Safety and Efficacy of Tranexamic Acid in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
ConclusionsTranexamic acid does not reduce overall mortality in patients with aSAH, nor does it increase the incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia. Tranexamic acid in treating aSAH can reduce the incidence of rebleeding. However, there is no statisticalsignificance in the ultra-early short-term and low daily dose TXA therapy, which may be due to the lack of relevant studies, and more RCT experiments are needed for further study.Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp? PROSPERO, identifier: 244079. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Infection in the Developing Brain: The Role of Unique Systemic Immune Vulnerabilities
Central nervous system (CNS) infections remain a major burden of pediatric disease associated with significant long-term morbidity due to injury to the developing brain. Children are susceptible to various etiologies of CNS infection partly because of vulnerabilities in their peripheral immune system. Young children are known to have reduced numbers and functionality of innate and adaptive immune cells, poorer production of immune mediators, impaired responses to inflammatory stimuli and depressed antibody activity in comparison to adults. This has implications not only for their response to pathogen invasion, but also for...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Spinal Muscular Atrophy Under Nusinersen Treatment —A Pilot Study
In this study, we used the short form of the Neuro-QoL (Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders) for upper/lower extremity function to prospectively assess the health-related QoL of 17 adult SMA patients prior to initiation of nusinersen treatment and 2, 6, 10, and 14 months afterwards. At baseline, Neuro-QoL scores strongly correlated with motor function scores (Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded, HFMSE; Revised Upper Limb Module, RULM), but QoL did not increase significantly during the 14-month treatment period despite significant motor improvement as measured by HFMSE. Our results underline the need for novel...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Histology-Verified Intracranial Artery Calcification and Its Clinical Relevance With Cerebrovascular Disease
Intracranial artery calcification (IAC) was regarded as a proxy for intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS). IAC could be easily detected on routine computer tomography (CT), which was neglected by clinicians in the previous years. The evolution of advanced imaging technologies, especially vessel wall scanning using high resolution-magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI), has aroused the interest of researchers to further explore the characteristics and clinical impacts of IAC. Recent histological evidence acquired from the human cerebral artery specimens demonstrated that IAC could mainly involve two layers: the intima and the me...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Adhesion of Leukocytes to Cerebral Venules Precedes Neuronal Cell Death and Is Sufficient to Trigger Tissue Damage After Cerebral Ischemia
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that ischemia triggers only a transient adhesion of leukocytes to the venous endothelium and that inhibition of this process is sufficient to partly prevent ischemic tissue damage. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Case Report: Not All Neurological Symptoms Respond Well to Penicillin in Patients With Neurosyphilis
Patients with neurosyphilis present with a wide range of neurological symptoms, the response of which to penicillin is not well known. In this paper, we analyzed the clinical video-electroencephalogram (EEG) features of neurosyphilis in a 54-year-old man who exhibited with rhythmic orofacial involuntary movements, Argyll Robertson pupil, frequent paroxysmal oral-automatism seizures, periodic lateralized discharges (PLEDs) with triphasic waves, behavioral changes, and memory decline. After treatment with penicillin, PLED and seizures disappeared and behavioral changes and memory decline were significantly improved, but rhyt...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Visuospatial Neglect Revealed With Event-Related Potentials
This study aimed to investigate changes in attention processing after low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left posterior parietal cortex to better understand its role in visuospatial neglect (VSN) rehabilitation. The current study included 10 subacute stroke patients with VSN consecutively recruited from the inpatient stroke rehabilitation center at Xuanwu Hospital (the teaching hospital affiliated with Capital Medical University) between March and November 2019. All patients performed a battery of tasks (including line bisection, line cancellation, and star cancellation tests) two we...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exosomal microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Agents for Acute Ischemic Stroke: New Expectations
The morbidity and mortality rates of ischemic stroke (IS) are very high, and IS constitutes one of the main causes of disability and death worldwide. The pathogenesis of ischemic stroke includes excitotoxicity, calcium overload, oxygen radical injury, inflammatory reactions, necrosis/apoptosis, destruction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and other pathologic processes. Recent studies have shown that exosomes are critical to the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cerebral infarctions resulting from ischemic stroke; and there is growing interest in the role of exosomes and exosomal miRNAs in the diagnosis and treatm...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Can Endovascular Treatment of Fusiform Intracranial Aneurysms Restore the Healthy Hemodynamic Environment? –A Virtual Pilot Study
Numerous studies assess intracranial aneurysm rupture risk based on morphological and hemodynamic parameter analysis in addition to clinical information such as aneurysm localization, age, and sex. However, intracranial aneurysms mostly occur with a saccular shape located either lateral to the parent artery or at a bifurcation. In contrast, fusiform intracranial aneurysms (FIAs), i.e., aneurysms with a non-saccular, dilated form, occur in approximately 3–13% of all cases and therefore have not yet been as thoroughly studied. To improve the understanding of FIA hemodynamics, this pilot study contains morphological analyse...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Emotional Recognition in Patients With Mesial Temporal Epilepsy Associated With Enlarged Amygdala
Conclusion:In our cohort, patients with unilateral mesial TLE and ipsilateral AE, an amygdala could display either functional integration in emotion recognition or dysfunction as demonstrated by fMRI. Perception and recognition of emotions were impaired more in right-sided mTLE as compared to left-sided mTLE. Neuropsychological tests showed deficits in emotion recognition in patients as compared to healthy controls. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Metals, Nanoparticles, Particulate Matter, and Cognitive Decline
Exposure to metals is ubiquitous and emission sources include gasoline, diesel, smoke from wildfires, contaminated soil, water and food, medical implants, waste recycling facilities, subway exposures, and occupational environments. PM2.5 exposure is associated with impaired cognitive performance, neurobehavioral alterations, incidence of dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles are major emitters of metal-rich PM2.5 and nanoparticles in Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC). Cognitive impairment was investigated in 336 clinically healthy, middle-class, Mexican volunteers, age 29.2 ± 13.3 years with...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Greater Acute Concussion Symptoms Are Associated With Longer Recovery Times in NCAA Division III Collegiate Athletes
This study shows a strong association between having a high burden of acute post-concussion symptoms and having a slower return to school and sports in Division III collegiate athletes. Moreover, it also illustrates the converse: that those athletes with a low burden of acute symptoms have a faster return to school and sports. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cutaneous Allodynia in Migraine: A Narrative Review
ConclusionsCA is a marker of central sensitization in patients with migraine that has been associated with an increased risk of chronification and may influence therapeutic decisions. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prognosis and Predictors of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage After Endovascular Treatment of Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke
ConclusionHigher levels of FDG, NLR, TT at admission, and NIHSS score after operation were associated with sICH after EVT in patients with LVO-induced AIS. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Case Report: Four Cases of Cortical/Brainstem Encephalitis Positive for Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Immunoglobulin G
ConclusionEarly suspicion of MOG-IgG-associated encephalitis is necessary for any patient with sudden onset of seizures or symptoms of brainstem damage, especially with lesions on unilateral/bilateral cortical or brainstem on brain MRI. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Source Type: research