The effect of 3-nitropropionic acid on behavioral dysfunction, neuron loss and gliosis in the brain of adult male rats: The case of prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and the cerebellum.
In conclusion, although 3-NP can be used as a model of Huntington's disease, it exerts a disseminated effect on different regions of the brain. PMID: 32464148 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - May 25, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Torabi A, Joneidi M, Mohammadzadeh I, Abdollahifar MA, Khatmi A, Ezi S, Moghaddam MH, Rafiei R, Kahrizirad F, Norozian M, Aliaghaei A Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Isolation of the Tephrosia vogelii extract and rotenoids and their toxicity in the RTgill-W1 trout cell line and in zebrafish embryos.
This study focused on identifying the rotenoids from the Tephrosia vogelli plant (fish-poison-bean), investigating the toxic potency of a crude T. vogelii extract and individual rotenoids (tephrosin, deguelin and rotenone) in vitro and in vivo and assessing the mode of action. A trout (Onychorynhis mykiss) gill epithelial cell line (RTgill-W1) was used to determine the cytotoxicity of rotenoids and effects on cell metabolism. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) aged from 3 h post fertilization (hpf) to 72 hpf were used for testing the developmental toxicity. The crude T. vogelii plant extract significantly decreased the cellular met...
Source: Toxicon - May 23, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Said AH, Solhaug A, Sandvik M, Msuya FE, Kyewalyanga MS, Mmochi AJ, Lyche JL, Hurem S Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Synergistic antimicrobial activity of melittin with clindamycin on the expression of encoding exfoliative toxin in Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human pathogens, with the ability to produce a series of virulence factors that contribute to the severity of infections. Exfoliative toxins (ETs) are one of the important virulence factors that participating in staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Melittin has different biological activities, comprising of antiviral, broad spectrum antibacterial, antiprotozoal, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects. Twelve clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were obtained from wound infection in the burn pat...
Source: Toxicon - May 22, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Mahmoudi H, Alikhani MY, Imani Fooladi AA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Trial for reduction of Ochratoxin A residues in fish feed by using nano particles of hydrated sodium aluminum silicates (NPsHSCAS) and copper oxide.
Abstract This paper was designed to analyze the effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed on the growth outcomes, certain serum biochemical, histopathology, and OTA residue in the dorsal muscle, liver, and kidney in Nile tilapia. Also, to improve the drastic effect of OTA through dietary supplementation of hydrated sodium aluminum silicates nanoparticles or nano copper. For performing the present study, 270 fish were randomly allotted into 6 equal groups according to ochratoxin and nanoparticles of hydrated sodium aluminum silicates or copper oxide. The results indicated that supplementation of two levels of ...
Source: Toxicon - May 22, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Fadl SE, El-Shenawy AM, Gad DM, El Daysty EM, El-Sheshtawy HS, Abdo WS Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Complete neutralization of the lethality of Hemiscorpius lepturus crude venom by a novel anti-recombinant phospholipase D1 IgGs.
In conclusion, a novel rabbit monovalent IgG against Hl-RecPLD1 was able to completely protect the mice against the lethality of H. lepturus crude venom and reduced its toxicity as well. Such monovalent anti-Hl-RecPLD1 IgGs may have potential applications in serotherapy of H. lepturus envenomation. PMID: 32445840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - May 20, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Torabi E, Behdani M, Khalaj V, Bagheri KP, Shahbazzadeh D Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Serine protease from Tricosanthus tricuspidata accelerates healing of Echis carinatus venom-induced necrotic wound.
Abstract Echis carinatus (EC) envenomation causes severe immune response by the accumulation of tissue debris in the form of DAMPs resulting in chronic inflammation and progressive tissue necrosis at the bitten site. Clearing of tissue debris is a prerequisite to enhance the healing of venom-induced necrotic wounds. Tricosanthus tricuspidata is a medicinal plant used extensively for the treatment of snake bite-induced toxicities. The active component responsible for the observed pharmacological action is a serine protease, tricuspidin. The topical application of tricuspidin was able to neutralize ECV-induced mouse...
Source: Toxicon - May 20, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Rudresha GV, Manjuprasanna VN, Urs AP, Choudhury M, Rajaiah R, Vishwanath BS Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Venom serine proteinase homolog of the ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani impairs host phenoloxidase cascade.
Abstract The ant-like bethylid ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) envenomates host to suppress immune response. Yet, the roles of its venom in inhibiting melanization of host hemolymph have not been fully characterized. Here, we demonstrated that S. guani envenomation induced strong inhibition of melanization of the hemolymph from Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), permitting the successful development of parasitoid offspring. To reveal venom component associated with such function, a serine proteinase homolog (SguaSPH) rich in the venom of S. guani was characterized. It was foun...
Source: Toxicon - May 20, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Wu CY, Huang JM, Zhao YJ, Xu ZW, Zhu JY Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Cloning and expression of OdTx12, a β excitatory toxin from Odontobuthus doriae, in Escherichia coli and evaluation of its bioactivity in Locusta migratoria.
In this study sodium channel toxins of Odontobuthus doriae were aligned to other closely related toxins by BLAST and ClustalW servers. Among these toxins, NaTx12 (OdTx12) showed more than 90% similarity to the most known beta excitatory toxin, AaHIT1; furthermore, our modeling studies confirmed high tertiary structure similarity of these proteins. OdTx12 was cloned and expressed in E.coli, using pET26-b and pET28-a expression vectors. Tris-tricine SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed OdTx12 expression by pET28-a, only. After purification, bioactivity of the purified protein was analyzed by injection and oral administr...
Source: Toxicon - May 19, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Khoshdel Nezamiha F, Imani S, Shahbazzadeh D, Tirgari S, Arabi Mianroodi R Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Unusual pattern of aflatoxins and ochratoxin in commercially grown maize varieties of Pakistan.
Abstract The contamination of food with mycotoxins could be a major health risk. Identification and quantification of mycotoxins in maize are essentially required to guarantee food safety. Seven commonly grown maize cultivars were sown at semi-arid conditions in Pakistan. After harvesting plants, total aflatoxin (AFs), aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), G2 (AFG2), and ochratoxin-A (OTA) contents were determined in maize flour using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed an unusual pattern of AFs in maize with a higher concentration of AFG1 in all maize varieties. The AFB1 was not fo...
Source: Toxicon - May 18, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Wajih Ul Hassan S, Sadef Y, Hussain S, Rafique Asi M, Ashraf MY, Anwar S, Malik A Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Dobutamine in the treatment of severe scorpion envenoming.
This study was conducted in the medical surgical ICU of Habib Bourguiba University Hospital in Sfax - Tunisia. We included 21 patients with pulmonary edema or hemodynamic shock following scorpion envenoming. All patients were monitored using Swan-Ganz catheter. After a first check of the hemodynamic parameters (baseline), all patients received dobutamine infusion at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min. The median age of patients was 19 years (IQR: 14-26) and 12 patients (57.1%) were males. On ICU admission, 11 patients (52.4%) had shock, all patients (100%) had pulmonary edema, 20 patients (95.2%) had neurologic manifestations, a...
Source: Toxicon - May 16, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Bouaziz M, Hamida CB, Chelly H, Bahloul M, Kallel H Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Biocompatibility of Alexandrium minutum in the growth and paralytic shellfish toxins production under five cultivation methods.
This study evaluated the performance of an easy-cultivation device for the mass culture of Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum), a dinoflagellate that produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Five culture conditions including three different sizes of containers (250 mL conical flask, 500 mL beaker, and 20 L jar) in two different environments (out-incubator and incubator) were compared in terms of growth and PSTs production. Compared with the incubator environment, the out-incubator environment had more fluctuations in temperature and light intensity. Results showed that the cell densities of A. minutum increased in al...
Source: Toxicon - May 16, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Xie W, Li M, Song L, Hu X, Yang X Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Mycotoxins, invisible danger of feedstuff with toxic effect on animals.
Abstract Mycotoxins are low-molecular weight compounds produced mainly by fungi, with Fusarium and Aspergillus origin. Secondary, metabolites, are mostly found on plants. However, the contamination of the feed and forage has been also reported. Because of their pharmacological activity, mycotoxins can be used as chemical warfare agents, drugs or growth promotants. Additionally, mycotoxins are found as one of the most dangerous genotoxic factors which cause the damage of DNA and lead to disease development. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxins as both, an invisible danger of forage and as food additives...
Source: Toxicon - May 11, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Buszewska-Forajta M Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Modeling the time-lag effect of sea surface temperatures on ciguatera poisoning in the South Pacific: Implications for surveillance and response.
In this study, we used prewhitened crosscorrelation analysis and auto-regressive integrated moving-average (ARIMA) modeling to develop predictive models of monthly CP incidence in Cook Islands and French Polynesia, two ciguatera-endemic regions in the South Pacific, utilizing the latest epidemiological data. Results reveal the significant time-lagged associations between the monthly CP incidence rate and several indicators relating to sea surface temperature (SST). In particular, SST anomaly is proven to be a strong positive predictor of an increased ciguatera incidence for both countries. If these time-lags can be support...
Source: Toxicon - May 6, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zheng L, Iti Gatti CM, Gamarro EG, Suzuki A, Teah HY Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Risk factors of acute kidney injury induced by multiple wasp stings.
Abstract In Asia, acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by wasp stings is common; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain unclear. To evaluate the mechanisms associated with AKI induced by wasp stings, we conducted a retrospective cohort study that assessed blood and urinary samples from 112 patients with hospital admissions resulting from wasp stings. These samples were divided into those with AKI and without AKI as described in the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) database. Of the patients, 48.2% presented with an elevated number of leukocytes (median 19.9 vs. 15.8 × 109/...
Source: Toxicon - May 6, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Yuan H, Lu L, Gao Z, Hu F Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Chemical profile of the parotoid gland secretion of the Amazonian toad (Rhinella margaritifera).
Abstract The secreted poisonin bufonids (Anura: Bufonidae) include proteins, biogenic amines, toxic bufadienolides and alkaloids. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of parotoid gland secretions by the Amazonian toad Rhinella margaritifera was evaluated in a UFLC-DAD-micrOTOF system. Of the twenty three compounds found in the methanolic extract, eighteen were identified by the mass/charge ratio as: five arginine diacids, six bufagenins (telocinobufagin, marinobufagin, bufotalin, cinobufotalin, bufalin and cinobufagin), six bufotoxins, and an alkaloid (dehydrobufotenin). PMID: 32387184 [PubMed -...
Source: Toxicon - May 5, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Sinhorin AP, Kerkhoff J, Dall Oglio EL, de Jesus Rodrigues D, de Vasconcelos LG, Sinhorin VDG Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Fumonisin B1 induces toxicity in human leukocytes at low concentrations: Are computational studies effective to determine biosafety?
This study aimed to evaluate the minimum concentration of FB1 capable of inducing cytotoxicity (cell viability test), genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (micronucleus) in cultured human leukocytes and to evaluate the effectiveness of in silico tests to predict FB1 toxicity. All concentrations analyzed (200; 100; 50; 5; 0.5; 0.05; 0.005 μg/mL and 300; 30; 3; 1; 0.1; 0.01 fg/mL) except the lowest demonstrated dose-dependent toxicity in all parameters analyzed (p 
Source: Toxicon - May 3, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Andrzejewski Kaminski TF, Dalla Lana DF, Quintana LD, Schmitt EG, Kaminski TA, Paula FR, Fuentefria AM, Machado MM, Souza de Oliveira LF Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Regulation of taurine in OTA-induced apoptosis and autophagy.
In conclusion, taurine treatment could alleviate OTA-induced apoptosis and inhibit the triggered autophagy in PK-15 cells. Our study provides supportive data for the potential roles of taurine in reducing OTA-induced renal toxicity. PMID: 32371067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - May 1, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Liu K, Mao X, Li H, Liu D, Le G, Gan F, Pan C, Huang K, Chen X Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Toxin profile of Ostreopsis cf. ovata from Portuguese continental coast and Selvagens Islands (Madeira, Portugal).
This study provides valuable information to characterize the risk of OVTXs-related outbreaks in Portugal. PMID: 32371068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - May 1, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Soliño L, García-Altares M, Godinho L, Costa PR Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Mushroom poisoning from Inocybe serotina: A case report from Ningxia, northwest China with exact species identification and muscarine detection.
Abstract Mushroom poisoning is a serious food safety issue in China. However, there is insufficient information on many poisoning incidents, including mushroom species and their clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatments and toxins. Detailed epidemiological investigation was conducted after the occurrence of a mushroom poisoning incident resulting in typical muscarinic syndrome in Ningxia, China. The suspected mushroom species was identified based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Muscarine was detected using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). On Septem...
Source: Toxicon - April 30, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Xu F, Zhang YZ, Zhang YH, Guan GY, Zhang KP, Li HJ, Wang JJ Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Aflatoxin B1 degradation by microorganisms isolated from Kombucha culture.
Abstract Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin. Aflatoxin occurrence in tea makes this beverage unsuitable for consumption and presented risks to human health. Therefore, researches in aflatoxin microbial degradation are necessary to overcome this problem. Kombucha beverage is associated with health promoting effects. Thus, novel strains (Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts) were isolated from a Kombucha culture and assessed for AFB1 degradation in the liquid medium (Man Rogosa and Sharpe broth, yeast extract peptone dextrose broth and black tea). The main strains involved in AFB1 decontamination were iden...
Source: Toxicon - April 30, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Ben Taheur F, Mansour C, Ben Jeddou K, Machreki Y, Kouidhi B, Abdulhakim JA, Chaieb K Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Toxicological profile of medically relevant Crotalus species from Mexico and their neutralization by a Crotalus basiliscus/Bothrops asper antivenom.
a M, León G, Segura Á Abstract Specimens of the Crotalus genus represent a potential snakebite problem in Mexico, and despite the great number of species of Crotalus present in this country, only a few of them are relevant from a medical point of view. Crotalus envenomed patients can present a range of signs and symptoms, depending on the species involved, and their treatment is indistinctly with either of the anti-viperid antivenoms available in the Mexican Public Health System. One of these antivenoms is produced by immunization of horses with a mixture of only two venoms: Crotalus basiliscus and B...
Source: Toxicon - April 30, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Sánchez M, Solano G, Vargas M, Reta-Mares F, Neri-Castro É, Alagón A, Sánchez A, Villalta M, León G, Segura Á Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin type A ameliorates adjuvant-arthritis pain by inhibiting microglial activation-mediated neuroinflammation and intracellular molecular signaling.
Abstract Chronic inflammatory pain is a serious clinical problem caused by inflammation of the joints and degenerative diseases and greatly affects patients' quality of life. Persistent pain states are thought to result from the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways in the spinal dorsal horn. Spinal microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the central sensitization of chronic inflammatory pain. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) was recently reported to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the precise mechanism underlying its analgesic e...
Source: Toxicon - April 8, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Shi X, Gao C, Wang L, Chu X, Shi Q, Yang H, Li T Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Aflatoxins biodetoxification strategies based on probiotic bacteria.
Abstract Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that are the most dangerous mycotoxin and food safety challenges. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs directly throughout the intake of contaminated agricultural products or indirectly throughout the consumption of products prepared with animal origin or obtained from animals that were fed with contaminated material. For detoxification and reducing threats to public health and the economic damage caused by the aflatoxins in animal and plants food products, different techniques (physical, chemical and biological) has been studied. All of these methods, by modif...
Source: Toxicon - April 8, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Afshar P, Shokrzadeh M, Raeisi SN, Ghorbani-HasanSaraei A, Nasiraii LR Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Paralytic shellfish toxins - Call for uniform reporting units.
PMID: 32250748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - April 8, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Turnbull AR, Harwood DT, Boundy MJ, Holland PT, Hallegraeff G, Malhi N, Quilliam MA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Chronic migraine and Botulinum Toxin Type A: Where do paths cross?
Abstract Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder accounted among the primary headaches. It is the expression of a complex, and not yet fully understood, pathophysiology involving the sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways. In this review we succinctly illustrate the molecular, anatomical, and functional abnormalities underlying the migraine attack that are relevant for understanding in more depth the neurobiology behind the therapeutic effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A (BoNT-A). BoNT-A has proved effective in several neurological conditions and, more recently, also in chronic mig...
Source: Toxicon - April 8, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Martinelli D, Arceri S, Tronconi L, Tassorelli C Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Revisited - Failure of tetrodotoxin to protect red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, from endoparasites.
Abstract Red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, contain tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogue 6-epiTTX in variable concentrations. In a follow-up study, newts were sampled from a pond in Pennsylvania, USA, in 2010, 2014, and 2018. Their toxin levels were assayed by liquid-chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD), and assessment of their infection with endoparasites such as nematodes and helminths was performed by histological examination of internal organs. In the 2010 and 2014 samples, average prevalence of parasite infection was 53 and 60%, respectively, but reached 100% in the 2018 sample, where meta...
Source: Toxicon - April 8, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Mebs D, Yotsu-Yamashita M, Hartmann K, Elbert C, Zehner R, Toennes SW Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

What clinicians and patients want: The past, the presence, and the future of the botulinum toxins.
Abstract Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is well established in clinical practice for more than 30 years. During this time the area of applications was broaden beyond the ophtalmologic and neurologic indications. Despite of decades of BoNT application with a huge increase of expertise and supporting methods for utilization as well, both patients and physicians claim about boundaries and limits in their daily treatment practice. Most of those limits are related to the toxin itself and its pharmacokinetic properties. The challenge in the field of movement disorders, swetting, and sialorrhea to combine all fast onset, long-la...
Source: Toxicon - March 30, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Kivi A, Ri S, Wissel J Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Common anticholinergic solanaceaous plants of temperate Europe - A review of intoxications from the literature (1966-2018).
Abstract Datura stramonium, Atropa belladonna, Hyoscyamus niger, and Scopolia carniolica are all temperate plants from the family Solanaceae, which as a result of their anticholinergic tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine/atropine and scopolamine, have caused many cases of poisoning around the world. Despite the danger these nightshade plants represent, the literature often presents incomplete cases lacking in details and filled with ambiguity, and reviews on the topic tend to be limited in scope. Many also point to a gap in knowledge of these plants among physicians. To address this, the following review focuses on int...
Source: Toxicon - March 30, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Fatur K, Kreft S Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Challenges in the management of anticoagulated patients with focal spasticity.
CONCLUSIONS: The Canadian consensus statements assist clinicians by providing a framework for consideration to navigate the challenges when injecting BoNTA in anticoagulated patients with spasticity. PMID: 32217235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - March 30, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Boulias C, Ismail F, Phadke CP Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Comparative study of the chemical profile of the parotoid gland secretions from Rhaebo guttatus from different regions of the Brazilian Amazon.
in AP Abstract Amphibian cutaneous secretion has great potential for bioprospection and is a great tool in the development of bioproducts. Thus, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the comparative study of thechemical profile parotoid gland secretions from Rhaebo guttatus collected in two distinct regions of the Brazilian Amazon. For this, the chemical composition of six methanolic extracts of this species were analyzed by Liquid Chromatography in UV and MS Detection Ultra-Chromatography Systems (UFLC-DAD-micrOTOF). All obtained chromatograms presented two distinct regions; one referring to the more ...
Source: Toxicon - March 21, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: de Souza EBR, de Sousa Júnior PT, de Vasconcelos LG, de Jesus Rodrigues D, Sinhorin VDG, Kerkhoff J, do Nascimento Pelissari SR, Sinhorin AP Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Clinical duration of action of different botulinum toxin types in humans.
In conclusion, BoNT/F has earlier sprouting and complete recovery at w8. Other serotypes present a slower and similar profile. The EMG appear useful to study the functional recovery in humans, and these results should provide new evidence for assessing different serotypes. These findings improve our knowledge regarding the methods to evaluate duration of effects and dose equivalents in different serotypes, that in the future could change the clinicians strategy for disease-tailored BoNT therapies. PMID: 32184153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - March 14, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Eleopra R, Rinaldo S, Montecucco C, Rossetto O, Devigili G Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Latrodectism in Italy: First report of successful treatment of L. tredecimguttatus envenomation using L. mactans antivenom from North America.
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of a patient suffering from latrodectism places the clinician in front of a challenging differential diagnosis. Following the suspicion, the first-line doctor is invited to discuss the case with a toxicologist, in order to confirm or exclude the diagnosis and implement all therapeutic measures. In our clinical case, the absence of organic lesions, laboratory tests not suggestive for other causes, and the presence of typical clinical feature suggested the diagnosis of L tredecimguttatus poisoning. This hypothesis was then supported by the close temporal relation between antivenom admin...
Source: Toxicon - March 13, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Di Paola G, Cirronis M, Scaravaggi G, Castorani L, Petrolini VM, Locatelli CA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Functional venomics of the Big-4 snakes of Pakistan.
Abstract In South Asia, the "Big-4" venomous snakes Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, Daboia russelii, and Echis carinatus are so-called because they are the most medically important snakes in the region. Antivenom is the only effective treatment option for snakebite envenoming but antivenom is not produced domestically in Pakistan making the country reliant on polyvalent products imported from India and Saudi Arabia. The present study investigated the toxin composition and activity of the venoms of Pakistani specimens by means of proteomic and physio/pharmacological experiments. To evaluate the composition...
Source: Toxicon - March 12, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Hashmi SU, Alvi A, Munir I, Perveen M, Fazal A, Jackson TNW, Ali SA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Impaired fish swimming performance following dietary exposure to the marine phycotoxin okadaic acid.
This study indicates that fish may not be affected by OA-group toxins under basal conditions, but suggests a decrease in fitness linked to a reduction in swimming performance of fish exposed to OA under increased stimulus. OA and related toxins are suggested to have a cryptic effect on swimming performance that may be enhanced when fish deals with multiple stressors. Considering that a reduction in swimming performance may have impact on critical activities, such as foraging and escaping from predators, this study highlights the ecological risk associated with dinoflagellate toxic blooms, biotoxins food web transfer and fi...
Source: Toxicon - March 5, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Corriere M, Baptista M, Paula JR, Repolho T, Rosa R, Costa PR, Soliño L Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Seasonal changes in the bacterial community structure of three eutrophicated urban lakes in Mexico city, with emphasis on Microcystis spp.
imo F, Zúñiga G Abstract Artificial urban lakes commonly have physicochemical conditions that contribute to rapid anthropogenic eutrophication and development of cyanobacterial blooms. Microcystis is the dominat genus in the most freshwater bodies and is one of the main producter of microcystins. Using 454-pyrosequencing we characterized the bacterial community, with special emphasis on Microcystis, in three recreational urban lakes from Mexico City in both wet and dry seasons. We also evaluated some physicochemical parameters that might influence the presence of Microcystis blooms, and we associated...
Source: Toxicon - March 3, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Pineda-Mendoza RM, Briones-Roblero CI, Gonzalez-Escobedo R, Rivera-Orduña FN, Martínez-Jerónimo F, Zúñiga G Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Distribution and persistence of residual T-2 and HT-2 toxins from moldy feed in broiler chickens.
In this study, sterilized corn was inoculated with F. poae and incubated to allow fungal growth before being examined via liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of T-2/HT-2. Broilers were then fed with a mix of moldy corn and normal feed at different ratios to obtain different toxin doses. After 35 days, the contaminated feed was replaced with mycotoxin-free feed and the distribution and concentration of residual toxins in the tissues and organs of the chickens were examined at different time points. The results showed that at the time of feed replacement (0...
Source: Toxicon - March 2, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Yang L, Tu D, Wu Y, Liu W, Hu Y, Liu T, Tan L, Li Y, Lei H, Zhan Y, Wang N, Deng Z, Guo S, Wang A Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Resistance of South American opossums to vWF-binding venom C-type lectins.
Abstract Opossums in the clade Didelphini are well known to be resistant to snake venom due to endogenous circulating inhibitors which target metalloproteinases and phospholipases. However, the mechanisms through which these opossums cope with a variety of other damaging venom proteins are unknown. A protein involved in blood clotting (von Willebrand Factor) has been found to have undergone rapid adaptive evolution in venom-resistant opossums. This protein is a known target for a subset of snake venom C-type lectins (CTLs), which bind it and then induce it to bind platelets, causing hemostatic disruption. Several ...
Source: Toxicon - March 2, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Drabeck DH, Rucavado A, Hingst-Zaher E, Cruz YP, Dean A, Jansa SA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Identifying the toxins in hornet (Vespa basalis) venom that induce rat pain responses.
This study aims to identify the rat pain responses induced by experimental V. basalis sting and related-components in the venom. It was observed that unilateral intraplantar injection of crude V. basalis venom could induce several kinds of pain related behaviors in a dose-dependent manner including spontaneous pain, unilateral thermal and unilateral mechanical hypersensitivity at different time courses. Fourteen main fractions were separated from the crude venom of V. basalis using high performance liquid chromatography, among them, five components (1, 3, 4, 9 and 12) could absolutely mimic the crude venom-induced pain beh...
Source: Toxicon - March 2, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zhou G, Wu J, Xia C, Liu S, Jiang F, Liu Z, Zhou Y, Ji Y Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are associated with T-2 toxin-induced decreased collagen II in mouse chondrocytes in vitro.
This study revealed the new role of IAPs in chondrocyte injury and provides new insights and clues into the mechanism of T-2 toxin-induced chondrocyte damage. PMID: 32103793 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 29, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Wang W, Ji Y, Yang W, Zhang C, Angwa L, Jin B, Liu J, Lv M, Ma W, Yang J, Wang K Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Strategy for starting BoNT treatment (written consent, initial dose and subsequent doses, interval, follow-up).
This article will focus on the important issues when starting BoNT treatment in patients with cervical dystonia (CD). PMID: 32103794 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 29, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Tsui JKC Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Enhanced resistance of co-existing toxigenic and non-toxigenic Microcystis aeruginosa to pyrogallol compared with monostrains.
Abstract Cyanobacteria species are sensitive to many plant allelochemicals, such as pyrogallol. However, little attention has been paid to the relative effects of these xenobiotics on co-occurring toxigenic and non-toxigenic cyanobacterial strains, despite their co-existence in blooms. Hence, the responses of one toxigenic (TS2) and two non-toxigenic (NS1, NS2) Microcystis aeruginosa strains to pyrogallol were tested under three conditions: mono-culture and co-cultured either directly or separately by dialysis membrane. The study showed that the inhibitory effects of pyrogallol on the growth and photosynthetic yie...
Source: Toxicon - February 29, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Gao Y, Lu J, Orr PT, Chuang A, Franklin HM, Burford MA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

The acute toxicity of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) in a goat model.
The objective of this study was to determine a lethal dose of water hemlock in a goat model. Plants were dosed to goats via oral gavage of freeze-dried ground plant material. The results from this study suggest that 1-2 fresh tubers would be lethal to goats. PMID: 32103796 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 29, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Welch KD, Stonecipher CA, Lee ST, Cook D Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

A centipede toxin causes rapid desensitization of nociceptor TRPV1 ion channel.
Abstract The nociceptive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal receptor for multiple painful stimuli, hence actively pursued as a target for analgesic drugs. We identified a small peptide toxin RhTx2 from the Chinese red-headed centipede that strongly modulates TRPV1 activities. RhTx2, a 31-amino-acid peptide, is similar to a TRPV1-activating toxin RhTx we have previously discovered but with four extra amino acids at the N terminus. We observed that, like RhTx, RhTx2 activated TRPV1, but RhTx2 rapidly desensitized the channel upon prolonged exposure. Desensitization was achiev...
Source: Toxicon - February 22, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zhu A, Aierken A, Yao Z, Vu S, Tian Y, Zheng J, Yang S, Yang F Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Toads prey upon scorpions and are resistant to their venom: A biological and ecological approach to scorpionism.
Abstract In recent years, SE Brazil, the most populous region in the country with an estimated population of 88 million, has been experiencing an alarming increase in scorpions accidents (scorpionism), mainly caused by the yellow scorpion (Tityus serrulatus), or "escorpião amarelo" in Portuguese. This species is considered particularly dangerous to humans and can reproduce by parthenogenesis favouring rapid dispersal and colonization of new environments. Since the 1940s, owing to the growing danger represented by scorpionism, public control policies have been developed, including active search for...
Source: Toxicon - February 17, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Jared C, Alexandre C, Mailho-Fontana PL, Pimenta DC, Brodie ED, Antoniazzi MM Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Paratrygon aiereba irradiated anti-mucus serum reduce edematogenic activity induced in experimental model.
, do Nascimento N Abstract Accidents by freshwater stingrays are common in northern Brazil, there is no specific therapy for high morbidity and local tissue destruction. The irradiation of venoms and toxins by ionizing radiation has been used to produce appropriate immunogens for the production of antisera. We planned to study the efficacy of stinging mucus irradiation in the production of antisera, with serum neutralization assays of edematogenic activity and quantification of cytokines performed in animal models of immunization with native and irradiated mucus of Paratrygon aiereba, a large freshwater stingray. ...
Source: Toxicon - February 14, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Coelho Thomazi GO, da Costa A, Rodrigues JP, Alves GJ, Prezotto Neto JP, de Oliveira Turíbio T, Rocha AM, da Silva Aires R, Seibert CS, Spencer PJ, Galisteo Júnior AJ, de Andrade Júnior HF, do Nascimento N Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

19-Hydroxy-bufalin, a major bufadienolide isolated from the parotoid gland secretions of the Panamanian endemic toad Rhinella centralis (bufonidae), inhibits the growth of Trypanosoma cruzi.
utiérrez M Abstract American trypanosomiasis is a parasitic neglected disease, responsible for the death of approximately 10,000 people every year. Amphibians are recognized for producing in their cutaneous glands substances with pharmacological potential against a variety of pathologies. Here we investigated the antiprotozoal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi of bufadienolides isolated from the parotoid glands secretions of the toad Rhinella centralis from Panama. NMR and mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of the active compound 19-hydroxy-bufalin, for which its antitrypanosomal activity...
Source: Toxicon - February 13, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Rodriguez C, Ibáñez R, Ng M, Spadafora C, Durant-Archibold AA, Gutiérrez M Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Safety evaluation of the venom from scorpion Rhopalurus junceus: Assessment of oral short term, subchronic toxicity and teratogenic effect.
ndo T, Padrón AS Abstract Rhopalurus junceus is the most common scorpion in Cuba and the venom is often used as a natural product for anti-cancer therapy. Despite this, no study has been published concerning its toxicological profile. The aim of the study was characterizing the short-term, subchronic toxicity and the teratogenic potential of Rhopalurus junceus scorpion venom by oral route in mice. Short-term oral toxicity was test in both sexes NMRI mice that received 100 mg/kg/day of scorpion venom extract for 28 days. For the subchronic study, mice were administered with three doses (0.1, 10, and 100 ...
Source: Toxicon - February 10, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Lagarto A, Bueno V, Pérez MR, Rodríguez CC, Guevara I, Valdés O, Bellma A, Gabilondo T, Padrón AS Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Evaluation of the cross-neutralization capacity of Thai green pit viper antivenom against venom of Myanmar green pit viper.
In conclusion, Anti-TGPV is a better choice for patients bitten by Myanmar green pit viper, but further clinical investigation is required. The current findings highlight the development of a specific antivenom against Myanmar green pit viper venom. PMID: 32056833 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)
Source: Toxicon - February 7, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Yee KT, Maw LZ, Kyaw AM, Khow O, Oo AW, Oo TKK, Aung HM, Shwe TH, Htwe SM, Myint Z Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Potency and stability of a trivalent, catalytically inactive vaccine against botulinum neurotoxin serotypes C, E and F (triCEF).
Abstract Botulism is an acute neuroparalytic affliction of the motor and autonomic neurons caused by the toxins produced from Clostridium botulinum and related bacterial strains. The botulinum neurotoxins, or BoNTs, consist of a phylogenetically diverse group of highly potent protein toxins. Current medical interventions for confirmed cases of botulism are limited to immediate administration of antitoxins and respiratory support. There is currently no licensed vaccine against botulism in the United States. The most widely distributed botulism vaccine was a pentavalent BoNT toxoid (PBT) against serotypes A-E admini...
Source: Toxicon - February 4, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Webb R, Wright PM, Brown JL, Skerry JC, Guernieri RL, Smith TJ, Stawicki C, Smith LA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research

Filling the gap of Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) research on clinico-pathology and haemato-biochemistry in small ruminants: A review.
Abstract Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread in some tropical countries due to its adaptation to a wide range of environments and soil types. However, a limiting factor for the use of this grass is its toxicity from steroidal saponins. Sporadic outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization in ruminants grazing on this grass have been reported. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. This review article will critically shed light on the B. decumbens profile, its toxic compounds, mechanisms, clinical ...
Source: Toxicon - January 30, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Muniandy KV, Chung ELT, Jaapar MS, Hamdan MHM, Salleh A, Jesse FFA Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research