaic Acid (OA): Toxicity, Detection and Detoxification.
Abstract Okadaic acid (OA), a potent polyether marine toxin, accumulates in the digestive glands of marine mollusks and therefore can severely threaten the health of humans after ingestion of contaminated shellfish. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that exposure of various cells, including human embryonic amniotic cells, hepatocytes, neuroblastoma cells, to OA induces morphological and functional modifications as well as the death of cells. As the number of reports on OA poisoning has increased, this toxin has gradually attracted the public's attention, and researchers are trying to study it. This review...
Source: Toxicon - January 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Fu LL, Zhao XY, Ji LD, Xu J Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Subcellular localization of microcystin in the liver and the gonads of medaka fish acutely exposed to microcystin-LR.
Abstract Among the diverse toxic components produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins (MCs) are one of the most toxic and notorious cyanotoxin groups. Besides their potent hepatotoxicity, MCs have been revealed to induce potential reproductive toxicity in various animal studies. However, little is still known regarding the distribution of MCs in the reproductive organ, which could directly affect reproductive cells. In order to respond to this question, an acute study was conducted in adult medaka fish (model animal) gavaged with 10 μg.g-1 body weight of pure MC-LR. The histological and immunohistochemical examin...
Source: Toxicon - January 7, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Qiao Q, Djediat C, Huet H, Duval C, Le Manach S, Bernard C, Edery M, Marie B Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Study on the obtaining of tityus trivittatus venom in argentina.
STUDY ON THE OBTAINING OF TITYUS TRIVITTATUS VENOM IN ARGENTINA. Toxicon. 2019 Jan 03;: Authors: de Roodt AR, Cecilia LL, Daniel LR, de Oliveira Vanessa C, Silvana L, Leandro C, Fabián DC, Christian DJ, Adrián DJ, Rubén LN, Emiliano L Abstract Envenomation by scorpions of the genus Tityus is an important public health problem in Argentina, involving near 8000 stings and 2 deaths each year. Treatment for envenomation is the use of specific antivenom and intensive hospital care. Antivenom is produced by the Ministry of Health and freely distributed throughout the country. For antive...
Source: Toxicon - January 3, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: de Roodt AR, Cecilia LL, Daniel LR, de Oliveira Vanessa C, Silvana L, Leandro C, Fabián DC, Christian DJ, Adrián DJ, Rubén LN, Emiliano L Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Leucurogin and Melanoma Therapy.
Abstract Leucurogin is an ECD disintegrin-like protein, cloned from Bothrops leucurus venom gland. This new protein, encompassing the disintegrin region of a PIII metalloproteinase, is produced by recombinant technology and its biological and functional activity was partially characterized in this study. Biological activity was characterized in vitro using human fibroblasts. Functional activity of leucurogin was analyzed in vitro and in vivo with murine B16F10 Nex-2 and human melanoma BLM cells. The results show that leucurogin inhibits cellular processes dependent on collagen type I. In a competition assay with c...
Source: Toxicon - January 3, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Almeida MC, Santos IC, Paschoalin T, Travassos LR, Mauch C, Zigrino P, Pesquero JB, Pesquero JL, Higuchi DA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Snakebite Burden in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Abstract There is no reliable estimate of burden of snakebite-envenoming (SBE) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We derived from a meta-analysis the burden of SBE related deaths, amputations and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 41 countries in SSA. The annual burden was estimated at 1.03 million DALYs (95% Confidence Interval: 0.80-1.28 million DALYs). This is similar to or higher than the burden of many Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and the finding advocates for a commensurate resources allocation towards control of SBE. PMID: 30594637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - December 27, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Halilu S, Iliyasu G, Hamza M, Chippaux JP, Kuznik A, Habib AG Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Induced Lesion and Inhibited Ihh-PTHrP Signalling Pathway Activity in the Articular Cartilage of Rats Caused by T-2 toxin.
This study aims to investigate the role of Ihh-PTHrP signalling pathway in the articular cartilage injury of rats caused by T-2 toxin. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: group A, normal diet; group B, normal diet plus the dissolvent (0.9% sodium chloride sterile aqueous solution containing ethanol); group C, normal diet plus low T-2 toxin (0.1 mg/kg BW/day) and group D, normal diet plus high T-2 toxin (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) by intragastric administration daily for 4 weeks. Histological changes in articular cartilage were assessed by HE staining and scanning electron microscopy. The expression of Ihh...
Source: Toxicon - December 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Yan FX, Hui GY, Mei YY, Ning ZOU, Wei WK, Pan YAN, Jun SD Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Versatile spider venom peptides and their medical and agricultural applications.
Abstract Spiders have been evolving complex and diverse repertoires of peptides in their venoms with vast pharmacological activities for more than 300 million years. Spiders use their venoms for prey capture and defense, hence they contain peptides that target both prey (mainly arthropods) and predators (other arthropods or vertebrates). This includes peptides that potently and selectively modulate a range of targets such as ion channels, receptors and signaling pathways involved in physiological processes. The contribution of these targets in particular disease pathophysiologies makes spider venoms a valuable sou...
Source: Toxicon - December 10, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Saez NJ, Herzig V Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Arthropod venoms: Biochemistry, Ecology and Evolution.
Abstract Comprising of over a million described species of highly diverse invertebrates, Arthropoda is amongst the most successful animal lineages to have colonized aerial, terrestrial, and aquatic domains. Venom, one of the many fascinating traits to have evolved in various members of this phylum, has underpinned their adaptation to diverse habitats. Over millions of years of evolution, arthropods have evolved ingenious ways of delivering venom in their targets for self-defence and predation. The morphological diversity of venom delivery apparatus in arthropods is astounding, and includes extensively modified ped...
Source: Toxicon - December 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Laxme R R S, Suranse V, Sunagar K Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Evaluation Of Vasoactivity After Haemotoxic Snake Venom Administration.
This study combines evaluating the time of onset and intensity of effects of three whole viper venoms (Bitis aritans, Crotalus viridis, Agkistrodon contortrix) at varying concentrations. They were applied onto the CAM, using the Luepke grading system as one method of determining their rapid irritation potential. Regarding the principles of 3 R´s, this method helps to evaluate the haemotoxic effect of venom as an alternative method to the rodent tests. The information provided from these results can be used as a rapid tool for both medical management of snakebite wounds and the potential use of snake venom in medical ...
Source: Toxicon - December 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Knight RB, Dvorcakova S, Luptakova L, Vdoviakova K, Petrilla V, Petrovova E Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

A review of cardiac glycosides: structure, toxicokinetics, clinical signs, diagnosis and antineoplastic potential.
Abstract Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are secondary compounds found in plants and amphibians and are widely distributed in nature with potential cardiovascular action. Their mechanism is based on the blockage of the heart's sodium potassium ATPase, with a positive inotropic effect. Some of the most well- known CGs are digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin, and bufalin. They have similar chemical structures: a lactone ring, steroid ring, and sugar moiety. Digoxin, ouabain, and oleandrin are classified as cardenolides, consisting of a lactone ring with five carbons, while bufalin is classified as bufodienolides, with a six-carbon...
Source: Toxicon - December 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Botelho AFM, Pierezan F, Soto-Blanco B, Melo MM Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Queen Venom Isosolenopsin A Delivers Rapid Incapacitation of Fire Ant Competitors.
Abstract Fire ant venom contains insecticidal alkaloids named 'solenopsins'. Whilst species-specific differences are reported, little attention has been given to caste-specific venom adaptations. The venom of fire ant queens has remained particularly poorly studied, though studies have shown it to be strikingly similar across different species, in being primarily composed of the alkaloid isosolenopsin A, regardless of chemical configuration in workers. We predict that this is the evolutionary outcome of stabilising selection, implying that a shared mechanism is responsible for the conserved venom composition among...
Source: Toxicon - December 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: G P Fox E, Wu X, Wang L, Chen L, Lu YY, Xu Y Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Alleviation of aflatoxin-related oxidative damage to liver and improvement of growth performance in broiler chickens consumed Lactobacillus plantarum 299v for entire growth period.
Abstract Growing broiler chicks on a diet contaminated with aflatoxins (200 or 2000 ppb) for entire growth period resulted in increased oxidative stress and liver damage markers. The toxicity was subsided in broilers received a specific aflatoxin-binding probiotic i.e., Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). There was a substantial (30-90%) increase in antioxidant activity of plasma, which was suppressed due to dietary aflatoxins. Probiotic also reduced serum lactate dehydrogenase and alanine amino transferase together with lipid peroxidation products in liver, which were elevated due to aflatoxin. Because of Lp29...
Source: Toxicon - December 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Khanian M, Karimi-Torshizi MA, Allameh A Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

An examination of microcystin-LR accumulation and toxicity using tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs).
This study demonstrates that MC-LR does not irreversibly imbed itself into lipids membranes after short or long-term exposure and suggests MC-LR does not biomagnify through the food web via lipid storage. PMID: 30521837 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - December 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Facey JA, Steele JR, Violi JP, Mitrovic SM, Cranfield C Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Arthropod assassins: crawling biochemists with diverse toxin pharmacopeias.
Abstract The millions of extant arthropod species are testament to their evolutionary success that can at least partially be attributed to venom usage, which evolved independently in at least 19 arthropod lineages. While some arthropods primarily use venom for predation (e.g., spiders and centipedes) or defense (e.g., bees and caterpillars), it can also have more specialised functions (e.g. in parasitoid wasps to paralyse arthropods for their brood to feed on) or even a combination of functions (e.g. the scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus can deliver a prevenom for predator deterrence and a venom for predation). Mo...
Source: Toxicon - November 26, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Herzig V Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Defensins, a novel type of animal toxin-like potassium channel inhibitor.
Abstract The classical potassium channel inhibitors are toxin peptides from venomous animals, and whether there are peptide inhibitors from other species is an open question. Due to both the independent and interdependent relationships between the spear (peptide inhibitors) and the shield (potassium channels), human defensins were first identified by our group as endogenous potassium channel inhibitors. Encouraged by the discovery of human defensins as potassium channel inhibitors, defensins from invertebrates and fungi were successively found by our group to be potassium channel inhibitors. In addition, a plant d...
Source: Toxicon - November 22, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zhao Y, Chen Z, Cao Z, Li W, Wu Y Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Biochemistry and pharmacology of proteins and peptides purified from the venoms of the snakes Macrovipera lebetina subspecies.
gur E Abstract The isolation and characterization of individual snake venom components is important for a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of envenomations, for improving the therapeutic procedures of patients, and it also opens possibilities for the discovery of novel toxins that might be useful as tools for understanding cellular and molecular processes. This review provides a summary of the different toxins that have been isolated and characterized from the venoms of Vipera lebetina (Macrovipera lebetina) subspecies Macrovipera lebetina cernovi, Macrovipera lebetina lebetina, Macrovipera lebetina obt...
Source: Toxicon - November 22, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Siigur J, Aaspõllu A, Siigur E Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research