Subclinical Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis and Cognitive Function: A Mini-Review
Carotid artery atherosclerosis, the result of a multitude of vascular risk factors, is a promising marker for use in risk stratification. Recent evidence suggests that carotid artery atherosclerosis affects cognitive function and is an independent risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment. Both atherosclerosis and cognitive impairment develop over a prolonged period (years), and due to the aging population, markers to identify persons at risk are needed. Carotid artery atherosclerosis can easily be visualized using non-invasive ultrasound, potentially enabling early and intensified risk factor management to p...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mobile Attention Bias Modification Training Is a Digital Health Solution for Managing Distress in Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study in Pediatric Onset
Conclusion: Mobile ABMT with the Personal Zen app is a feasible and accessible digital emotional health tool for patients with POMS and may have broader application for managing distress across chronic neurological conditions. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prognostic Value of Abnormal Liver Function Tests After Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke
Objective: To determine the clinical significance of post-procedural abnormal liver function test (ALFT) on the functional outcomes at 90 days in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT).Methods: In this retrospective observational study, patients with AIS undergoing MT were enrolled from the Nanjing Stroke Registry Program and the multicenter Captor trial. A favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score 0–2 at 90 days. Predictive models were established by multivariable logistic regression. Improved predictive value of models was assessed by continuous net reclassificati...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Coffee and Tea Consumption Impact on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Progression: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusions: Our study does not support the hypothesis that coffee or tea consumption is associated with the ALS progression rate. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Advanced Care Planning in Parkinson's Disease: In-depth Interviews With Patients on Experiences and Needs
Conclusion: Our results suggest that PD patients are in need of discussing ACP with their healthcare provider (HCP), even in the early stages of the disease. In addition, PD patients perceive a lack of information on their disease course and miss guidance on available supportive care. We recommend HCPs to inquire the information requirements and preferences of patients regarding ACP regularly, starting soon after diagnosis. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Detecting Residual Awareness in Patients With Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness: An fNIRS Study
This study confirmed the feasibility of using portable fNIRS technology to detect residual cognitive ability in patients with prolonged DOC by active command-driven motor imagery. We hope to detect the exact level of consciousness in DOC patients who may have a higher level of consciousness. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Systematic Review Estimating the Burden of Dementia in the Latin America and Caribbean Region: A Bayesian Approach
Conclusion: We project an upward disease trajectory for dementia in LAC countries. The projection is likely an underestimation of the true dementia burden given the underrepresentation of rural and socio-economically deprived populations. More research is urgently needed to improve the accuracy of disease estimates, guide clinicians to improve evaluations for earlier recognition of dementia, and support the development of effective policies for improving dementia prevention, diagnosis and clinical management in LAC's diverse and aging communities. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Significant Increase of Erectile Dysfunction in Men With Post-stroke: A Comprehensive Review
This study was registered on PROSPERO (ID No. CRD42021226618). Twenty studies with a total of 3,382 stroke events were included, of which six studies were included for quantitative analysis, and the remaining 14 studies were calculated for the ratio of ED. Synthetic results from four eligible studies providing the ED cases showed that stroke patients were associated with a significantly higher risk of ED than the general population [pooled relative risk (RR) = 3.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25–8.82, P = 0.016]. Men with stroke were also found to be associated with a significant decline in International Index o...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lateralization of Motor Signs Affects Symptom Progression in Parkinson Disease
Conclusion: Left side lateralization was associated with faster symptom progression and worse outcomes in multiple clinical domains in our cohort. Clinicians should consider using motor predominance in their counseling regarding prognosis. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical Utility of the 6-Item CTS, Boston-CTS, and Hand-Diagram for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Conclusion: Our findings support the clinical utility of the CTS-6 and BCTQ for symptom severity assessment and of the hand-diagram for diagnostic screening. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Habitual Physical Activity and Sleep Duration in Institutionalized Older Adults
Background: Physical activity and sleep quality are both major factors for improving one's health. Knowledge on the interactions of sleep quality and the amount of physical activity may be helpful for implementing multimodal health interventions in older adults.Methods: This preliminary cross-sectional study is based on 64 participants [82.1 ± 6.4 years (MD ± SD); 22 male: 42 female]. The amount of physical activity was assessed by means of an accelerometer (MyWellness Key). Self-reported sleep parameters were obtained using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Barthel Index was used for physical disabilit...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

vHIT Testing of Vertical Semicircular Canals With Goggles Yield Different Results Depending on Which Canal Plane Being Tested
Objective: The use of goggles to assess vertical semicircular canal function has become a standard method in vestibular testing, both in clinic and in research, but there are different methods and apparatus in use. The aim of this study was to determine what the cause of the systematic differences is between gain values in testing of the vertical semicircular canals with two different video head impulse test (vHIT) equipment in subjects with normal vestibular function.Study Design: Retrospective analysis of gain values on patients with clinically deemed normal vestibular function (absence of a corrective eye saccade), test...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early Predictors of the Increase in Perihematomal Edema Volume After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Analysis From the Risa-MIS-ICH Study
Background and Purpose: Perihematomal edema (PHE) is associated with poor functional outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Early identification of risk factors associated with PHE growth may allow for targeted therapeutic interventions.Methods: We used data contained in the risk stratification and minimally invasive surgery in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (Risa-MIS-ICH) patients: a prospective multicenter cohort study. Patients' clinical, laboratory, and radiological data within 24 h of admission were obtained from their medical records. The absolute increase in PHE volume from baseline to day 3 was defined as i...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Drug-Coated Balloons for the Treatment of Symptomatic Intracranial High-Grade Stenosis: A Review of the Current Rationale
Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (sICAD) remains a challenging disorder in the neurovascular field. Despite best medical treatment, the recurrence rate for stroke remains high in patients with intracranial high-grade stenosis (>70–99%). Furthermore, two large randomized trials (SAMMPRIS and VISSIT) failed to prove the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting in patients with sICAD. Drug-coated balloon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (DCB-PTA) represents an alternative treatment modality with therapeutic benefits for interventional cardiology. However, there are very few ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cardiac Involvement in Women With Pathogenic Dystrophin Gene Variants
Conclusion: This study shows that cardiac involvement, affecting both structure and function of the heart, is found in over 2/3 of women with a pathogenic DMD variant. The study supports early cardiac screening, including ECG, Holter, and cardiac imaging, in this group of carriers, so that symptoms related to pathogenic variants in DMD can be recognized, and relevant treatment can be initiated. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess morbidity and mortality related to single, pathogenic DMD variants in women. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Suicidal Ideations and Behavior in Patients With Young and Late Onset Dementia
Conclusions: According to caregivers' reports, majority of patients with dementia did not express suicidal ideation or show suicidal behavior. Patients who expressed suicidal ideation during early stages of dementia often stopped expressing them in advanced stages. It remains unclear if this was due to reduced communication abilities, a reduction of disease awareness, and/ or an adjustment to their situation. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Development and Clinical Translation of a Perioperative Nomogram Incorporating Free Fatty Acids to Predict Poor Outcome of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Following Endovascular Treatment
In this study, we aim to establish a perioperative nomogram involving serum lipid signatures for predicting poor outcomes at 3 months in patients with aSAH following endovascular therapy.Methods: Data of patients with aSAH receiving endovascular therapy were collected. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to screen independent predictors related to unfavorable outcomes defined by the modified Rankin Scale (mFS) ≥3. A novel nomogram based on these significant features was conducted. The clinical application of this nomogram was assessed by decision curve analysis (DCA) and clinical impact curve.Results: ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

MicroRNA 223 Targeting ATG16L1 Affects Microglial Autophagy in the Kainic Acid Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
This study aimed to explore whether microRNA (miR) 223 affects microglial autophagy by targeting autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) in the kainic acid (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The miRNA and mRNA expression levels were quantified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the protein expression was investigated using western blotting. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to test the direct interaction between miR 223 and ATG16L1. In situ hybridization was performed to measure the hippocampal expression of miR 223. We used immunofluorescence staining to assess the express...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tremor Syndromes: An Updated Review
Tremor is the most commonly encountered movement disorder in clinical practice. A wide range of pathologies may manifest with tremor either as a presenting or predominant symptom. Considering the marked etiological and phenomenological heterogeneity, it would be desirable to develop a classification of tremors that reflects their underlying pathophysiology. The tremor task force of the International Parkinson Disease and Movement Disorders Society has worked toward this goal and proposed a new classification system. This system has remained a prime topic of scientific communications on tremor in recent times. The new class...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

From Three-Months to Five-Years: Sustaining Long-Term Benefits of Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke
Conclusions: In the longtime horizon from 3 months to 5 years, several factors in the medical and societal spheres could negate EVT benefits. However, many factors can be leveraged to preserve or magnify treatment benefits, with opportunities to share responsibility with widening circles of care around the patient. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Oculomotor Deficits and Symptom Severity Are Associated With Poorer Dynamic Mobility in Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Oculomotor deficits, vestibular impairments, and persistent symptoms are common after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI); however, the relationship between visual-vestibular deficits, symptom severity, and dynamic mobility tasks is unclear. Twenty-three individuals (mean age 55.7 ± 9.3 years) with persistent symptoms after mTBI, who were between 3 months to 2 years post-injury were compared with 23 age and sex-matched controls. Oculomotor deficits [depth perception, near-point convergence, baseline visual acuity (BLVA), perception time], vestibular deficits (dynamic visual acuity in the pitch and yaw planes), dyna...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

RNF213 and GUCY1A3 in Moyamoya Disease: Key Regulators of Metabolism, Inflammation, and Vascular Stability
Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic chronically progressive cerebrovascular disease, which causes both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Genetic studies identified RNF213/Mysterin and GUCY1A3 as disease-causing genes. They were also known to be associated with non-moyamoya intracranial large artery disease, coronary artery disease and pulmonary artery hypertension. This review focused on these two molecules and their strong linker, calcineurin/NFAT signaling and caveolin to understand the pathophysiology of moyamoya disease and related vascular diseases. They are important regulators of lipid metabolism especially lipotoxicit...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Time Course of Peripheral Leukocytosis and Clinical Outcomes After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Conclusions: Monocytosis was associated with DCI and poor functional outcomes after SAH. The association between neutrophils and NLR and infection may impact outcomes. Early elevation in monocytes had an improved ability to predict DCI and poor functional outcomes in males, which was independent of the occurrence of infection. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders Subsidence Through Citalopram Addition in Anti-retroviral Therapy (HANDS-CARE): A Concept Note
This article reviews data supporting the rationale for additive citalopram in antiretroviral therapy as a latent approach to abate HAND. It proposes the conduct of a HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders Subsidence through Citalopram addition in Anti-Retroviral therapy (HANDS-CARE) pilot feasibility trial (RCT) to assess whether the adjunctive use of citalopram, a widely prescribed serotonergic antidepressant, will lead to a meaningful improvement in neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in patients with HAND who are receiving HAART. A preliminarily feasible and efficacy-suggesting HANDS-CARE trial could generat...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Contribution of Decreased Muscle Size to Muscle Weakness in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy
Muscle weakness is a common clinical symptom in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). It is caused by impaired neural ability and altered intrinsic capacity of the muscles. To define the contribution of decreased muscle size to muscle weakness, two cohorts were recruited in this cross-sectional investigation: 53 children with SCP [median age, 8.2 (IQR, 4.1) years, 19/34 uni/bilateral] and 31 children with a typical development (TD) [median age, 9.7 (IQR, 2.9) years]. Muscle volume (MV) and muscle belly length for m. rectus femoris, semitendinosus, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior were defined from three-...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gait Speed Trajectory During the Six-Minute Walk Test in Multiple Sclerosis: A Measure of Walking Endurance
Conclusions: The distinctive 6MWGST pattern of MS patients provided increased discernibility compared with currently used gait metrics. Both gait capacity measured by the 6MWTD, and gait endurance measured by parameters of 6MWGST, are significant functional indicators for the MS population. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dementia Prevalence, Comorbidities, and Lifestyle Among Jatinangor Elders
Conclusions: The prevalence of dementia in Jatinangor is high. The identified modifiable risk factors are a potential target for intervention and valuable for designing public health policies. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

An Experimental Model of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder –Optic Neuritis: Insights Into Disease Mechanisms
Conclusion: We describe induction of ON in an animal model for NMOSD and show a requirement for type I IFN signaling in the disease process. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of an Enhanced Training on Primary Care Providers Knowledge, Attitudes, Service and Skills of Dementia Detection: A Cluster Randomized Trial
This study aimed to investigate the effect of an enhanced training on the competency and service of PCPs for dementia detection.Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial in Beijing, China. Community healthcare centers (CHCs) located in Fengtai or Fangshan District were eligible. The enrolled CHCs in each district were randomly assigned to the standard or the enhanced training group at a 1:1 ratio. PCPs serving older adults in enrolled CHCs were eligible to participate. The standard training group received three-hour didactic lectures, three monthly supervisions, 3 months of online support and dementia screening pack...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Revascularization in Different Suzuki Stages of Ischemic Moyamoya Disease by Whole-Brain CT Perfusion
This study compared the clinical features and hemodynamic characteristics of patients in different Suzuki stages of ischemic moyamoya disease (iMMD) before and after treatment with extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery combined with encephalo-duro-myo-synangiosis and whole-brain computed tomography perfusion (WB-CTP).Methods: A total of 126 patients in different Suzuki stages (II, III, IV, and V) of iMMD who underwent bypass surgery from April 2013 to August 2020 were included in this retrospective study. MIStar automatic analysis of Whole brain CT perfusion imaging software (WB-CTP, Apollo Medical Imaging Techn...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral Autoregulation in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating stroke subtype with a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The poor clinical outcome can be attributed to the biphasic course of the disease: even if the patient survives the initial bleeding emergency, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) frequently follows within 2 weeks time and levies additional serious brain injury. Current therapeutic interventions do not specifically target the microvascular dysfunction underlying the ischemic event and as a consequence, provide only modest improvement in clinical outcome. SAH perturbs an extensive number of microvascular processes, includi...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Parent and Teacher-Reported Child Outcomes Seven Years After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Nested Case Control Study
Conclusions: As a group, children with a history of mild TBI may be at elevated risk for clinically significant everyday EF difficulties in the medium-term compared to non-TBI controls, as judged by their parents. Further multi-informant longitudinal research is required, following larger samples. Aspects requiring particular attention include pre-injury characteristics, such as sleep disturbances and comorbidities (e.g., headaches), that may act as potential confounders influencing the association between mild TBI and child behavioral problems. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sensorimotor Integration in Childhood Dystonia and Dystonic Cerebral Palsy —A Developmental Perspective
Dystonia is a disorder of sensorimotor integration, involving dysfunction within the basal ganglia, cortex, cerebellum, or their inter-connections as part of the sensorimotor network. Some forms of dystonia are also characterized by maladaptive or exaggerated plasticity. Development of the neuronal processes underlying sensorimotor integration is incompletely understood but involves activity-dependent modeling and refining of sensorimotor circuits through processes that are already taking place in utero and which continue through infancy, childhood, and into adolescence. Several genetic dystonias have clinical onset in ear...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cortical Activity During an Attack of M énière's Disease—A Case Report
Conclusion: This is the first neuroimaging showing alteration of brain activity during an attack in a patient with MD. No strong focal alterations was seen. It is noteworthy that the decreased activity observed was in the insula and Heschl's gyrus that seems to be core areas for processing information from the labyrinth. It is also of interest that decreased activity rather than hyperactivity was observed. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Susceptibility and COVID-19 Mortality Among Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment: Cross-Sectional Analysis From Hospital Records in a Diverse US Metropolitan Area
Discussion: To mitigate the effects of healthcare catastrophes such as the COVID-19 pandemic, strategies for targeted prevention and risk-stratified comorbidity management are warranted among the vulnerable sub-population living with cognitive impairment. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Neurophysiological Changes Following Voluntary Exercise in Adolescent Rats
Background: Adolescence is a period of time characterized by the onset of puberty and is marked by cognitive and social developments and gross physical changes that can play a role in athletic performance. Sex differences are present with differences in body size, height, physiology and behavior which contribute to differences in athletic performance as well. Pre-clinical studies representing this active group are lacking.Methods: Acute and chronic effects of exercise were evaluated. Male and female adolescent rats were given voluntary access to a running wheel for 10 consecutive days. Running behavior (males and females) ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diffusion- and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging Mismatch Correlates With Collateral Circulation and Prognosis After Middle Cerebral Artery M1-Segment Occlusion
Objective: To explore the relation between diffusion-weighted and susceptibility weighted imaging (DWI-SWI) mismatch and collateral circulation or prognosis in patients with occluded M1 segments of middle cerebral artery (MCA).Methods: We enrolled 59 patients with MCA M1-segment occlusion for a retrospective review of baseline clinical and imaging data. As markers of circulatory collaterals, prominent laterality of posterior (PLPCA) and anterior (PLACA) cerebral arteries on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies and a hyperintense vessel sign (HVS) on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were collect...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effectiveness, Healthcare Resource Utilization and Adherence to Subcutaneous Interferon Beta-1a According to Age in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Cohort Study Using a US Claims Database
Conclusion: The effectiveness of sc IFN β-1a does not appear reduced as a consequence of age in this real-world setting. Older patients had lower discontinuation rates and reduced disease activity, reflected in lower relapse rates and fewer MRI scans compared with younger patients. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Air Pollution: A Neglected Risk Factor for Dementia in Latin America and the Caribbean
The risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) rises with increasing age and polluted air. Currently, at least 172 million people breathe unhealthy levels of air pollution in LAC countries. Several cohort studies have indicated that air pollution increases the risk of developing dementia and neurodegenerative diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the association are still not clear. Air pollution causes and aggravates five established risk factors for dementia (obesity, hypertension, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and heart diseases) and is linked to three other risk factors (physical i...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alprazolam Prompts HIV-1 Transcriptional Reactivation and Enhances CTL Response Through RUNX1 Inhibition and STAT5 Activation
The HIV-1 pandemic is a significant challenge to the field of medicine. Despite advancements in antiretroviral (ART) development, 38 million people worldwide still live with this disease without a cure. A significant barrier to the eradication of HIV-1 lies in the persistently latent pool that establishes early in the infection. The “shock and kill” strategy relies on the discovery of a latency-reversing agent (LRA) that can robustly reactivate the latent pool and not limit immune clearance. We have found that a benzodiazepine (BDZ), that is commonly prescribed for panic and anxiety disorder, to be an ideal can...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

New Frontiers for Deep Brain Stimulation: Directionality, Sensing Technologies, Remote Programming, Robotic Stereotactic Assistance, Asleep Procedures, and Connectomics
Over the last few years, while expanding its clinical indications from movement disorders to epilepsy and psychiatry, the field of deep brain stimulation (DBS) has seen significant innovations. Hardware developments have introduced directional leads to stimulate specific brain targets and sensing electrodes to determine optimal settings via feedback from local field potentials. In addition, variable-frequency stimulation and asynchronous high-frequency pulse trains have introduced new programming paradigms to efficiently desynchronize pathological neural circuitry and regulate dysfunctional brain networks not responsive to...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Developing a Radiomics Signature for Supratentorial Extra-Ventricular Ependymoma Using Multimodal MR Imaging
Conclusions: This study illustrates the utility of radiomics-based multimodal MRI framework in accurately discriminating similarly appearing adult STEE from HGG subtypes. Radiomic features from multiple MRI modalities could capture intricate and complementary information for a robust and highly accurate multiclass tumor classification. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Muscle Activation Differences in Post-Stroke Upper Limb Flexion Synergy Based on Spinal Cord Segments: A Preliminary Proof-of-Concept Study
Conclusion: After stroke, the activation of the distal muscles of the upper limb decreased significantly regardless of the difference of spinal cord segments; while the activation of the proximal muscles innervated by the same spinal cord segment (C5-C6) dominating the elbow flexion showed higher activation during flexion synergy. The difference in muscle activation based on spinal cord segments may be the reason for the stereotyped joint movement of upper limb flexion synergy. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial: Overlapping Phenotypes and Genetic Heterogeneity of Rare Neurodevelopmental Disorders
(Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bibliometric Analysis Study on the Mechanisms of Brain Energy Metabolism Disorders in Alzheimer's Disease From 2000 to 2020
In this study, 1,379 Web of Science publications on the mechanisms of brain energy metabolism disorders in AD, all published from 2000 to 2020, were analyzed. Some network maps were drawn using CiteSpace and VOSviewer software which can be used to clarify research focus, forecast research frontiers and development trends, and provide different perspectives and characteristics in AD brain energy metabolism disorder mechanisms. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impaired Performance on a Cognitively-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Task, the 10-Item Weekly Calendar Planning Activity, in Individuals With Stroke Undergoing Acute Inpatient Rehabilitation
Performance-based, functionally relevant, and standardized measures of cognitive-instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) can complement neuropsychological tests of cognitive impairment and provide valuable clinical information to inform rehabilitation planning. Existing measures have been validated in the outpatient setting. Here, we sought to evaluate a 10-item, short-form of a C-IADL measure, Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA-10), in inpatients with stroke undergoing acute rehabilitation. The specific goal was to determine if the WCPA-10 could differentiate between stroke patients undergoing acute inpatien...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Validity of the Single-Leg Heel Raise Test in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Study
This study investigated the validity of the single-leg heel raise test in a group of people with MS and a healthy control group (CTL).Materials and Methods: Twenty-one people with MS (49 ± 12 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.5–5.5) and 10 healthy controls (48 ± 12 years) performed the single-leg heel raise test, ankle plantarflexion isometric strength assessment using electromechanical dynamometry, and mobility measures (Timed 25-Foot Walk, 2-Min Walk Test, Functional Stair Test).Results: Convergent validity between the heel raise test and strength was moderate for participants with MS completing
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Eye-Neck Integrated Ultrasound in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis
Background: The clinical presentation of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) overlaps with that of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), but no screening tool exists. We investigated the role of eye-neck integrated ultrasound in the diagnosis and differentiation of IIH and CVST.Methods: Twenty IIH patients, 30 CVST patients, and 40 healthy controls were retrospectively analyzed. The ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and hemodynamic characteristics of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) were recorded. The cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure was measured after ultrasonic examination.Results: The ON...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Case Report: Visual Rehabilitation in Hemianopia Patients. Home-Based Visual Rehabilitation in Patients With Hemianopia Consecutive to Brain Tumor Treatment: Feasibility and Potential Effectiveness
Conclusion: This is the first report of a home-based virtual-reality visual rehabilitation program for adult patients with hemianopia consecutive to a pediatric brain tumor. We show the feasibility in real-world conditions and potential effectiveness of such technology on visual perception and quality of life. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Fisetin Through Suppression of IL-1R/TLR Axis and Apoptosis in Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Kindling in Mice
This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of fisetin on experimental epilepsy. For acute studies, increasing current electroshock (ICES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure tests were performed to evaluate the antiseizure activity of fisetin. For the chronic study, the kindling model was established by the administration of PTZ in subconvulsive dose (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Mice were treated with fisetin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) to study its probable antiseizure mechanism. The kindled mice were evaluated for seizure scores. Their hippocampus and cortex were assessed for neuronal damage, inflammation, and apop...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research