Safety, Tolerability, and Effect of Nusinersen in Non-ambulatory Adults With Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Conclusions: Nusinersen, including C1/C2 delivery, was safe overall and well-tolerated. Several outcome measures were limited by floor effect. Overall, treatment resulted in stability of motor outcomes, but motor unit and CMAP size were increased. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Subtypes of Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness
Conclusions: The most common main exacerbating factor of PPPD was the visual factor. PPPD may be categorized into three subtypes. Conventional vestibular tests failed to point the characteristics of each subtype. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

An Epigenetically Distinct Subset of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Resulting From Differences in Blood Cell Composition
Conclusion: Within our ASD cohort, we identified a subset of individuals that exhibit differential methylation from both controls and the remaining ASD group tightly associated with shifts in immune cell type proportions. This is an important feature that should be assessed in all epigenetic studies of blood cells in ASD. This finding also builds on past reports of changes in the immune systems of children with ASD, supporting the potential role of altered immunological mechanisms in the complex pathophysiology of ASD. The discovery of significant molecular and immunological features in subgroups of individuals with ASD ma...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Relationship Between Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Short-Term Mortality of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage
This study aimed to reveal the relationship between HbA1c levels and short-term mortality after patient admission with SICH.Methods: It was a large-scale, multicenter, cross-sectional study. From August 1, 2015, to July 31, 2019, a total of 41910 SICH patients were included in the study from the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance (CSCA) program. Finally, we comprehensively analyzed the data from 21,116 patients with SICH. HbA1c was categorized into four groups by quartile. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between HbA1c levels and short-term mortality in SICH patients....
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Agitation and Dementia: Prevention and Treatment Strategies in Acute and Chronic Conditions
Agitation is a behavioral syndrome characterized by increased, often undirected, motor activity, restlessness, aggressiveness, and emotional distress. According to several observations, agitation prevalence ranges from 30 to 50% in Alzheimer's disease, 30% in dementia with Lewy bodies, 40% in frontotemporal dementia, and 40% in vascular dementia (VaD). With an overall prevalence of about 30%, agitation is the third most common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia, after apathy and depression, and it is even more frequent (80%) in residents of nursing homes. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying agitation is re...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gender and Socioeconomic Disparities in Global Burden of Epilepsy: An Analysis of Time Trends From 1990 to 2017
The objective of the study is to investigate the gender and socioeconomic disparities in the global burden of epilepsy by prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs).Methods: The global, regional, and national gender-specific prevalence and DALYs caused by epilepsy by year and age were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2017. The Gini coefficient and concentration index (CI) were calculated to demonstrate the trends in between-country inequality in the epilepsy burden from 1990 to 2017. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression analyses were performed to ana...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Quantification and Monitoring of the Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Paretic Calf Muscles of Children With Cerebral Palsy With MRI: A Preliminary Study
Conclusion: MRI showed limited spatial distribution of the BTX-induced effects in pediatric CP patients. It could be a promising non-invasive tool for future studies to test BTX treatment protocols. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CSF and Serum Biomarkers of Cerebral Damage in Autoimmune Epilepsy
Introduction: Our goal was to investigate whether biomarkers of cerebral damage are found in autoimmune-mediated epilepsy (AIE) and whether these can differentiate AIE from other seizure disorders.Methods: We retrospectively searched our cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) database for patients with definite AIE, hippocampal sclerosis due to other causes (HS), genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), and psychogenic, non-epileptic seizures (PNES). We measured serum and CSF tau, neurofilament 1 (NFL), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin-carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 with a single-molecule array.Results: We identified suita...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Case Report: Repeated Low-Dose Rituximab Treatment Is Effective in Relapsing Neuro Beh çet's Disease
Neuro Behçet's disease (NBD) is a rare but most aggressive manifestation of Behçet's disease (BD) with a poor prognosis, and some patients even present a relapsing and treatment-resistant progressive course. In some relapsing NBD cases, traditional corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs show limited efficacy, while benefits of biological agents, such as anti-B-lymphocyte CD20 biological agent rituximab (RTX), gradually represent potential therapeutic advantages with clinical rapid remission and long-time maintenance. However, up to now, the optimal dosage of RTX in NBD is still elucidated. Here, we repor...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Addressing the Stroke Triage Challenge
(Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bilingualism: A Global Public Health Strategy for Healthy Cognitive Aging
Dementia is a global public health priority which cost global societies $818 billion in 2015 and is disproportionately impacting low and middle-income countries (LMICs). With limited availability of disease modifying drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), researchers have increasingly focused on preventative strategies which may promote healthy cognitive aging and mitigate the risk of cognitive impairment in aging. Lifelong bilingualism has been presented as both a highly debated and promising cognitive reserve factor which has been associated with better cognitive outcomes in aging. A recent metanalysis has suggested th...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Presence of Atrial Fibrillation in Stroke Patients With Patent Foramen Ovale: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This study aims to evaluate the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in ischemic stroke patients with PFO.Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE and MEDLINE databases on May 21, 2020 for studies that analyzed the presence of AF in patients with PFO. The primary outcome was the presence of AF in patients with PFO compared with those without. Outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model using the method of DerSimonian and Laird. We recorded demographic characteristics and the methods used for AF detection in the studies included (unspecified, history/medical records review, ECG, Holter monitor, or loop recorder).Res...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Balloon-Assisted Coils Embolization for Ophthalmic Segment Aneurysms of the Internal Carotid Artery
Conclusion: OSAS endovascular treatment with balloon-assisted coils has different advantages in a different classification. The technique is safe, effective, and relatively inexpensive, especially for small and medium OSAS. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SIRT1 Deacetylates TET2 and Promotes Its Ubiquitination Degradation to Achieve Neuroprotection Against Parkinson's Disease
In this study, we found that the enzyme activity of SIRT1 is negatively correlated with the protein level of TET2. In addition, the deacetylation of TET2 induced by SIRT1 promotes TET2 degradation via the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Furthermore, the activation of endogenous SIRT1 by resveratrol (RV) leads to CDKN2A DNA hypermethylation due to the decreased TET2 protein levels, which relieves the inhibitory effect on CDK4 and upregulation of pRb, allowing cell proliferation and growth. Similar effects are observed for the inhibition of endogenous TET2 enzyme activity with TET2 inhibitor. Together, we discover a new ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chronic Migraine and Medication Overuse Headache Worsening After OnabotulinumtoxinA Withdrawn Due to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 Pandemic
Conclusion: BT-A withdrawn during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 pandemic was associated with a general worsening in patients suffering from CM, hence the need to continue BT-A injection to avoid patients' worsening. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Emerging Disease-Modifying Therapies in Neurodegeneration With Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA) Disorders
Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA) is a heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by iron deposition in the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra. As of today, 15 distinct monogenetic disease entities have been identified. The four most common forms are pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6)-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN), beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) and mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN). Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation disorders pre...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Integrating Structural and Functional Interhemispheric Brain Connectivity of Gait Freezing in Parkinson's Disease
Freezing of gait (FOG) has devastating consequences for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. This was investigated in the present study by integrated structural and functional connectivity analyses of PD patients with or without FOG (PD FOG+ and PD FOG–, respectively) and healthy control (HC) subjects. We performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging of 24 PD FOG+ patients, 37 PD FOG– patients, and 24 HCs. Tract-based spatial statistics was applied to identify white matter (WM) abnormalities across...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Does Cathodal vs. Sham Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over Contralesional Motor Cortex Enhance Upper Limb Motor Recovery Post-stroke? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Conclusions: The effects of cathodal tDCS to contralesional M1 on motor recovery are small and consistent. There may be sub-populations that may respond to this approach; however, further research with larger cohorts is required. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early Orthostatic Exercise by Head-Up Tilt With Stepping vs. Standard Care After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Is Feasible
Background: Intensive rehabilitation of patients after severe traumatic brain injury aims to improve functional outcome. The effect of initiating rehabilitation in the early phase, in the form of head-up mobilization, is unclear.Objective: To assess whether early mobilization is feasible and safe in patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to a neurointensive care unit.Methods: This was a randomized parallel-group clinical trial, including patients with severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow coma scale
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Serum Phosphate and 1-Year Outcome in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack
Objective: To determine the association between serum phosphate level and 1-year clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack.Methods: We included 7,353 patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack from the China National Stroke Registry III for analysis. Participants were divided into 4 groups according to serum phosphate quartiles. Composite end point included recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, other ischemic vascular events, and all-cause mortality. Poor functional outcome is defined as modified Rankin Scale score of 3 to 6. Multivariable Cox regressio...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Utility of Multi-Modal MRI for Differentiating of Parkinson's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Using Machine Learning
Conclusion: Machine learning models using multi-modal MRI perform significantly better than uni-modal machine learning models using morphological parameters based on T1-weighted MRI datasets alone or brain iron metabolism markers based on T2-weighted MRI datasets alone. However, machine learnig models using regional brain microstructural integrity metrics computed from DTI datasets perform similar to the optimal multi-modal machine learning model. Thus, given the results from this study cohort, it appears that morphology and brain iron metabolism markers may not provide additional value for classification compared to using...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Autoimmune Disorders of the Nervous System: Pathophysiology, Clinical Features, and Therapy
Remarkable discoveries over the last two decades have elucidated the autoimmune basis of several, previously poorly understood, neurological disorders. Autoimmune disorders of the nervous system may affect any part of the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system, CNS) and also the peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction and skeletal muscle (peripheral nervous system, PNS). This comprehensive overview of this rapidly evolving field presents the factors which may trigger breakdown of self-tolerance and development of autoimmune disease in some individuals. Then the pathophysiological basi...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Variable Effects of PD-Risk Associated SNPs and Variants in Parkinsonism-Associated Genes on Disease Phenotype in a Community-Based Cohort
Genetic risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) risk and progression have been identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), as well as studies of familial forms of PD, implicating common variants at more than 90 loci and pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants at 16 loci. With the goal of understanding whether genetic variants at these PD-risk loci/genes differentially contribute to individual clinical phenotypic characteristics of PD, we used structured clinical documentation tools within the electronic medical record in an effort to provide a standardized and detailed clinical phenotypic characterization at...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Examining the Research Criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome in Middle-Aged Men From the General Population Who Played Contact Sports in High School
This study examines the leading research criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES) in middle-aged men in the general population.Method: Participants were 409 men between the ages of 35 and 55 recruited through an online crowdsourcing platform. Participants provided demographic information, medication history, concussion history, contact sport history, current medication use, and current symptoms. Research criteria for TES were applied to the sample.Results: Over half of the total sample met TES symptom criteria (56.2%), without applying the neurotrauma exposure criteria. Those with 4+ prior concussions had highe...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Natalizumab Pharmacokinetics and -Dynamics and Serum Neurofilament in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
In this study, 50 RRMS and 9 SPMS patients after NAT cessation were included. Five RRMS patients on NAT treatment holiday were evaluated. Clinical and radiological disease activity were systemically assessed by frequent exams after NAT stop. Free NAT concentration, cell bound NAT, α4-integrin expression and α4-integrin-receptor saturation as well as immune cell frequencies were measured for up to 4 months after NAT withdrawal. Additionally, sNfL levels were observed up to 12 months in RRMS and up to 4 months in SPMS patients.Results: NAT cessation was associated with a return of disease activity in 38% of the R...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Validating Automated Segmentation Tools in the Assessment of Caudate Atrophy in Huntington ’s Disease
Background: Neuroimaging shows considerable promise in generating sensitive and objective outcome measures for therapeutic trials across a range of neurodegenerative conditions. For volumetric measures the current gold standard is manual delineation, which is unfeasible for samples sizes required for large clinical trials.Methods: Using a cohort of early Huntington’s disease (HD) patients (n = 46) and controls (n = 35), we compared the performance of four automated segmentation tools (FIRST, FreeSurfer, STEPS, MALP-EM) with manual delineation for generating cross-sectional caudate volume, a region known to be vulnera...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Independent Measures of Utricular Function: Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Do Not Correlate With Subjective Visual Vertical or Fundus Photographic Binocular Cyclorotation
Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs), subjective visual vertical (SVV), and fundus photographically measured binocular cyclorotation (BCR) are diagnostic tests to assess utricular function in patients with vertigo or dizziness. In 138 patients with chronic vertigo or dizziness, we asked whether the asymmetry ratio of oVEMP (normal, right side pathological, left side pathological) could predict the SVV deviation (normal, rightward deviation, leftward deviation) or BCR (normal, cyclorotation to the right, cyclorotation to the left). There was no correlation between oVEMP and SVV and between oVEMP and BCR, wh...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Contralesional Structural Plasticity in Different Molecular Pathologic Subtypes of Insular Glioma
Neuroplasticity may preserve neurologic function in insular glioma, thereby improving prognosis following resection. However, the anatomic and molecular bases of this phenomenon are not known. To address this gap in knowledge, the present study investigated contralesional compensation in different molecular pathologic subtypes of insular glioma by high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 52 patients with insular glioma were examined. We compared the gray matter volume (GMV) of the contralesional insula according to histological grade [low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-gr...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Social Cognition in Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Epilepsy
Conclusion: Children and adolescents with focal epilepsy, SLD, or ASD may present a deficit of varying extent in emotion recognition and ToM, compared with TD peers. These difficulties are more pronounced in individuals with ASD, but impairment worthy of clinical attention also emerges in individuals with SLD and epilepsy. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

BPPV: Comparison of the S émontPLUS With the Sémont Maneuver: A Prospective Randomized Trial
This study provides Class I evidence that SM+ is superior to SM for multiple treatment maneuvers of pcBPPVcan. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

COVID-19 Dysautonomia
Conclusions: We present clinical features and results of autonomic testing in 6 patients with a history COVID-19 infection. While all patients reported typical features of orthostatic intolerance, fatigue, and activity intolerance, the results of autonomic testing were heterogenous, with orthostatic hypotension in 1 patient, excessive postural tachycardia typical of postural tachycardia syndrome in 4 patients, and postural hypertension in 3 patients. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Effect of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Stroke Patients With Aspirin Treatment Failure –A Hospital-Based Stroke Secondary Prevention Registry
Conclusions: SVD is common in stroke patients with ATF. PVWMLs and DWMLs are independently associated with functional outcomes in stroke patients with ATF. The burden of SVD should be considered in future antiplatelet strategies for stroke patients after ATF. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of Polyvascular Disease and Elevated Interleukin-6 With Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
Background: Polyvascular disease (PolyVD) and interleukin (IL)-6 are associated with poor outcomes in patients with stroke respectively. However, whether combined PolyVD and elevated IL-6 levels would increase the risk of poor outcomes of stroke patients is yet unclear.Methods: Data were obtained from the Third China National Stroke Registry (CNSR-III). PolyVD was defined as acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) with coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Patients were divided into four groups according to the combination of vascular beds number (non-PolyVD or PolyVD)...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of External Auditory Meatus Occlusion on Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Induced by Bone Conducted Sound
To facilitate more reliable recordings of the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) induced by bone-conducted sound using the B81 bone conduction transducer, we preliminarily studied the effects of external auditory meatus occlusion using an earplug on such oVEMP. Eight healthy volunteers (four males and four females, 26–48 years of age, mean age: 34. 5 years) and 14 patients with vestibular disease (2 males and 12 females, 18–59 years of age, mean age: 41.5 years) were enrolled. oVEMP testing was performed using a B81 placed on the temple. Tone bursts (500 Hz, rise/fall time: 2 ms, plateau time:...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Perspective on Accelerated Aging Caused by the Genetic Deficiency of the Metabolic Protein, OPA1
Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA) is an ophthalmological condition associated primarily with mutations in the OPA1 gene. It has variable onset, sometimes juvenile, but in other patients, the disease does not manifest until adult middle age despite the presence of a pathological mutation. Thus, individuals carrying mutations are considered healthy before the onset of clinical symptoms. Our research, nonetheless, indicates that on the cellular level pathology is evident from birth and mutant cells are different from controls. We argue that the adaptation and early recruitment of cytoprotective responses allows normal d...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Astroglial Glutamine Synthetase and the Pathogenesis of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS), also referred to as glutamate ammonia ligase, is abundant in astrocytes and catalyzes the conversion of ammonia and glutamate to glutamine. Deficiency or dysfunction of astrocytic GS in discrete brain regions have been associated with several types of epilepsy, including medically-intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), neocortical epilepsies, and glioblastoma-associated epilepsy. Moreover, experimental inhibition or deletion of GS in the entorhinal-hippocampal territory of laboratory animals causes an MTLE-like syndrome characterized by spontaneous, recurrent hippocampal-ons...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Factors Influencing the Severity and Progression of Respiratory Muscle Dysfunction in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1
We examined various parameters of respiratory functional status, and found FVC (% predicted) correlated best with other measures of disease severity. Annual change in FVC was −1.42 (std error = 0.381). Greater CTG repeat size, higher MIRS rating, and longer disease duration were all correlated with lower baseline FVC but not with annual rate of change. Wide variability in clinical phenotype made determination of disease measures directly related to respiratory functional decline challenging. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retinal Vessel Responses to Flicker Stimulation Are Impaired in Cav2.3-Deficient Mice —An in-vivo Evaluation Using Retinal Vessel Analysis (RVA)
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study using a novel, non-invasive analysis technique to document impairment of retinal vessel responses in VGCC-deficient mice. We propose that Cav2.3 channels could be involved in NVC and may contribute to the impairment of vasomotor responses under pathophysiological conditions. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Afterdischarges in Myasthenia Gravis
This study aimed to analyze the clinical features of myasthenia gravis (MG) in combination with the afterdischarges and compare the characteristics of afterdischarges in MG with different serum antibodies.Methods: Ninety-two patients with MG were analyzed retrospectively. The afterdischarges were investigated using motor nerve conduction examination, F-wave examination, and repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS).Results: Afterdischarges were observed after the M wave in 14 of 92 patients. Three of these 14 patients tested positive for the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibody (MuSK-Ab), and 11 patients tested positive for t...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The SMART Registry: Long-Term Results on the Utility of the Penumbra SMART COIL System for Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms and Other Malformations
Introduction: Penumbra SMART COIL® (SMART) System is a novel generation embolic coil with varying stiffness. The study purpose was to report real-world usage of the SMART System in patients with intracranial aneurysms (ICA) and non-aneurysm vascular lesions.Materials and Methods: The SMART Registry is a post-market, prospective, multicenter registry requiring ≥75% Penumbra Coils, including SMART, PC400, and/or POD coils. The primary efficacy endpoint was retreatment rate at 1-year and the primary safety endpoint was the procedural device-related serious adverse event rate.Results: Between June 2016 and August 2018, ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Networks in the Field of Tourette Syndrome
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric neurodevelopmental disorder with the cardinal clinical features of motor and phonic tics. Clinical phenomenology can be complex since, besides tics, there are other features including premonitory urges preceding tics, pali-, echo-, and coprophenomena, hypersensitivity to external stimuli, and symptom dependency on stress, attention, and other less well-defined factors. Also, the rate of comorbidities, particularly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, is high. Mirroring the complexities of the clinical course and phenomenology, ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bipolar Disorder and Parkinson's Disease: A 123I-Ioflupane Dopamine Transporter SPECT Study
Conclusions: Up to 20% of BD patients with parkinsonism might have an underlying dopaminergic deficit, which would not be due to cumulative exposure to offending drugs and is ostensibly higher than expected in the general population. This supports the evidence that BD represents a risk factor for subsequent development of neurodegenerative parkinsonism, the nature of which needs to be elucidated. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Autotitrating Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure in Large Vessel Steno-Occlusive Stroke Patients With Suspected Sleep Apnea: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Study
Conclusions: In this prematurely terminated trial, auto-BPAP was safe but did not show an effect on short-term clinical outcomes in selected ischemic stroke patients. Its tolerability, however, may be limited in hyperacute stroke care and needs to be improved before larger trials are conducted.Clinical Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01812993. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Should Complex Cognitive Functions Be Mapped With Direct Electrostimulation in Wide-Awake Surgery? A Network Perspective
(Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Optimization of Early Mobilization Program for Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Orthogonal Design
Conclusions: Early rehabilitation with high-intensity physical exercise at 24–48 h after the onset of stroke, 2–3 times/day, may benefit stroke patients. Applying the optimized program of early mobilization to stroke patients effectively alleviated their symptoms of neurological deficit, improved their capacity for self-care, restored their self-efficacy, improved their quality of life and social participation, and reduced post-stroke fatigue at 3 months. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 Subunit Is an Essential Regulator of Seizure Susceptibility
A large body of data has confirmed that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a pivotal role in cognition, memory, and other neuropsychiatric diseases, but their effect on seizure susceptibility in C57BL/6 wild-type mice is not fully understood. Here, we showed that decreased activity of α7 nAChRs could increase the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons and shorten the onset time of epilepsy in pilocarpine-induced mouse models. However, compared with the control group, there was no apparent effect of increasing the activity of α7 nAChRs. Moreover, the expression of α7 nAChRs is downregu...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Case Report: Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated With Anti-glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies: A Pediatric Case Series
Conclusion: In addition to limbic encephalitis, extralimbic encephalitis is also an important phenotype in patients who are positive for anti-GAD65 antibodies. Early diagnosis and immunotherapy can improve the symptoms. However, patients with limbic encephalitis often have refractory epilepsy in the chronic phase and have a poor long-term outcome. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Elucidating the Neuropathologic Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
The current pandemic caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a public health emergency. To date, March 1, 2021, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused about 114 million accumulated cases and 2.53 million deaths worldwide. Previous pieces of evidence suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may affect the central nervous system (CNS) and cause neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients. It is also known that angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), the primary receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, is expressed in different brain areas and cell types. Thus, it is hypothesized that infecti...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognitive and Emotional Mapping With SEEG
Mapping of cortical functions is critical for the best clinical care of patients undergoing epilepsy and tumor surgery, but also to better understand human brain function and connectivity. The purpose of this review is to explore existing and potential means of mapping higher cortical functions, including stimulation mapping, passive mapping, and connectivity analyses. We examine the history of mapping, differences between subdural and stereoelectroencephalographic approaches, and some risks and safety aspects, before examining different types of functional mapping. Much of this review explores the prospects for new mappin...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Functional Magnetic Resonance Connectivity in Patients With Temporomadibular Joint Disorders
In conclusion, gnathological therapy consisting of passive aligners and biofeedback exercises improved myofascial pain in all five patients. Most importantly, this study showed that all five patients had a homogeneous functional modification of pain and default mode networks. Using passive splints in combination with jaw exercises may be an effective treatment option for patients with TMD. This research could be a starting point for future investigations and for clinicians who want to approach similar situations. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research