Safety of delayed surgical repair of omphalocele –exstrophy–imperforate anus–spinal defects (OEIS) complex in infants with significant comorbidities
ConclusionsDelaying first-stage exstrophy repair to allow physiologic optimization is safe. All repaired patients were discharged home, without parenteral nutrition or supplemental oxygen. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 24, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Recommendations of patients and families of girls with 46XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the United Kingdom regarding the timing of surgery
AbstractPurposeThe timing of surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is contentious. We aimed to survey expert families and patients for their recommendations regarding timing of surgery for a family with a newly diagnosed CAH child.MethodsA Survey Monkey questionnaire was performed at the 2017 meeting of the CAH support group, “Living with CAH”, and also sent to the members of the CAH support group. The surgical-timing responses were a Likert score from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Data were analysed by Kruskal–Wallis test.p 
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 23, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Cryoablation is associated with shorter length of stay and reduced opioid use in pectus excavatum repair
This study sought to evaluate the use of INC compared to traditional use of thoracic epidural (TE).MethodsA retrospective review of 79 patients undergoing PE repair with either INC or TE from May 2009 to December 2019 was conducted. The operations were performed by four surgeons who worked together at four different hospitals and have the same standardized practice. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS). Secondary variables included surgical time, total operating room time, operating room time cost, total hospital cost, inpatient opioid use, long-term opioid use after discharge, and postoperative co...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 18, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Single-port laparoscopic appendicectomy versus conventional three-port approach for acute appendicitis in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsSPLA and CLA seem to have comparable efficacy and safety in children with acute appendicitis although the former may be associated with longer procedure time. Future high-quality RCTs with adequate sample sizes are required to provide stronger evidence in favour of an intervention. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 17, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Portosystemic shunt for portal hypertension after Kasai operation in patients with biliary atresia
ConclusionPortosystemic shunt for the treatment of portal hypertension in carefully selected BA patients is an effective option in delaying or negating the need for liver transplantation. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 17, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Therapeutic ureteroscopy for urolithiasis in children younger than 60  months of age
ConclusionTherapeutic ureterorenoscopy in the management of ureteric and selective renal pelvic calculi is safe and effective. It can be considered as the first-line therapy in young children. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 10, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Epithelial cell-adhesion protein cadherin 26 is dysregulated in congenital diaphragmatic hernia and congenital pulmonary airway malformation
AbstractBackgroundCongenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) are two inborn pathologies of the lung of unknown origin. Alterations of gene expression in airway epithelial cells are involved in the pathobiology of both diseases. We previously found decreased expression of the epithelial cell adhesion protein cadherin 26 (CDH26) in hypoplastic mice lungs. Here, our objective was to describe the expression and localization of CDH26 in hypoplastic CDH lungs and hyperproliferative CPAM tissues.MethodsAfter ethical approval, we used human lung tissues from CDH and CPAM cases and age...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 8, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Enhanced recovery after surgery and anesthetic outcomes in pediatric reconstructive urologic surgery
We examined the effects of a pilot implementation of ERAS for pediatric patients on anesthetic outcomes.MethodsWe performed a prospective case –control study utilizing an ERAS protocol in patients aged
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 7, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Unexpected tunnelled central venous access demise: a single institutional study from the UK
AbstractPurposeTo explore the factors involved in the demise of tunnelled central vascular access devices (CVADs) in children and describe patterns of failure.MethodsA retrospective study including children under 16  years of age undergoing CVAD insertion in a tertiary centre between October 2014 and December 2019. The Kaplan–Meier estimator was used to study CVAD survival and piecewise exponential curves to approximate hazard rates. Related factors were analysed using multivariable regression.ResultsTotally, 684 CVADs were inserted in 499 children. Devices were in situ for 213,821  days (median 244.5). Of ...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 7, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Failure of primary closure predicts prolonged length of stay in gastroschisis patients
ConclusionPatients able to undergo primary closure for gastroschisis were more likely to have a shorter length of stay, shorter time to enteral feeds, and use much fewer medical resources. Initial primary closure is a safe method for most patients. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 5, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of the anal sphincter and spine in patients with anorectal malformations after posterior sagittal anorectoplasty: a late follow-up cross-sectional study
ConclusionsA positive correlation between interposed fat and higher Wexner fecal incontinence score was found indicating a more severe fecal incontinence but no other correlation between anatomy of the anal sphincter complex and neorectum to functional bowel outcome was observed. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 3, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Do post-operative phone calls enhance family satisfaction and outcomes after outpatient pediatric urological surgeries? A prospective study
ConclusionPOPC by a NMP within 48  h of surgery may not affect perioperative satisfaction of families of patients undergoing same-day pediatric urology surgery but may have an impact in reducing post-operative anxiety. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - November 2, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The vacuum treatment for the pectus excavatum thickened subcutaneous fat of the chest wall and is effective in preteenagers
We report effects of treatment for pectus excavatum (PE) with a Vacuum Bell (VB).Materials and methodsFifteen patients (13 males and 2 females) undergoing VB therapy over 6  years, aged 6–17 years (mean: 11.1 years), were divided into two Groups: Group 1 (G1), preteenagers (
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Resection of primary tumor in stage 4S neuroblastoma: a second study by the Italian Neuroblastoma Group
ConclusionInfants diagnosed with stage 4S neuroblastoma who underwent upfront tumor resection had a better outcome. However, this result cannot be definitely attributed to surgery, since these patients were selected on the basis of their favorable presenting features. Although the question of whether to operate or not at disease onset is still unsolved, this study confirms the importance of obtaining enough adequate tumor tissue to enable histological and biological studies to properly address treatment, to achieve the best possible outcome. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 29, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Use of cryoanalgesia as a postoperative pain management for open pectus carinatum repair
ConclusionCryoanalgesia is a safe and effective pain management  strategy for pediatric patients undergoing open pectus carinatum repair. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 28, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Double barrel enteroplasty for the management of short bowel syndrome in children
ConclusionsDouble barrel enteroplasty is technically feasible and safe. It has similar efficacy and may have fewer complications when compared with other methods of autologous intestinal reconstruction. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 26, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Micronutrient deficiencies in pediatric short bowel syndrome: a 10-year review from an intestinal rehabilitation center in China
This study aimed to assess micronutrients ’ status during and after weaning off PN in pediatric SBS.MethodsThis retrospective study evaluated the follow-up of 31 children with SBS between Jan 2010 and Sep 2019. Clinical data were reviewed from the patients ’ electric medical record. Serum electrolytes, trace elements, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and folate concentrations were collected before and after enteral autonomy.ResultsThirty-one SBS cases were reviewed (median onset age 11  days after birth, 51.6% boys, mean PN duration 4 months, and mean residual small intestine length 58.2 cm). Median durat...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 24, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Skipped aganglionic lengthening transposition (SALT) for short bowel syndrome in patients with total intestinal aganglionosis: technical report and feasibility
AbstractExtended aganglionosis (TIA) is the presence of some viable aganglionic gut distal to the levelling jejunostomy. Different surgical procedures (including transplantation) have been proposed with inconclusive results. We conceived a new procedure named skipped aganglionic lengthening transposition (SALT) consisting of multiple pedicled isoperistaltic transpositions of aganglionic ileal loops interposed to normoganglionic jejunum. The innovative aspect consists of taking advantage of the propulsive effect of normoganglionated bowel to progress enteric content throughout interposed aganglionic loops down to the stoma....
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 23, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

A novel model of injured liver ductal organoids to investigate cholangiocyte apoptosis with relevance to biliary atresia
ConclusionTo our knowledge this is the first description of cholangiocyte injury in the organoids derived from intrahepatic bile ducts. Our injury model demonstrated that cholangiocyte apoptosis and its fibrogenic response may play a role in initiation of the fibrogenic process in cholangiopathic diseases such as BA. These findings are important for the development of novel therapy to reduce cholangiocyte apoptosis and to halt the early fibrogenic cascade in liver fibrogenesis. This novel injury model can prove very valuable for future research in biliary atresia. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 21, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The role of a pediatric tertiary care center in avoiding collateral damage for children with acute appendicitis during the COVID-19 outbreak
ConclusionsDespite an increase in the number of children with appendicitis managed at our hospital during the COVID-19-related lockdown, management, and outcome remained similar. Although our pediatric center was strongly affected by this pandemic, maintaining our prior practice strategies for acute appendicitis avoided the occurrence of collateral damage for those children. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 18, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Early experience with universal preoperative and pre-procedural screening for COVID-19 in low-risk pediatric surgical patients requiring general anesthesia
We report our experience with universal preoperative and preprocedural screening for COVID-19 in children requiring general anaesthesia with low risk of having the infection.MethodsThis was a data review involving children aged  
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 17, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The effect of pre- and post-remote ischemic conditioning reduces the injury associated with intestinal ischemia/reperfusion
ConclusionRemote ischemic conditioning attenuated intestinal injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress in experimental intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Remote ischemic conditioning may be useful in children with midgut volvulus to reduce the intestinal injury.Level of evidenceExperimental study.Type of studyAnimal experiment. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 17, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Vesicoureteral reflux increases the risk of urinary tract infection prior to corrective surgery in newborn males with anorectal malformation
AbstractPurposeThe ideal colostomy type indicated for patients with anorectal malformation (ARM) is disputed. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical factors associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) prior to corrective surgery in male ARM without perineal fistula having undergone diverting enterostomy.MethodsA retrospective review of patients diagnosed with ARM and surgically managed at our center from January 2011 to December 2019 was performed. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between clinical factors and UTI.ResultsEighty boys with ARM without perineal fistula underwent diverting en...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 16, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

miR-200 family expression during normal and abnormal lung development due to congenital diaphragmatic hernia at the later embryonic stage in the nitrofen rat model
ConclusionWe demonstrate a specific expression pattern of miR-200 family members in hypoplastic CDH lungs different from control lungs. This study suggests that disruption of miR-200 family expression plays a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypoplasia associated with CDH. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 13, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Risk factors associated with splenectomy following a blunt splenic injury in pediatric patients
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of the study was to identify the factors associated with splenectomy in pediatric trauma patients.MethodPediatric Trauma quality improvement program (P-TQIP) database calendar year 2014 –2016 was accessed for the study. All patients, age ≤ 18 years old, who sustained splenic injury due to blunt mechanism, were included in the study. The primary outcome of the study was to identify the risk factors associated with splenectomy. Univariate followed by multivariate analyses we re performed. Ap value of  
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 12, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Successful living donor liver transplantation plus domino-auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation for pediatric patients with metabolic disorders
ConclusionsThe non-cirrhotic livers from pediatric patients with metabolic liver disease can be used as domino donor grafts for selected pediatric patients with different metabolic liver disease. D-APOLT achieves ideal recipient outcomes and provides a strategy to expand donor source for children. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 10, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Current status and future challenges in the endoscopic management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children
ConclusionClipping, injection, and/or coagulation therapy can lead to high success rates for hemostasis, considering the anatomical characteristics in a pediatric population. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 9, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Medical alert card: a valuable tool in the management of Hirschsprung ’s-associated enterocolitis from parental perspective
ConclusionThe HAEC medical card was found useful by most parents of HD patients. This tool increased awareness of HAEC and improved communication between peripheral hospitals and tertiary paediatric institutions. Therefore, we feel the HAEC alert card may be used in institutions with high HD addressability. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 9, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Laparoscopic ligation of portosystemic shunt for the treatment of congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in one newborn infant
ConclusionThe laparoscopic ligation of portosystemic shunt is suitable for the treatment of the intrahepatic CPSS in the newborn patient. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 5, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Inpatient management of Hirschsprung ’s associated enterocolitis treatment: the benefits of standardized care
This study aimed to compare the outcomes of patients pre- and post-algorithm.MethodsA retrospective review of patients admitted for HAEC was performed; January 2017 –June 2018 encompassed the pre-implementation period, and October 2018–October 2019 was the post-implementation period. Demographics and outcomes were compared between the two groups.ResultsSixty-two episodes of HAEC occurred in 27 patients during the entire study period. Sixteen patients (59%) had more than one episode. The most common levels of the transition zone were the rectosigmoid (50%) and descending colon (27%). Following algorithm implemen...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Comparison of clinical outcomes between ABO-incompatible and ABO-compatible pediatric liver transplantation: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis
AbstractPurposeABO-incompatible (ABO-i) liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving method for pediatric patients in emergency situations that has the potential to expand the pool of liver donors. However, the risks of ABO-i compared to ABO-compatible (ABO-c) LT are unclear. To address this clinical uncertainty, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare clinical outcomes between ABO-i and ABO-c LT in pediatric patients.MethodsA systematic search for studies comparing outcomes between ABO-i and ABO-c LT was performed in the MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases through May 2020. Outcom...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Long-term functional outcome of sacrococcygeal teratoma after resection in neonates and infants: a single-center experience
ConclusionAlthough the mortality rate was low, the long-term rate of functional disorders after SCT resection was approximately 20%. SCT patients with large tumors, surgical injury to the pelvic organs, and immature or malignant histological findings require thorough follow-up. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 28, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Mowat Wilson syndrome and Hirschsprung disease: a retrospective study on functional outcomes
ConclusionsMWS associated with Hirschsprung disease has a high rate of immediate surgical complications but some patients may achieve bowel function comparable with non-syndromic HD patients. A multidisciplinary follow-up is required for these patients.Level of evidenceRetrospective observational single cohort study, Level 3. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 26, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Robot-assisted laparoscopic extravesical versus conventional laparoscopic extravesical ureteric reimplantation for pediatric primary vesicoureteric reflux: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractTo perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the outcomes of robotic-assisted laparoscopic extravesical ureteric reimplantation (RALUR) with conventional laparoscopic extravesical ureteric reimplantation (LEVUR) for primary vesicoureteric reflux in children. We searched the databases to identify all papers of RALUR and LEVUR between 2001 and 2020. Systematic review was performed to identify patient data, age, reflux grades, laterality, duration of surgery, time to discharge, success rate and complications. Heterogeneity was reported withI2 statistics and publication bias was assessed by Doi curve and ...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 26, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Postoperative “complications & quot; following laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty: A systematic review
ConclusionRectal prolapse, posterior urethral diverticulum and anal stenosis are the most common complications after LAARP. Inconsistent and non-uniform functional assessment and non-availability of information about the sacrum and spine make it difficult to analyze the functional outcome following LAARP. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 25, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Correction to: The G178A polymorphic variant of INSL3 may be linked to cryptorchidism among Egyptian pediatric cohort
In the original publication, (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 20, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The chest wall gender divide: females have better cardiopulmonary function and exercise tolerance despite worse deformity in pectus excavatum
AbstractPurposePectus excavatum (PE) is a chest wall deformity of variable severity and symptomatology. Existing female-specific literature highlights breast asymmetry and cosmetic reconstruction. We sought to evaluate gender differences in cardiopulmonary function.MethodsCardiac MRIs, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) were reviewed in 345 patients undergoing preoperative evaluation for PE. Regression modeling was used to evaluate associations between gender and clinical endpoints of cardiopulmonary function.ResultsMean age was 15.2  years, 19% were female, 98% were white. Pec...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 16, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

High-frequency vs. conventional ventilation  at the time of CDH repair is not associated with higher mortality and oxygen dependency: a retrospective cohort study
ConclusionOur study suggests that in infants with CDH, there is no significant difference between HFV and CMV in oxygen dependency or death. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 15, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Paediatric Surgery training in South Africa: Trainees ’ perspectives
ConclusionThere exists a significant heterogeneity amongst the different training institutions with protected academic time and exposure to burns, urology and minimally invasive surgery remaining major obstacles in training. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 14, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Risk of peri-operative complications in children receiving preoperative steroids
AbstractBackgroundSteroid use predisposes adult patients to increased perioperative complications including wound dehiscence and delayed wound healing. A similar large study investigating the perioperative impact of steroid use in pediatric patients has not been performed.MethodsThe National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Pediatric Database was queried from 2012 –2017 to identify patients who received steroid preoperatively. Patient demographics, comorbidities, surgical variables, and outcomes were compared between cohorts. Patients were propensity score matched and thirty-day adverse events were compared.Resul...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Appendectomy in pediatric patients with synchronous oncologic diagnosis is safe: an analysis using the national surgical quality improvement project, pediatric
AbstractBackgroundOptimal treatment of children who develop appendicitis while undergoing treatment for an oncologic diagnosis has not been defined, in part due to theoretical concerns for an increased risk of postoperative wound complications. We hypothesized that synchronous oncologic diagnosis conferred no increased odds of developing a wound complication in pediatric patients undergoing appendectomy.MethodsRetrospective cohort study using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, Pediatric (2012 –2017) of patients 
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 10, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Altered mRNA and lncRNA expression profiles in the striated muscle complex of anorectal malformation rats
ConclusionOur findings indicate the involvement of these dysregulated mRNAs and lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of SMC dysplasia in ARMs, providing a theoretical foundation for developing interventions to improve postoperative defecation function. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 10, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The impact of post-operative opioid guidelines on prescribing behaviors in the pediatric population
ConclusionPediatric postoperative opioid prescribing guidelines derived from expert opinion increase resident compliance with appropriate dosing; this has the potential to decrease the classic problem of general surgery residents accustomed to treating adults overprescribing opioids to children. These results are promising, and we aim to expand on this work and incorporate these guidelines into our clinical practice.Level of evidenceIII/IV. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 10, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The role of gonadotrophins in gonocyte transformation during minipuberty
This study examined whether gonadotrophins play a role on gonocyte transformation in vivo.MethodsTestes fromhypogonadal (hpg) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates (n = 6/group) were weighed, and processed in paraffin at postnatal days (D) 0, 3, 6 and 9. Mouse VASA homologue (germ cell marker), anti-Müllerian hormone (Sertoli cell marker) antibodies and DAPI (nuclei marker) were used for immunofluorescence followed by confocal imaging. Germ cells on or off basement membrane (BM) and Sertoli cells/tubule were counted using Image J and analyzed with GraphPad.ResultsComparing to WT littermates, there we...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 6, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

An integrated multidisciplinary team approach to the management of vascular anomalies: challenges and benefits
This study describes the inception of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) Vascular Anomaly Clinic (VAC) in a tertiary paediatric centre, and the subsequent experience managing this complex patient group.MethodsThis was a retrospective study of paediatric patients (
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 5, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Safety assessment of open appendectomies for complicated acute appendicitis in children: a comparison of trainees and specialists
ConclusionThis study suggests that no statistical differences were observed between the supervised trainees and SPSs regarding the overall complication rate and 30-readmission rate when they performed OA for GA or PA except of a longer OT and LHS for PA performed by JTs. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 5, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Tissue engineering: from the bedside to the bench and back to the bedside
AbstractThe field of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine has evolved rapidly over the past thirty years. This review will summarize its history, current status and direction through the lens of clinical need, its progress through science in the laboratory and application back into patients. We can take pride in the fact that much effort and progress began with the surgical problems of children and that many surgeons in the pediatric surgical specialties have become pioneers and investigators in this new field of science, engineering, and medicine. Although the field has yet to fulfill its great promise, there have...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 5, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Lysosomal overloading and necrotizing enterocolitis
ConclusionsNEC induction causes excessive autophagy and endocytosis leading to lysosomal overloading, lysosomal membrane permeabilization and rupture which results in cell death. These novel findings may help to clarify the pathogenesis of NEC. Reduction of lysosome overload and assisting in their degradation capability may reduce the burden of NEC. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 5, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Sindbis viral structural protein cytotoxicity on human neuroblastoma cells
ConclusionsWe demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of the UV-inactivated SINV is due to apoptosis induced by the E1 structural protein of SINV, which can be used selectively as a therapeutic agent for NB. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - September 5, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

The G178A polymorphic variant of INSL3 may be linked to cryptorchidism among Egyptian pediatric cohort
In conclusion, G178A—INSL3 gene polymorphism could be a susceptibility factor for testicular maldescent in Egyptian children. Also, family history of similar cases was considered as significant predictive risk for cryptorchidism, added t o the shared genetic links to consanguinity in our locality. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - August 30, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research