Congenital intrathoracic stomach can be safely managed laparoscopically
ConclusionThis is the largest reported series of children with CIS. All could be managed laparoscopically with no conversions and a low recurrence. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 23, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Protective effects of vitamin D against injury in intestinal epithelium
ConclusionsVitamin D rescued epithelial barrier function by improving permeability and restoring tight junctions, leading to decrease inflammation. This study confirms the protective effects of vitamin D, which could be used as a treatment strategy for infants at risk of developing intestinal injury. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 14, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor regarding: Guidelines for the management of postoperative soiling in children with Hirschsprung disease, Saadai et al. PSI (2019)35: 829 –834
(Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 14, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Accidental bladder injury during elective inguinal hernia repair: a preventable complication with high morbidity
ConclusionsThe degree of accidental BI during inguinal hernia repair was severe in in the majority of reported cases in the literature. Surgeons should be aware of the high prevalence of “bladder ears” in infants to prevent injury to the urinary tract. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 10, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Normal anorectal musculatures and changes in anorectal malformation
ConclusionsThe anorectal musculature in ARM is composed of agenesic LMT and TMT and the narrowed LMT gives anatomical evidence of the center, where the neorectum should pull through. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 4, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

A comparison of exosomes derived from different periods breast milk on protecting against intestinal organoid injury
ConclusionsHuman breast milk-derived exosomes were able to protect intestine organoids against epithelial injury induced by LPS. Colostrum exosomes offer the best protective effect among the breast-milk derived exosomes. Human milk exosomes can be protective against the development of intestinal injury such as that seen in NEC. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Perforation in pediatric non-complicated appendicitis treated by antibiotics: the real incidence
ConclusionsPerforation is generally believed to be a complication of AT, but inappropriate triaging of cases for AT can bias results by artificially inflating the number of perforations, in this study, by more than double. We are the first to assess the unbiased incidence of perforation during AT for NC-Ap, by reassessing pre-AT US and/or CT scans. The incidence of perforation during AT is actually negligible. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

DPP4 inhibitor reinforces cell junction proteins in mouse model of short bowel syndrome
ConclusionUp-regulation of E-cadherin and occludin by DPP4I may be correlated with the anti-inflammatory action of DPP4I. Therefore, DPP4I may reduce bacterial translocation in SBS. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Accelerated cell turnover 48  h after intestinal ischemia is NOTCH independent
AbstractAim of the studyNotch signaling plays important roles in maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis. When Notch signaling is blocked, proliferation ceases and epithelial cells become secretory. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of Notch signaling pathway following intestinal ischemia –reperfusion (IR) injury in a rat model.Materials and methodsMale Sprague –Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: Sham-24 and Sham-48 rats underwent laparotomy and were killed 24 or 48 h later, respectively; IR-24 and IR-48 rats underwent occlusion of SMA and portal ...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Decreased expression of β1 integrin in enteric neural crest cells of the endothelin receptor B null mouse model
In this study, we examined the expression of β1 integrin in the endothelin receptor B (Ednrb) knock out (KO) mouse gut, which presents with an aganglionic colon.MethodsASox10-Venus-positiveEdnrb KO mouse, where ENCC is labeled with fluorescent protein, ‘Venus’, was created.Sox10-Venus-positiveEdnrb wild type (WT) were used as controls. Small intestine, proximal colon and distal colon were dissected on E13.5 and E15.5 and β1 integrin expression of the gut tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR. The cells of the gut dissected on E11.5 were isolated and cultured for 2 days....
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Bio-engineering of fetal cartilage for in utero spina bifida repair
ConclusionFetal chondrocytes represent a good cell source for cartilage bioengineering. Collagen I scaffolds support cartilage formation in vitro, but the construct shrinking constitutes a major limitation. Future steps include the identification of suitable bioprintable materials which maintain their shape and size, as well as the analysis of the interphase between bioengineered cartilage and skin. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

First steps in the development of a liquid biopsy in situ hybridization protocol to determine circular RNA biomarkers in rat biofluids
ConclusionWe successfully adapted BaseScope ™ to detect circRNAs in rat biofluids: serum and amniotic fluid. We detected signal from probes targeted to circRNAs that are dysregulated in rat CDH. This work establishes the preliminary feasibility of circRNA detection in prenatal diagnostics. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 30, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

An intra-amniotic injection of mesenchymal stem cells promotes lung maturity in a rat congenital diaphragmatic hernia model
AbstractPurposeWe aimed to evaluate the effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) by intra-amniotic injection in a rat CDH model.MethodsNitrofen (100  mg) was administered to pregnant rats at E9.5. hMSCs (1.0 × 106) or PBS was injected into each amniotic cavity at E18, and fetuses were harvested at E21. The fetal lungs were classified into normal, CDH, and CDH-hMSCs groups. To determine the lung maturity, we assessed the alveolar histological structure by H&E and Weigert staining and the alveolar arteries by Elastica Van Gieson (EVG) staining. TTF-1...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 26, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Epidermal growth factor receptor/heme oxygenase-1 axis is involved in chemoresistance to cisplatin and pirarubicin in HepG2 cell lines and hepatoblastoma specimens
ConclusionThe cytotoxic effects of CDDP and THP were both enhanced under HO-1 knockdown conditions as well as under conditions that inhibit the activation pathway of HO-1 by EGFR inhibitors. EGFR/HO-1 axis may be involved in acquiring chemoresistance in HepG2 cell lines as well as in human hepatoblastoma. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 26, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Management of pediatric appendiceal carcinoid: a single institution experience from 5000 appendectomies
ConclusionsIn our cohort, the incidence of appendiceal carcinoid among children with appendicitis is very low. Most carcinoids are small, located at the tip, associated with non-perforated appendicitis, and present in girls. Most were treated with appendectomy alone, with more extensive surgery performed in one third of children. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 25, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Endothelin receptor B affects the perfusion of newborn intestine: possible mechanism of necrotizing enterocolitis development
ConclusionsPartial knockout of EDNRB results in reduced NEC severity and reduced tissue hypoxia. Intestinal perfusion and hypoxia are important elements of NEC pathogenesis. These findings are relevant to the understanding of NEC pathophysiology and to the development of novel preventive strategies for NEC. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 25, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Evaluation methods and impact of simulation-based training in pediatric surgery: a systematic review
ConclusionScoring, time, and motion analysis methods were used for the evaluation of basic techniques of laparoscopic skills. Only a few SBT in pediatric surgery have definite goals with clinical effect. Future research needs to demonstrate the educational effect of simulators as assessment or training tools on SBT in pediatric surgery. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 24, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Factors responsible for stage III disease in patients with Wilms tumor enrolled in the JWiTS-2 study
ConclusionThe prognosis of stage III WT was good. In the next stage, the doses of chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be reduced to avoid late effects. The high rate of tumor spillage after primary resection suggests that preoperative chemotherapy should be started instead of aggressive tumor resection in the large tumor cases with surgical risks (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 24, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Impact and characteristics of two- and three-dimensional forceps manipulation using laparoscopic hepaticojejunostomy mimicking a disease-specific simulator: a comparison of pediatric surgeons with gastrointestinal surgeons
ConclusionThere were significant differences in forceps movement characteristics between the PS and GIS. The effects of a 3D environment could not be clarified in this study, because it may depend on the port layout used and the operative procedures. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 24, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of mucous fistula refeeding in low-birth-weight infants with enterostomies
ConclusionMFR was able to diminish the need for PN, which potentially decreased the incidence of PNALD, and was safe as there were no complications of the refeeding process. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 24, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of spheroids of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth for chronic liver fibrosis and hemophilia A
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that SHED-HLC-based micro-hepatic tissues might be a promising source for treating pediatric refractory diseases, including chronic liver fibrosis and hemophilia A. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 24, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Concurrent Hirschsprung ’s disease and anorectal malformation: a systematic review
ConclusionAlthough the association of ARM and HSCR is rare, the incidence of HSCR among ARM cases seems to be higher than in  the general pediatric population. There was a high incidence of coexistence of ARM and HSCR with severe associated syndromes. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 24, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The effect of APTR, Fn14 and CD133 expressions on liver fibrosis in biliary atresia patients
ConclusionWe present the first study of aberrantAPTR expressions in the liver of BA infants which might contribute to liver fibrogenesis in BA infants. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 23, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Microvascular proliferation of the portal vein branches in the liver of biliary atresia patients at Kasai operation is associated with a better long-term clinical outcome
ConclusionsThis is the first report on the relationships between morphometrically analyzed PV branches and the postoperative course in BA patients. The portal venous system is involved as the primary lesion in BA. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 21, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Decreased expression of TRAAK channels in Hirschsprung ’s disease: a possible cause of postoperative dysmotility
AbstractAim of the studyPotassium (K+) channels with a two-pore domain (K2P) are a large family of hyperpolarising ion channels which play a key role in cell excitability. This family comprises three members: TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK. TRAAK channels have previously been reported to be expressed in murine enteric ganglia. To date, no data exist regarding TRAAK channel expression in the human colon. Thus, we designed this study to investigateTRAAK gene expression in the normal human colon and in Hirschsprung ’s disease (HSCR).MethodsHSCR tissue specimens (n = 6) were collected at the time of pull-through ...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 21, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The 32nd International Symposium on Paediatric Surgical Research
(Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 21, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Dual roles of commensal bacteria after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion
ConclusionsCommensal bacteria are essential for epithelial restitution after IIR, which enhance IEC proliferation via induction of PGE2. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 20, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

A multicenter study of primary liver transplantation for biliary atresia in Japan
ConclusionNon-KP initial procedures were limited. Clear criteria regarding the timing of diagnosis or patient condition could not be determined. Reasons for not initially selecting KP varied, but late diagnosis was predominant. Further study is needed to create guidelines for the initial treatment of BA patients. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 18, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Feasibility and efficacy of home rectal irrigation in neonates and early infancy with Hirschsprung disease
AbstractPurposeA single-stage pull-through (SSPT) is the most commonly performed procedure for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) and has been shown to be better than multi-stage procedures. However, performing a SSPT in the neonatal period or early in infancy is a risk factor for an inaccurate diagnosis, post-operative enterocolitis, and a protracted post-operative recovery. The present study was primarily designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of home rectal irrigation in the neonatal period and early in infancy, followed by a delayed and planned SSPT in a prospective cohort with HSCR.MethodsBetween January 2014 and ...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 18, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Endovascular stent placement for venous complications following pediatric liver transplantation: outcomes and indications
ConclusionEndovascular stent placement is an effective treatment for intractable PV complications following pediatric LDLT. However, endovascular stent placement for HV complications should be carefully performed because of the risk of intrastent thrombotic occlusion and the possibility of immunological venous injury. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 18, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Correction to: Epidemiology and mortality of pediatric surgical conditions: insights from a tertiary center in Uganda
In the original publication, the family name of one of the authors was spelt incorrectly. The correct name should read as Nensi Ruzgar. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 13, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Single-incision laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty for treating children with intermediate-type anorectal malformations and rectobulbar fistula: a comparative study
ConclusionsBoth SILAARP and PSARP seemed feasible and effective for treating intermediate-type ARMs with rectobulbar fistula in children. However, SILAARP significantly reduced the length of postoperative hospital stay and improved anal canal resting pressure. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 7, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Left congenital diaphragmatic hernia-associated musculoskeletal deformities
ConclusionAlthough there was a trend towards an increased risk of the pectus deformity and scoliosis in patients repaired with muscle flap, it did not reach statistical significance. There is a correlation between musculoskeletal deformities and the severity of the CDH. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 3, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Gonocyte transformation in congenital undescended testes: what is the role of inhibin-B in cell death?
ConclusionsThese results suggest that inhibin-B does not regulate cell death of gonocytes and further studies are required to uncover any role of inhibin-B in gonocyte transformation. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 21, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Implementation of a pediatric trauma cervical spine clearance pathway
AbstractPurposePediatric cervical spine injuries are rare events. Missed injuries must be weighed against radiation exposure and excess resource utilization in a young population. A universal pediatric cervical spine clearance algorithm does not exist. The study objective is to determine if care improved after the implementation of a standardized cervical spine clearance pathway by evaluating imaging rates, length of stay, speciality consultation, and injury detection.MethodsA multidisciplinary group reviewed relevant literature to develop an algorithm for cervical spine clearance in pediatric trauma patients. We reviewed ...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 21, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Probiotic strategies to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: a meta-analysis
ConclusionThe probiotic mixture showed advantages over the single strains to decrease the incidences of necrotizing enterocolitis and gut-associated sepsis, and mortality in preterm infants. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 16, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Risk factors for the recurrence of perineal canal
ConclusionClosure of the rectal wall with stitches is a risk factor for the recurrence of PC. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 16, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Classification of short-term complications after transanal endorectal pullthrough for Hirschsprung ’s disease using the Clavien–Dindo-grading system
ConclusionsIt is important to describe postoperative complications in a structured way to make it possible to compare studies. Post-operative complications, according to Clavien –Dindo, occurred in 22% of the patients after TERPT. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 14, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

A new approach using image analysis to assess pulmonary hypoplasia in the fetal lamb diaphragmatic hernia model
AbstractBackgroundIn congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), there is pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) and also pulmonary vascular and bronchial abnormalities. Few studies have investigated bronchial maldevelopment in CDH. We evaluated bronchial area (BA) by bronchography in a fetal lamb DH model to develop a measure of PH.MethodsWe created DH in fetal lambs at 75  days gestation, delivering by cesarean section and killing them at term (DH,n = 12). Normal term fetuses provided controls (C,n = 5). We measured total lung volume (TLV) and performed barium bronchography. Using image analysis, BA, total...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 14, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Non-operative management of congenital tracheal stenosis: criteria by computed tomography
AbstractObjectivesWhether to perform surgical or conservative treatment for congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) is controversial. Thus, the computed tomography (CT) criteria for conservative treatment of CTS were investigated.MethodsFrom 2005 to 2017, 28 CTS cases were included. The operative cases and preoperative death cases constituted the required intervention group (group I), and the non-operative surviving cases constituted the observation group (group O). The diameter of the tracheal narrowest part (DTNP) on CT was evaluated as a criterion for non-operative follow-up.ResultsChest CT was performed 19 times in 19 group...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 13, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Therapeutic strategy for thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia and its outcome
ConclusionThoracoscopic radical surgery for treating EA, including single- and multistage procedures, can be performed, except in type-E cases or when the end of the proximal esophagus is located higher than the clavicle. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 9, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Impact of congenital heart disease on outcomes after primary repair of esophageal atresia: a retrospective observational study using a nationwide database in Japan
ConclusionsCHD was not associated with anastomotic leakage or stricture. The only significant predictor of anastomotic leakage was duration of anesthesia. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Efficacy of and prognosis after steroid pulse therapy in patients with poor reduction of jaundice after laparoscopic Kasai portoenterostomy
ConclusionsSteroid pulse therapy was effective for some patients. Unsuccessful cases may have little chances of jaundice clearance; revision Kasai portoenterostomy would be a good option. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Reply to the letter to the editor concerning “Close relationship between the short round ligament and the ovarian prolapsed inguinal hernia in female infants”
(Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Unexpected gap between intraoperative caliber change of the intestine and normoganglia in patients with intestinal aganglionosis
ConclusionPatients with IA appear to have a high risk for stoma dysfunction after the first operation because of the unexpected gap between the CC and normoganglia. The initial location of the stoma requires careful consideration. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 7, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The change over time in the postoperative bowel function in male anorectal malformation patients who underwent sacroperineal anorectoplasty and sacroabdominoperineal anorectoplasty
ConclusionThe ES showed continuous improvement after a definitive operation. An understanding of the characteristics of improvement is very important in managing the postoperative bowel function in ARM patients. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 7, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Serum Mac-2-binding protein (M2BPGi) as a marker of chronological liver fibrosis in biliary atresia patients with cirrhosis
We examined the chronological changes in M2BPGi levels in BA patients with cirrhosis.MethodsPatients with cirrhosis were selected from among pediatric BA patients who had their native livers. Serum M2BPGi levels and Child –Pugh classification were evaluated. A total of 11 pediatric BA patients with cirrhosis were recruited.ResultsInitial M2BPGi level after diagnosis of liver cirrhosis based on liver biopsy was on average 3.4, and the most recent M2BPGi level under observation was on average 4.3. The follow-up period from the initial M2BPGi measurement averaged 22.6  months. The ratio of the initial and most rece...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 7, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

A less invasive technique for delayed bladder exstrophy closure without fascia closure and immobilisation: can the need for prolonged anaesthesia be avoided?
ConclusionsThe proposed less invasive technique with relieved postoperative program is the way to obtain successful bladder exstrophy closure as well as to reduce some risks for the patients. Absence of major complications, and avoiding the need for immobilisation and prolonged analgesia, contribute to the benefits of this approach. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 6, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Commentary to: Close relationship between the short round ligament and the ovarian prolapsed inguinal hernia in female infants —H Kuyama, S Uemura, A Yoshida, M Yamamoto, PSI (2019) 35:625–629
(Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 6, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Urinary nerve growth factor: a biomarker for overactive bladder in children? A meta-analysis and trail sequential analysis
(Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 3, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research