Algorithm for Reliable Detection of Pulse Onsets in Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity Signals
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for assessing cerebral hemodynamics via measurement of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), with a number of established clinical indications. However, CBFV waveform analysis depends on reliable pulse onset detection, an inherently difficult task for CBFV signals acquired via TCD. We study the application of a new algorithm for CBFV pulse segmentation, which locates pulse onsets in a sequential manner using a moving difference filter and adaptive thresholding. The test data set used in this study consists of 92,012 annotated CBFV pulses, whos...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reproductive Cancer Risk Factors in Women With Myotonic Dystrophy (DM): Survey Data From the US and UK DM Registries
Introduction: Recent evidence demonstrates that women with myotonic dystrophy type 1 are at increased risk of reproductive organ tumors. However, studies of reproductive cancer risk factors in those patients are lacking.Methods: Using questionnaires, we collected and analyzed personal history information related to cancer risk factors from women enrolled in a UK and US registry for myotonic dystrophy (dystrophia myotonica; DM) patients.Results: The survey was completed by 242 DM type 1 (DM1) and 44 DM type 2 (DM2) women enrolled in the UK Registry (N = 124) and the US National Registry (N = 162). The mean age at DM1 diagno...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Very Early MoCA Can Predict Functional Dependence at 3 Months After Stroke: A Longitudinal, Cohort Study
Introduction: After a stroke, cognitive impairment is commonly associated with poor functional outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if cognitive function, assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) 36–48 h after stroke, could predict functional dependence 3 months later. The secondary aim was to identify an optimal threshold for the MoCA score that could predict functional dependence.Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal cohort study. The research database from a stroke unit at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital was linked with the Swedish Stroke Register—Riksstroke. ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Rodent Models of Dyskinesia and Their Behavioral Assessment
This article systematically reviews the history, the pros and cons, and the controversies surrounding rodent models of dyskinesia as well as their behavioral assessment protocols. A summary of factors that influence the behavioral assessment in the rodent dyskinesia models is also presented, including the degree of dopamine denervation, stereotaxic lesion sites, drug regimen, monitoring styles, priming effect, and individual and strain differences. Besides, recent breakthroughs like the genetic mouse models and the bilateral intoxication models for dyskinesia are also discussed. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retinal Degeneration After First-Ever Optic Neuritis Helps Differentiate Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
Objective: Differentiation between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in the early phase is challenging but crucial for treatment and prognosis.Methods: We performed a prospective cross-sectional study to discriminate NMOSD from MS by evaluating retinal degeneration in optical coherence tomography (OCT) after a first-ever optic neuritis (ON) episode. Seventy-three NMOSD patients and 38 MS patients with ON at least 3 months prior were assessed by OCT, best-corrected visual acuity (VA), and 2.5% low-contrast VA. Multivariate linear regression models were used for comparisons. Receiver ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Higher Hemoglobin A1c Level Is Associated With Poor Outcome of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Conclusions: Higher HbA1c was associated with a higher risk of death and poor functional outcome 1 year after intracerebral hemorrhage, especially in patients without a diabetic history. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Role of Decompressive Craniectomy in the Context of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Summary of Results and Analysis of the Confidence Level of Conclusions From Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
Conclusion: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are important approaches for aggregating information from multiple studies. Clinicians rely of these methods for concise interpretation of scientific literature. Standards for quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been established to support the quality of the reviews being produced. In the case of DC, more attention must be paid to quality standards, in the generation of both individual studies and reviews. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Embodiment and Presence in Virtual Reality After Stroke. A Comparative Study With Healthy Subjects
This study determined and compared the sense of embodiment and presence elicited by a virtual environment under different perspectives and levels of immersion in healthy subjects and individuals with stroke. Forty-six healthy subjects and 32 individuals with stroke embodied a gender-matched neutral avatar in a virtual environment that was displayed in a first-person perspective with a head-mounted display and in a third-person perspective with a screen, and the participants were asked to interact in a virtual task for 10 min under each condition in counterbalanced order, and to complete two questionnaires about the sense o...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Notification Strategy and Predictors of Outcome in Stroke Ineligible for Reperfusion Therapies
Conclusions: EMS notification is influenced by AF, stroke severity, psychiatric disease, aphasia, and residence type. Early disability depends on age, the type and severity of the stroke, and pre-stroke mRS. Predictors of disability at 1 year after stroke are age, stoke severity, mRS at discharge, and recurrent ischemic stroke. Higher NIHSS and older age are associated with higher case fatality. In patients ineligible for recanalization, EMS notification had no significant effect on outcome, regarding both disability and survival. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alterations of Dynamic Regional Homogeneity in Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Resting-State fMRI Study
In this study, twenty-eight TN patients and 28 healthy controls (HC) were included. Based on the resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI), we detected abnormalities in dReHo in the TN patients. Patients with TN had decreased dReHo in the left middle temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and precentral gyrus, and increased dReHo in the thalamus. Furthermore, the increase in dReHo in the thalamus was positively correlated with duration of TN (r = 0.485, p = 0.012). These results provide compelling evidence for abnormal resting-state brain activity in TN and suggest that the duration of TN may play a critical role in brain function. (...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Recovery of Functional Independence After Traumatic Transtentorial Herniation With Duret Hemorrhages
Historically, Duret hemorrhages have conferred a devastating prognosis. However, recent case reports suggest that cognitive and functional recovery are possible after Duret hemorrhages. Here, we describe a patient who recovered consciousness, communication, and functional independence after Duret hemorrhages caused by traumatic transtentorial herniation. We performed prospective, standardized behavioral assessments, structural MRI scans and stimulus-based functional MRI (fMRI) scans during the first 2 years of recovery. The multimodal assessments revealed reintegration of neural networks mediating language and consciousnes...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pregnancy-Related Immune Changes and Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System
Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system comprise a heterogeneous group of autoimmune disorders characterized by myelin loss with relative sparing of axons occurring on a background of inflammation. Some of the most common demyelinating diseases are multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Besides showing clinical, radiological, and histopathological features that complicate their diagnosis, demyelinating diseases often involve different immunological processes that produce distinct inflammatory patterns. Evidence of demyelination diseases derives mo...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

rs3764435 Associated With Parkinson's Disease in Mexican Mestizos: Case-Control Study Reveals Protective Effects Against Disease Development and Cognitive Impairment
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common movement disorder. Genetic risk factors provide information about the pathophysiology of PD that could potentially be used as biomarkers. The ALDH1A1 gene encodes for the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme, which is involved in the disposal of toxic metabolites of dopamine. Due to the cytotoxic nature of aldehydes, their detoxification is essential for cellular homeostasis. It has been reported that ALDH1A1 expression levels and activity are decreased in PD patients. A deficit in ALDH1A1 activity in the substantia nigra, may lead to the accumulation of neurotoxic aldehydes and ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association and Interaction Effects of Interleukin-12 Related Genes and Physical Activity on Cognitive Aging in Old Adults in the Taiwanese Population
In this study, we speculate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-12-associated genes, such as IL12A, IL12B, IL12RB1, and IL12RB2 genes, could be associated with cognitive aging individually and/or via complicated interactions in the elder Taiwanese population. There were totally 3,730 Taiwanese individuals with age ≥60 years from the Taiwan Biobank. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was analyzed for all participants. We employed MMSE scores to assess cognitive functions. Our analysis revealed that the IL12A gene (including rs116910715, rs78902931, and rs78569420), the IL12B gene (including rs730691), and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anti-CV2 Autoimmune Encephalitis With Parkinson-Like Symptoms and Bilateral Leukoencephalopathy —A Case Report
Conclusion: Anti-CV2 autoimmune encephalitis can present as Parkinsonism with bilateral leukoencephalopathy on MRI. PET scanning can be useful to reveal an occult cancer. Treatment of the cancer may improve the paraneoplastic neurological syndrome without the need of immunosuppressive therapy. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Premorbid Alterations of Spontaneous Brain Activity in Elderly Patients With Early Post-operative Cognitive Dysfunction: A Pilot Resting-State Functional MRI Study
In this study, we investigated whether there is pre-existing local homogeneity and functional connectivity alteration in the brain before surgery for POCD patients as compared to that in non-POCD patients.Methods: Eighty elderly patients undergoing major thoracic or abdominal surgeries were recruited. Resting-state functional MRI was scanned at least 1 day before surgery. Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) were performed before surgery and at discharge, respectively. Pre-operative regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were compared between POCD patients and non-POCD patients, respectivel...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Conduction Block and Nerve Cross-Sectional Area in Multifocal Motor Neuropathy
In this study, we aim to analyze the correlation between CB and CSA in MMN.Methods: Twelve patients with MMN were recruited. Ultrasonography tests and motor nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were performed on median and ulnar nerves simultaneously. CSA was measured at 10 consecutive sites on those nerves, meanwhile nerves were traced continuously and recorded thoroughly under ultrasound.Results: In motor NCSs, 12 definite CB and 12 probable CB areas were detected across standard segments of median and ulnar nerves. With ultrasound studies, increased CSA was detected at 36 sites. There were 9 standard segments with CB and inc...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Novel Results and Concepts Emerging From Lipid Cell Biology Relevant to Degenerative Brain Aging and Disease
This article describes disturbed relationships in lipid homeostasis that causes neuropathology to develop over time and with age, which includes altered mechanisms of glia-neuron exchange of lipids and inflammatory signals. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Pilot Cross-Sectional Study to Investigate the Biomarker Potential of Phosphorylated Neurofilament-H and Immune Mediators of Disability in Patients With 5 Year Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusions: The serum level of pNF-H, EDSS score-correlated, might stand for a potential biomarker of disability in RRMS reflecting progressive axonal damage and cumulative neurological deterioration. The novelty of these results warrants conducting a larger confirmatory trial. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Facial Nerve Decompression After Temporal Bone Fracture —The Bangalore Protocol
Conclusion: This Bangalore protocol facilitates advantageous improvement in facial function and conductive hearing loss after traumatic facial nerve crush injuries. The surgical technique, albeit challenging, helps identify the fracture lines, facilitates reconstruction of disrupted ossicles, and avoids craniotomy. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Are Cerebral White Matter Lesions Related to the Presence of Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis or to the Length of Stenosis Among Patients With Ischemic Cerebrovascular Events?
(Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Parental Stress and Parental Ratings of Behavioral Problems of Enuretic Children
Conclusion: The physicians who deal with PMNE children have taken into account the stressful role and emotional dimensions of this clinical condition, both for children and mothers, in order to improve clinical management. Psychological support is needed for parents, and mothers especially, for a more functional stress management related to the PMNE. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of Delayed Diagnosis of Phenylketonuria With Imaging Findings of Bilateral Diffuse Symmetric White Matter Lesions: A Case Report and Literature Review
Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder due to the deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin or phenylalanine hydroxylase. Delayed diagnoses of it manifest a progressive irreversible neurological impairment in the early years of the disease. Guthrie test and tandem mass spectrometry aided in early detection and intervention of phenylketonuria, which significantly decreased the disability of patients as well as reducing the need for diagnosis in adults. This is a case report of a 60-year-old Asian man, characterized by severe visual-spatial disorders and bilateral diffuse symmetric white matter lesions on magnetic resona...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Novel Phenotypes and Cardiac Involvement Associated With DNA2 Genetic Variants
Conclusions: To date only few AD cases presenting either missense or truncating DNA2 variants have been reported. None of them presented with a cardiac involvement or rhabdomyolysis. Here we enlarge the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of DNA2-related mitochondrial disorders. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Baseline Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients With Ischemic Stroke or Hemorrhagic Stroke: An Updated Meta-Analysis
Background and purpose: Stroke is a leading cause of death and acquired disability in adults today. Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of stroke. The peripheral neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an important global inflammatory indicator becoming more mainstream in stroke care. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the relationship between the baseline NLR and acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as define the clinical significance of NLR in subtypes of ischemic stroke.Methods: This meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO with the number CRD42018105305. We went through relevant artic...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

AQP4 Antibody Assay Sensitivity Comparison in the Era of the 2015 Diagnostic Criteria for NMOSD
We have compared five different assays for antibodies to aquaporin-4 in 181 cases of suspected Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and 253 controls to assess their relative utility. As part of a clinically-based survey of NMOSD in Australia and New Zealand, cases of suspected NMOSD were referred from 23 centers. Clinical details and magnetic imaging were reviewed and used to apply the 2015 IPND diagnostic criteria. In addition, 101 age- and sex-matched patients with multiple sclerosis were referred. Other inflammatory disease (n = 49) and healthy controls (n = 103) were also recruited. Samples from all particip...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Expanding the Clinical Spectrum of LONP1-Related Mitochondrial Cytopathy
Pathogenic variants in the LONP1 gene have been associated with CODAS syndrome (Cerebral, Ocular, Dental, Auricular, and Skeletal Anomalies Syndrome). A recent report identified the first newborn case with LONP1-related mitochondrial cytopathy due to a compound heterozygous pathogenic variant in LONP1 without features of CODAS. The proband had manifested with severe congenital lactic acidosis and profound multiple respiratory chain complex activity deficiencies associated with the quantitative loss of mtDNA copy number in muscle. A subsequent report identified two siblings with regression during infancy, profound hypotonia...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Association Between Distinct Frontal Brain Volumes and Behavioral Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and Frontotemporal Dementia
Our aim was to investigate the association between behavioral symptoms of agitation, disinhibition, irritability, elation, and aberrant motor behavior to frontal brain volumes in a cohort with various neurodegenerative diseases. A total of 121 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 58), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 45) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 18) were evaluated with a Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). A T1-weighted MRI scan was acquired for each participant and quantified with a multi-atlas segmentation method. The volumetric MRI measures of the frontal lobes were associated wi...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anti-IgLON5 Disease: A Case With 11-Year Clinical Course and Review of the Literature
Conclusion: The clinical spectrum of Anti-IgLON5 disease continues to expand. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology, therapeutic strategies and outcome in this novel disorder. Aggressive immunotherapy seems to increase survival. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multivariate Pattern Classification of Primary Insomnia Using Three Types of Functional Connectivity Features
Objective: To explore whether or not functional connectivity (FC) could be used as a potential biomarker for classification of primary insomnia (PI) at the individual level by using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA).Methods: Thirty-eight drug-naive patients with PI, and 44 healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state functional MR imaging. Voxel-wise functional connectivity strength (FCS), large-scale functional connectivity (large-scale FC) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) were calculated for each participant. We used support vector machine (SVM) with the three types of metrics as features separately to classify patien...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Are Migraine With and Without Aura Really Different Entities?
Conclusion: Only a few imaging studies compared the two subforms of the disease, migraine with aura, and without aura, directly. Functional imaging investigations largely agree that there is an increased activity/activation of the brain in migraine with aura as compared to migraine without aura. We propose that this might be the signature of cortical hyperexcitability. However, structural investigations are not equivocal. We propose that variable contribution of parallel, competing mechanisms of maladaptive plasticity and neurodegeneration might be the reason behind the variable results. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial: Geospatial and Transport Modeling in Stroke Service Planning
(Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dynamic Alterations of Spontaneous Neural Activity in Parkinson's Disease: A Resting-State fMRI Study
Objective: To investigate the dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (dALFFs) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls (HCs) and further explore whether dALFF can be used to test the feasibility of differentiating PD from HCs.Methods: Twenty-eight patients with PD and 28 demographically matched HCs underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans and neuropsychological tests. A dynamic method was used to calculate the dALFFs of rs-fMRI data obtained from all subjects. The dALFF alterations were compared between the PD and HC groups, and the correlations between dA...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Quantification and Selection of Ictogenic Zones in Epilepsy Surgery
Network models of brain dynamics provide valuable insight into the healthy functioning of the brain and how this breaks down in disease. A pertinent example is the use of network models to understand seizure generation (ictogenesis) in epilepsy. Recently, computational models have emerged to aid our understanding of seizures and to predict the outcome of surgical perturbations to brain networks. Such approaches provide the opportunity to quantify the effect of removing regions of tissue from brain networks and thereby search for the optimal resection strategy. Here, we use computational models to elucidate how sets of node...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of Somatosensory Input Deficiency on Subjective Visual Vertical Perception in Children With Reading Disorders
Purpose: Preliminary evidence indicated that children with a reading disorder (RD) may have deviance in their ability to perform high demanding cognitive tasks, such as reading, depending on somatosensory inputs. Until now, only anecdotical reports suggested that improving somatosensory inputs may influence their ability to maintain a stable perception of the visual world despite continuous movements of our eyes, head, and body. Here, we investigated whether changes in upright perception, the subjective visual vertical (SVV), were modulated by somatosensory inputs in a group of children with RD.Method: The SVV task was use...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
The objective of our study was to investigate the potential association between the occurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and saccular dysfunction using cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) testing.Methods: The databases including Pubmed, Embase, and CENTRAL were systemically searched for case-control literatures investigating saccular dysfunction using cVEMP testing in BPPV patients compared with healthy controls. The literatures were published up to 16 April 2019 and were limited to the English language. All statistical processes were carried out using software Review Manager, versio...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Altered Resting State Functional Activity and Microstructure of the White Matter in Migraine With Aura
Discussion: Our study is the first to describe changes in white matter resting state functional activity in migraine with aura, showing correlation with the underlying microstructure. Functional and structural differences between disease subtypes suggest at least partially different pathomechanism, which may necessitate handling of these subtypes as separate entities in further studies. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Muscular Tuberculosis: A New Case and a Review of the Literature
Conclusion: As a kind of systemic disease, MT is mainly characterized by painful or painless muscle masses and swelling at a single site or at multiple sites. Patients with a history of tuberculosis and immune system disease are susceptible to MT. A diagnosis is mainly made on the basis of the results of pathological biopsy and bacteriological culture. Early diagnosis and timely standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment can improve the prognosis. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

PKG Movement Recording System Use Shows Promise in Routine Clinical Care of Patients With Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating, neurodegenerative disorder that affects nearly one million people. It's hallmark signs and symptoms include slow movements, rigidity, tremor, and unstable posture. Additionally, non-motor symptoms such as sleeplessness, depression, cognitive impairment, impulse control behaviors (ICB) have been reported. Today, treatment regimens to modify disease progression do not exist and as such, treatment is focused on symptom relief. Additionally, physicians are challenged to base their diagnoses and treatment plans on unreliable self-reported symptoms, even when used in conjunction to val...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) Among High-Grade Glioma Patients Receiving TTFields Treatment: A Two Center Observational Study
Conclusion: The study shows that although TTFields treatment frequently affects everyday life in all aspects, therapy compliance was high and 67% of patients would reconsider TTFields for themselves. We propose that findings of PRO be taken into account for medical consultation about TTFields and in future device development to deliver high-value patient-centered care. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Machine Learning Assisted MRI Characterization for Diagnosis of Neonatal Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy
Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrated a new strategy of characterizing ABE-induced intensity and morphological changes in MRI, which are difficult to be recognized, interpreted, or quantified by the routine experience and visual-based reading strategy. With more quantitative and objective measurements, the reported machine learning assisted radiomics features-based approach can improve the diagnosis and support clinical decision-making. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Energy Metabolism and Redox State in Brains of Wistar Audiogenic Rats, a Genetic Model of Epilepsy
In conclusion, in WAR naïve animals, both cerebral cortex and hippocampus display elevated mitochondrial density and/or activity associated with oxidative damage, glucose and lactate metabolism pathways upregulation, and increased Na+/K+ ATPase mRNA expression. Only in vivo treatment with NAC was able to reduce seizure severity of kindled WARs, possibly via down regulation of glucose/lactate metabolism. Taken together, our results are a clear contribution to the field of mitochondrial metabolism associated to epileptic seizures. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distinctive Patterns of Seizure-Related White Matter Alterations in Right and Left Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Conclusions: It appears that patients with RTLE exhibit a more widespread pattern of WM alterations that extend far beyond the temporal lobe in both ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere; furthermore, these changes seem to reflect more severe damage related to chronic degeneration. Conversely, more restrained changes in the LTLE may imply a pattern of less severe axonal damage, more restricted to ipsilateral hemisphere. Comprehensive finding of more prominent hippocampal atrophy in the RTLE raises an interesting issue of seizure-induced implications on gray matter and WM microstructure that may not necessarily mean a st...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Symptomatic vs. Asymptomatic 20 –40% Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis: Does the Plaque Size Matter?
Background: Around 9–15% of ischemic strokes are related to internal carotid artery (ICA)-stenosis ≥50%. However, the extent to which ICA-stenosis
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Upregulation of GLT-1 via PI3K/Akt Pathway Contributes to Neuroprotection Induced by Dexmedetomidine
This study was set out to investigate the glutamate-related mechanism involved in the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used as a model of ischemic stroke in our study. We determined Neurological deficit scores (NDS) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at three points (2, 6, and 24 h) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine. Besides, we performed western blot (6 and 24 h after MACO) and immunofluorescent staining (24 h after MCAO) to observe the expression of GLT-1. The effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidi...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - September 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Wernicke's Encephalopathy With Vestibular Impairment
Conclusions: WE is related to impaired VOR and visuospatial dysfunction, and fMRI documented changes in the rs-fc of multisensory vestibular processing regions including the insula, parietal operculum, and superior temporal gyrus, which participate in integration of vestibular perception. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - September 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Review of Experimental Rodent Models of Repeated Blast TBI
We present an overview of major histopathological findings, which are supplemented by studies implementing MRI (DTI) and behavioral changes after rbTBI in the acute (1–7 days post-injury), subacute (7–14 days), and chronic (>14 days) phases post-injury. (Source: Frontiers in Neurology)
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - September 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

TNNT2 Missplicing in Skeletal Muscle as a Cardiac Biomarker in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 but Not in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2
Cardiac involvement is one of the most important manifestations of the multisystemic phenotype of patients affected by myotonic dystrophy (DM) and represents the second cause of premature death. Molecular mechanisms responsible for DM cardiac defects are still unclear; however, missplicing of the cardiac isoform of troponin T (TNNT2) and of the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A) genes might contribute to the reduced myocardial function and conduction abnormalities seen in DM patients. Since, in DM skeletal muscle, the TNNT2 gene shows the same aberrant splicing pattern observed in cardiac muscle, the principal aim of this work...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - September 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of Dabigatran in Mouse Models of Aging and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
Oral anticoagulants are a critical component of stroke prevention, but carry a risk of brain hemorrhage. These hemorrhagic complications tend to occur in elderly individuals, especially those with predisposing conditions such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Clinical evidence suggests that non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are safer than traditional oral anticoagulants. We analyzed whether the anticoagulant dabigatran produces cerebral microhemorrhage (the pathological substrate of MRI-demonstrable cerebral microbleeds) or intracerebral hemorrhage in aged mice with and without hemorrhage-predisposing angiop...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - September 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Application of FLAIR Vascular Hyperintensity-DWI Mismatch in Ischemic Stroke Depending on Semi-Quantitative DWI-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score
Objective: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a simple, widely used method to estimate the size of the infarct. Our aim is to determine whether there is a relationship between DWI-ASPECTS and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH)-DWI mismatch and to better quantify FVH-DWI mismatch to assess the prognosis of cerebral infarction.Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 109 patients with MCA stenosis or occlusion with cerebral infarction was performed by dividing this cohort into FVH-DWI match group and FVH-DWI mismatch group based...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - September 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research