Objective and Subjective Auditory Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury and Blast Exposure in Service Members and Veterans
This study evaluated the influence of these factors on subjective and objective measures of hearing difficulties in SMVs with and without a history of TBI or blast exposure. Analyses included 212 U.S. SMVs who completed auditory and cognitive batteries and surveys of hearing and other symptoms as part of a larger longitudinal study of TBI. Objective speech recognition performance was predicted by TBI status, while subjective hearing complaints were predicted by blast exposure. Bothersome tinnitus was associated with a history of more severe TBI. Speech recognition performance deficits and tinnitus complaints were also asso...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics of Patients With Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Diagnosed Based on the Diagnostic Criteria of the B árány Society
Conclusions: PC-BPPV-ca is the most common among patients with BPPV, followed by HC-BPPV-ca. In emerging and controversial BPPV, MC-BPPV, and Pos-BPPV were more common. For the diagnosis of Pos-BPPV, a combination of the history of typical BPPV, particle repositioning therapy and follow-up outcome is helpful to clarify the diagnosis. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Epilepsy Care in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: Risk Factors for Seizure Worsening
Objective: In early 2020, Italy struggled with an unprecedented health emergency related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical care of chronic neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, is being sorely neglected. In this national survey, we aimed at understanding the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the care of people with epilepsy (PwE) and identifying PwE risk factors for seizure worsening to direct telemedicine efforts.Methods: We administered a 48-items online survey (published on April 11, 2020) including socio-demographic, epilepsy-related, and psychometric variables (BDI-II for depression, GAD-7 for anxiety, and PSQI for sl...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The NMDA Receptor Antibody Paradox: A Possible Approach to Developing Immunotherapies Targeting the NMDA Receptor
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) play a key role in brain development and function, including contributing to the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. Immunization against the GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR and the production of GluN1 antibodies is associated with neuroprotective and seizure-protective effects in rodent models of stroke and epilepsy, respectively. Whilst these data suggest the potential for the development of GluN1 antibody therapy, paradoxically GluN1 autoantibodies in humans are associated with the pathogenesis of the autoimmune disease anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. This review discusses pos...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pediatric Patient With a Giant Vertebrobasilar Dissecting Aneurysm Successfully Treated With Three Pipeline Embolization Devices
We report a case of a pediatric patient with a giant vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysm successfully treated with three PEDs combined with right vertebral artery occlusion, without complications. The patient's headache symptoms resolved fully 3 months after the procedure, and the aneurysm was completely healed and excellent reconstruction of the left vertebral artery was seen 4 months post-procedure, using digital subtraction angiography. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical and Genetic Diversity of PMP22 Mutations in a Large Cohort of Chinese Patients With Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited neuropathies. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical and genetic diversity of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) in Chinese patients with CMT disease and evaluate their correlations with the clinical manifestations. Using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique and Sanger sequencing of PMP22 in a cohort of 465 Chinese families between 2007 and 2019, we identified 137 pedigrees with PMP22 duplications (29.5%), 26 pedigrees with PMP22 deletions (5.6%), and 10 pedigrees with point m...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SeXX Matters in Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). An interesting feature that this debilitating disease shares with many other inflammatory disorders is that susceptibility is higher in females than in males, with the risk of MS being three times higher in women compared to men. Nonetheless, while men have a decreased risk of developing MS, many studies suggest that males have a worse clinical outcome. MS exhibits an apparent sexual dimorphism in both the immune response and the pathophysiology of the CNS damage, ultimately affecting disease s...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HTRA1-Related Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Review of the Literature
Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is clinically characterized by early-onset dementia, stroke, spondylosis deformans, and alopecia. In CARASIL cases, brain magnetic resonance imaging reveals severe white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunar infarctions, and microbleeds. CARASIL is caused by a homozygous mutation in high-temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1). Recently, it was reported that several heterozygous mutations in HTRA1 also cause cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Although patients with heterozygous HTRA1-related CSVD (symptom...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Levetiracetam vs. Fosphenytoin for Second-Line Treatment of Status Epilepticus: Propensity Score Matching Analysis Using a Nationwide Inpatient Database
Conclusion: Levetiracetam was related to significantly reduced vasopressor use on the day of admission than that found for fosphenytoin, in adult status epilepticus. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Valproate Use Is Associated With Posterior Cortical Thinning and Ventricular Enlargement in Epilepsy Patients
Valproate is a drug widely used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and occasionally to prevent migraine headache. Despite its clinical efficacy, prenatal exposure to valproate is associated with neurodevelopmental impairments and its use in children and adults was associated with rare cases of reversible brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement. To determine whether valproate use is related with structural brain changes we examined through a cross-sectional study cortical and subcortical structures in a group of 152 people with epilepsy and a normal clinical brain MRI. Patients were grouped into those currently using va...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Need to Look for Visual Deficit After Stroke in Children
Conclusion: The variable etiology and presentation of pediatric stroke may mask specific visual signs. Children with arterial stroke should be referred for early ophthalmological evaluation and visual rehabilitation. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Modeling of Electric Fields in Individual Imaging Atlas for Capsular Threshold Prediction of Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study
Background: Modeling of deep brain stimulation electric fields and anatomy-based software might improve post-operative management of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have benefitted from subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS).Objective: We compared clinical and software-guided determination of the thresholds for current diffusion to the pyramidal tract, the most frequent limiting side effect in post-operative management of STN-DBS PD patients.Methods: We assessed monopolar reviews in 16 consecutive STN-DBS PD patients and retrospectively compared clinical capsular thresholds, which had been assessed...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial: Functional Testing of Vestibular Function
(Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Comparison of FES and SCS for Neuroplastic Recovery After SCI: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions
There is increasing evidence that neuroplastic changes can occur even years after spinal cord injury, leading to reduced disability and better health which should reduce the cost of healthcare. In motor-incomplete spinal cord injury, recovery of leg function may occur if repetitive training causes afferent input to the lumbar spinal cord. The afferent input may be due to activity-based therapy without electrical stimulation but we present evidence that it is faster with electrical stimulation. This may be spinal cord stimulation or peripheral nerve stimulation. Recovery is faster if the stimulation is phasic and that the p...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spinal Intrathecal Actinomycosis Causes Multisegmental Root Failure: A Case Report
We reported a case of intrathecal actinomycosis in a 46-year-old woman. Our patient presented with multisegmental root failure, which was different from previous intrathecal cases mainly involving the spinal cord. The manifestations, cervical MR imaging results, biopsy and histopathological features, and treatment history of the patient were reviewed. Clinical features of this disease resemble intraspinal neoplasms, other infectious processes, and granulomatous diseases, thus being difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Histopathological evidence from the biopsy is important for timely diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatme...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reanalysis of Genomic Sequencing Results in a Clinical Laboratory: Advantages and Limitations
Genetic diagnosis of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders is imperative and a standard clinical practice. Considering the continuous accumulation of data on disease-causing variants, reanalysis of previously established sequencing data is important. Periodic reanalysis of variants with uncertain significance has become mandatory in clinical laboratories. Therefore, to confirm the utility of the reanalysis of targeted gene panel data in clinical laboratories, we re-evaluated the data of two groups of patients who had undergone targeted gene panel testing for neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 116) and epileptic encepha...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increased Dynamic Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation in Primary Insomnia
The physiological mechanism underlying primary insomnia (PI) is poorly understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has emerged as a powerful tool to explore PI. However, previous studies ignore the dynamics of the brain activity. In the current study, we aimed to explore altered dynamic intrinsic brain activity in PI. Fifty-nine patients with PI and 47 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and underwent resting-state fMRI. The variance of dynamic amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (dALFF) maps across time was calculated to measure the temporal variability of intrinsic brain activity a...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exergaming With Integrated Head Turn Tasks Improves Compensatory Saccade Pattern in Some Patients With Chronic Peripheral Unilateral Vestibular Hypofunction
This study aimed to determine whether vestibular rehabilitation using active video games (Exergames), including promoted head turns and unsupported locomotion, may facilitate vestibular compensation and gait in subjects with one-sided chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction (cPVH).Methods: 12 patients with cPVH (mean age of 65 ± 12 years, 8 male) were recruited for this study. The study consisted of a four-week baseline control period T1-T2 followed by a four-week intervention period T2-T3. The intervention included exergames that required physical tasks such as steps, weight shifts or balance control to cognitiv...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Therapeutic Effect of Acupuncture on Migraine
Background: Migraine is an intractable headache disorder, manifesting as periodic attacks. It is highly burdensome for patients and society. Acupuncture treatment can be beneficial as a supplementary and preventive therapy for migraine.Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for migraine, and to examine transcranial doppler changes after acupuncture.Methods: Reports, conference, and academic papers published before March 15, 2019 in databases including PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG Database, Chinese...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Transient Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: Activation of Prefrontal and Deactivation of Cerebellar Networks Correlate With Neuropsychological Assessment
Conclusion: Increased visuospatial memory, altered metabolism in the prefrontal cortex, visual cognition cortices, and the vestibulocerebellum, and decreased functional connectivity between these two functional areas might indicate reductions in the integration of vestibular input and enhancement of visuospatial attention in subjects with t-MdDS. Current functional neuroimaging similarities from transient MdDS via chronic MdDS to functional dizziness and anxiety disorders suggest a shared mechanism of enhanced self-awareness as a kind of continuum or as overlap disorders. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

On the Origins of Diffusion MRI Signal Changes in Stroke
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a leading diagnostic technique especially for neurological studies. However, the physical origin of the hyperintense signal seen in MR images of stroke immediately after ischemic onset in the brain has been a matter of debate since it was first demonstrated in 1990. In this article, we hypothesize and provide evidence that changes in the glial cells, comprising roughly one-half of the brain's cells and therefore a significant share of its volume, accompanying ischemia, are the root cause of the MRI signal change. Indeed, a primary function of the glial cells is osmoregulation in order to...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Novel Treatments in Myasthenia Gravis
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the prototypical autoimmune disorder caused by specific autoantibodies at the neuromuscular junction. Broad-based immunotherapies, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, mycophenolate, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine, have been effective in controlling symptoms of myasthenia. While being effective in a majority of MG patients many of these immunosuppressive agents are associated with long-term side effects, often intolerable for patients, and take several months to be effective. With advances in translational research and drug development capabilities, more directed therapeutic agents that can alter ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Recurrent Fulminant Tumefactive Demyelination With Marburg-Like Features and Atypical Presentation: Therapeutic Dilemmas and Review of Literature
We present a very rare case of recurrent tumefactive demyelinating lesions, with atypical tumor-like characteristics, with initial response to corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, but subsequent development of drug-resistance and unexpected exacerbation upon rituximab administration. Our clinical case raises therapeutic dilemmas and points to the need for immediate and appropriate immunosuppression in difficult to treat tumefactive CNS lesions with Marburg-like features. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Understanding Cluster Headache Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cluster headache is an excruciating pain syndrome characterized by unilateral head pain attacks, lasting between 15 and 180 min, accompanied by marked ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms, such as lacrimation and conjunctival injection. Despite important insights provided by neuroimaging studies and deep brain stimulation findings, the pathophysiology of cluster headache and its pathways of chronicization are still elusive. In this mini-review, we will provide an overview of the functional and structural neuroimaging studies in episodic and chronic cluster headache conditions conducted to clarify the underlying pathophys...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retinal Vascular Pathology in a Rat Model of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease
Introduction: The initial disease stages of hypertensive arteriopathy (HA) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), the two main forms of sporadic human cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD), are too subtle to be detectable on clinical routine imaging. Small vessel disease (SVD) is a systemic condition, affecting not only the brain, but also other organs. The retina appears as an ideal marker for the early detection of incipient CSVD. We therefore investigated the retinal microvasculature of the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP), an animal model of sporadic CSVD.Materials and Methods: The brains and retinas...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A SCANO Nomogram for Individualized Prediction of the Probability of 1-Year Unfavorable Outcomes in Chinese Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients
Conclusions: The SCANO nomogram is developed and validated in Chinese AIS patients to firstly predict 1-year unfavorable outcomes, which is simple and convenient for the management of stroke patients. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Approach to Disentangle the Effect of Cerebellar Damage on Physical Disability in Multiple Sclerosis
Cerebellar damage occurs frequently in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, with a wide exhibition of symptoms particularly as impairments of balance and gait. Recent studies implementing new postprocessing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques showed how cerebellar subregional atrophy provides an explanation of disability in MS. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between quantitative measures of physical disability, cerebellar subregional atrophy, and cerebellar peduncle disruption. Forty-nine MS patients and 32 healthy subjects as controls (HS) underwent a 3-Tesla MRI including 3D T1-weighted and di...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association Between Glucocerebrosidase Mutations and Parkinson's Disease in Ireland
Multiple studies implicate heterozygous GBA mutations as a major genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the frequency of mutations has never been examined in PD patients from the Irish population. We prospectively recruited 314 unrelated Irish PD patients (UK Brain Bank Criteria) and 96 Irish healthy controls (without any signs or family history of parkinsonism) attending. The Dublin Neurological Institute (DNI). Complete exon GBA Sanger sequencing analysis with flanking intronic regions was performed. The GBA carrier frequency was 8.3% in PD and 3.1% in controls. We identified a number of potentially p...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Structural and Microvascular Changes in the Macular Are Associated With Severity of White Matter Lesions
Conclusions: Microvascular impairment and neuro-axonal damage are associated with the disease cascade in WMH. We have shown that RPC and DCP densities are significantly affected, and these impairments are associated with the severity of the disease and cognitive function. OCT-A could be a useful tool in quantifying the retinal capillary densities in WMH. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Accelerating Telemedicine for Cerebral Palsy During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond
The effects of COVID-19 extend beyond the pandemic and are expected to transform healthcare in various ways, many of which remain unknown. With social distancing, telemedicine may become the preferred communication channel between caregivers and patients. Implications for cerebral palsy (CP) children are that this will pose a challenge within this transformation. CP, as a discreet entity, is not considered a risk factor. However, specific comorbidities in individuals with CP, such as chronic lung disease, are known as COVID-19 risk factors. The overall risk for the CP population is probably a factor of age and comorbiditie...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Decision Making on Telemedicine for Patients With Epilepsy During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Crisis
(Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurological and Musculoskeletal Features of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion and Relevance: Patients with COVID-19 present with neurological and musculoskeletal symptoms. Therefore, clinicians need to be vigilant in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prognostic Nutritional Index for Predicting 3-Month Outcomes in Ischemic Stroke Patients Undergoing Thrombolysis
Objective: Malnutrition has been reported to be related to adverse prognosis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Unfortunately, traditional nutritional assessment tools usually increase the workload of neurologists, which makes them unfeasible in the daily clinic work. We aimed to elucidate the association between the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), an easily obtainable baseline nutritional marker, and 3-month outcomes in AIS patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis (IVT).Research methods and procedures: The present study retrospectively included 405 patients. PNI was calculated as 5*lymphocyte count (109 /L) +...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of Higher Serum Lipid Levels on the Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Our paper supports the protective effect of higher serum LDL-C on the subsequent risk of PD. More prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm the conclusion, and further fundamental researches are needed to elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genotype-Phenotype Correlations and Characterization of Medication Use in Inherited Myotonic Disorders
In this study, clinical features and treatment patterns in genetically characterized myotonic disorders were compared.Methods: A retrospective chart review was completed in patients with genetic variants in CLCN1, SCN4A, DMPK, and CNBP to document clinical signs and symptoms, clinical testing, and antimyotonia medication use.Results: A total of 142 patients (27 CLCN1, 15 SCN4A, 89 DMPK, and 11 CNBP) were reviewed. The frequency of reported symptoms (stiffness, weakness, and pain) and electromyographic spontaneous activity were remarkably similar across genotypes. Most patients were not treated with antimyotonia agents, but...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reperfusion Into Severely Damaged Brain Tissue Is Associated With Occurrence of Parenchymal Hemorrhage for Acute Ischemic Stroke
This study aims to quantify the reperfusion status within severely damaged brain tissue and to evaluate its relationship with high grade of hemorrhagic transformation (HT).Methods: Pseudo-continuous ASL was performed along with DWI in 102 patients within 24 h post-treatments. The infarction core was identified using ADC values
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Factors for Enhancement of Intracranial Atherosclerosis in High Resolution Vessel Wall MRI in Ischemic Stroke Patients
Introduction: High resolution vessel wall MRI (VW-MRI) has enabled to characterize intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS). We studied to identify the factors for enhancement of ICAS in VW-MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke.Methods: Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or TIA who underwent VW-MRI between January 2017 and December 2017 were included. Enhancement on VW-MRI was defined as an increase in intensity on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequence. We compared the clinical and the radiologic findings between patients with wall enhancement and those without wall enhancement.Results: Of the 48 patients wit...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Design and Operation of the Lombardy Parkinson's Disease Network
Conclusions: The implementation of disease-centered networks for chronic neurological diseases provides an innovative opportunity to improve patient management, facilitate research and education. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genetic Analysis of RAB39B in an Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease Cohort
This study aimed to investigate the contribution of the genetic variation in RAB39B to the development of early-onset PD. We performed gene dosage studies and sequence analysis in a cohort of 176 individuals with early-onset PD (age of onset ≤ 50 years) of unknown genetic etiology. An assessment of the copy number variation over both coding exons and the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of RAB39B did not identify any alterations in gene dosage. An analysis of the UTRs identified two male individuals carrying single, likely benign, nucleotide variants in the 3′UTR (chrX:154489749-A-G and chrX:154489197-T-G). Furt...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Non-fluent/Agrammatic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia With Generalized Auditory Agnosia
We describe the case of an 80-year-old right-handed woman who exhibited nfvPPA. Atypically, our patient also presented with generalized auditory agnosia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed left-sided predominant atrophy of the bilateral perisylvian area, including the inferior frontal and superior temporal lobes. In a series of auditory tasks assessing generalized auditory agnosia, our patient was unable to accurately identify verbal sounds, environmental sounds, or familiar Japanese songs that she could sing. In the context of recent studies, our study indicates the existence of a clinical syndrome characterized by...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder and Its Prevalence and Incidence Worldwide
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an uncommon inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, manifesting clinically as optic neuritis, myelitis, and certain brain and brainstem syndromes. Cases clinically diagnosed as NMOSD may include aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-antibody-seropositive autoimmune astrocytopathic disease, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody-seropositive inflammatory demyelinating disease, and double-seronegative disease. AQP4-antibody disease has a high female-to-male ratio (up to 9:1), and its mean age at onset of ~40 years is later than that seen in multiple sclerosis. For MOG-an...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

microRNA-146a Signaling in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Prion Disease (PrD)
The mouse- and human-brain-resident, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-regulated, micro RNA-146a-5p (miRNA-146a-5p) is an inducible, 22-nucleotide, single-stranded non-coding RNA (sncRNA) easily detected in several brain and immunological cell types, and an important epigenetic modulator of inflammatory signaling and the innate-immune response in several neurological disorders. Among all studied microRNAs, miRNA-146a-5p (typically referred to as just miRNA-146a) has been well characterized and its pathological function in progressive, age-related, and lethal human inflammatory neurodegenerative disease states is well do...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pragmatic Solutions for Stroke Recovery and Improved Quality of Life in Low- and Middle-Income Countries —A Systematic Review
Conclusion: Several pragmatic, in terms of affordability, accessibility and utility, stroke rehabilitation solutions, and outcome measures that can be used in resource-limited settings were found to be effective in facilitating and enhancing post-stroke recovery and quality of life. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota in Acute Ischemic Stroke: From Pathophysiology to Therapeutic Implications
The microbiota–gut–brain axis is considered a central regulator of the immune system after acute ischemic stroke (AIS), with a potential role in determining outcome. Several pathways are involved in the evolution of gut microbiota dysbiosis after AIS. Brain–gut and gut–brain signaling pathways involve bidirectional communication between the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the immune cells of the gut. Alterations in gut microbiome can be a risk factor and may also lead to AIS. Both risk factors for AIS and gut-microbiome c...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Perampanel Confirms to Be Effective and Well-Tolerated as an Add-On Treatment in Patients With Brain Tumor-Related Epilepsy (PERADET Study)
Conclusions: Our study indicate that PER may be efficacious against BTRE as suggested by its mechanism of action and our current knowledge on mechanisms of brain tumor epileptogenicity.Trial Registration Number (TRN): (Prot. n° 0008872.25-06-2019); RS 919/17. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diffusion-Weighted Imaging, MR Angiography, and Baseline Data in a Systematic Multicenter Analysis of 3,301 MRI Scans of Ischemic Stroke Patients —Neuroradiological Review Within the MRI-GENIE Study
Conclusions: This large-scale analysis of a multicenter MRI-based cohort of AIS patients presents a unique imaging framework facilitating the relationship between imaging and genetics for advancing the knowledge of genetic traits linked to ischemic stroke. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke: Direct Cause, Risk Factor, or Incidental Finding?
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with cryptogenic stroke. There is conflicting data and it remains uncertain whether PFO is the direct cause, a risk factor or an incidental finding. Potential stroke mechanisms include paradoxical embolism from a venous clot which traverses the PFO, in situ clot formation within the PFO, and atrial arrhythmias due to electrical signaling disruption. Main risk factors linked with PFO-attributable strokes are young age, PFO size, right-to-left shunt degree, PFO morphology, presence of atrial septal aneurysm, intrinsic coagulation-anticoagulation systems imbalance, and co-existen...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Incremental Value of CSF Biomarkers in Clinically Diagnosed AD and Non-AD Dementia
Conclusion: This study confirms that the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was more useful than the Aβ40 concentration in discriminating AD from non-AD populations in daily practice. These results indicate that the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio should be assessed in all cases, independently of Aβ42 concentrations. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hemorrhagic Transformation in Ischemic Moyamoya Disease: Clinical Characteristics, Radiological Features, and Outcomes
This study aims to reveal factors associated with HT in patients with ischemic onset manifestation and to assess the outcome of these patients.Methods: A total of 683 surgically managed patients with onset ischemic manifestation were included. The clinical variables of the HT and non-HT groups were compared, and risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Recurrent stroke events (including hemorrhagic and ischemic) during the follow-up were documented. The cumulative incidence rate of stroke events was generated via Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Outcomes were compared between HT and non-HT groups...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distinct Functional Connectivity Signatures of Impaired Social Cognition in Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusions: Our analyses identify distinct functional connectivity signatures of social cognition deficits in MS, indicating that these alterations may occur independently from those in other neuropsychological functions. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research