Visual experience is not necessary for the development of face-selectivity in the lateral fusiform gyrus [Neuroscience]
The fusiform face area responds selectively to faces and is causally involved in face perception. How does face-selectivity in the fusiform arise in development, and why does it develop so systematically in the same location across individuals? Preferential cortical responses to faces develop early in infancy, yet evidence is conflicting... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: N. Apurva Ratan Murty, Santani Teng, David Beeler, Anna Mynick, Aude Oliva, Nancy Kanwisher Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Statistical prediction of the future impairs episodic encoding of the present [Neuroscience]
Memory is typically thought of as enabling reminiscence about past experiences. However, memory also informs and guides processing of future experiences. These two functions of memory are often at odds: Remembering specific experiences from the past requires storing idiosyncratic properties that define particular moments in space and time, but by... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Brynn E. Sherman, Nicholas B. Turk-Browne Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Developing a population-state decision system for intelligently reprogramming extracellular electron transfer in Shewanella oneidensis [Microbiology]
The unique extracellular electron transfer (EET) ability has positioned electroactive bacteria (EAB) as a major class of cellular chassis for genetic engineering aimed at favorable environmental, energy, and geoscience applications. However, previous efforts to genetically enhance EET ability have often impaired the basal metabolism and cellular growth due to the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Feng-He Li, Qiang Tang, Yang-Yang Fan, Yang Li, Jie Li, Jing-Hang Wu, Chen-Fei Luo, Hong Sun, Wen-Wei Li, Han-Qing Yu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Glycosylation-dependent opsonophagocytic activity of staphylococcal protein A antibodies [Microbiology]
Antibodies may bind to bacterial pathogens or their toxins to control infections, and their effector activity is mediated through the recruitment of complement component C1q or the engagement with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). For bacterial pathogens that rely on a single toxin to cause disease, immunity correlates with toxin neutralization. Most... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Xinhai Chen, Miaomiao Shi, Xin Tong, Hwan Keun Kim, Lai-Xi Wang, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Early evolutionary loss of the lipid A modifying enzyme PagP resulting in innate immune evasion in Yersinia pestis [Microbiology]
Immune evasion through membrane remodeling is a hallmark of Yersinia pestis pathogenesis. Yersinia remodels its membrane during its life cycle as it alternates between mammalian hosts (37 °C) and ambient (21 °C to 26 °C) temperatures of the arthropod transmission vector or external environment. This shift in growth temperature induces... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Courtney E. Chandler, Erin M. Harberts, Mark R. Pelletier, Iyarit Thaipisuttikul, Jace W. Jones, Adeline M. Hajjar, Jason W. Sahl, David R. Goodlett, Aaron C. Pride, David A. Rasko, M. Stephen Trent, Russell E. Bishop, Robert K. Ernst Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Engineering carboxylic acid reductase for selective synthesis of medium-chain fatty alcohols in yeast [Microbiology]
Medium-chain fatty alcohols (MCFOHs, C6 to C12) are potential substitutes for fossil fuels, such as diesel and jet fuels, and have wide applications in various manufacturing processes. While today MCFOHs are mainly sourced from petrochemicals or plant oils, microbial biosynthesis represents a scalable, reliable, and sustainable alternative. Here, we aim... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yating Hu, Zhiwei Zhu, David Gradischnig, Margit Winkler, Jens Nielsen, Verena Siewers Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Relationship of estrogen synthesis capacity in the brain with obesity and self-control in men and women [Medical Sciences]
Gonadal hormones are linked to mechanisms that govern appetitive behavior and its suppression. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by the enzyme aromatase, highly expressed in the ovaries of reproductive-aged women and in the brains of men and women of all ages. We measured aromatase availability in the amygdala using positron... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Anat Biegon, Nelly Alia-Klein, David L. Alexoff, Joanna S. Fowler, Sung Won Kim, Jean Logan, Deborah Pareto, Rebecca Preston-Campbell, Gene-Jack Wang, Tom Hildebrandt Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Rapid isothermal amplification and portable detection system for SARS-CoV-2 [Medical Sciences]
The COVID-19 pandemic provides an urgent example where a gap exists between availability of state-of-the-art diagnostics and current needs. As assay protocols and primer sequences become widely known, many laboratories perform diagnostic tests using methods such as RT-PCR or reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Here, we report an... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Anurup Ganguli, Ariana Mostafa, Jacob Berger, Mehmet Y. Aydin, Fu Sun, Sarah A. Stewart de Ramirez, Enrique Valera, Brian T. Cunningham, William P. King, Rashid Bashir Tags: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Physical Sciences Source Type: research

A network-based explanation of why most COVID-19 infection curves are linear [Medical Sciences]
Many countries have passed their first COVID-19 epidemic peak. Traditional epidemiological models describe this as a result of nonpharmaceutical interventions pushing the growth rate below the recovery rate. In this phase of the pandemic many countries showed an almost linear growth of confirmed cases for extended time periods. This new... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Stefan Thurner, Peter Klimek, Rudolf Hanel Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Core Concept: Nascent exascale supercomputers offer promise, present challenges [Medical Sciences]
Sometime next year, managers at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory in Lemont, IL, will power up a calculating machine the size of 10 tennis courts and vault the country into a new age of computing. The $500-million mainframe, called Aurora, could become the world’s first “exascale”... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Adam Mann Tags: Core Concepts, Computer Sciences, Medical Sciences Source Type: research

DNA-PKcs phosphorylation at the T2609 cluster alters the repair pathway choice during immunoglobulin class switch recombination [Immunology and Inflammation]
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), which is composed of the KU heterodimer and the large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), is a classical nonhomologous end-joining (cNHEJ) factor. Naïve B cells undergo class switch recombination (CSR) to generate antibodies with different isotypes by joining two DNA double-strand breaks at different switching regions via... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jennifer L. Crowe, Xiaobin S. Wang, Zhengping Shao, Brian J. Lee, Verna M. Estes, Shan Zha Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Human {gamma}{delta} T cells recognize CD1b by two distinct mechanisms [Immunology and Inflammation]
γδ T cells form an abundant part of the human cellular immune system, where they respond to tissue damage, infection, and cancer. The spectrum of known molecular targets recognized by Vδ1-expressing γδ T cells is becoming increasingly diverse. Here we describe human γδ T cells that recognize CD1b, a lipid... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Josephine F. Reijneveld, Tonatiuh A. Ocampo, Adam Shahine, Benjamin S. Gully, Pierre Vantourout, Adrian C. Hayday, Jamie Rossjohn, D. Branch Moody, Ildiko Van Rhijn Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A pathogenic and clonally expanded B cell transcriptome in active multiple sclerosis [Immunology and Inflammation]
Central nervous system B cells have several potential roles in multiple sclerosis (MS): secretors of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, presenters of autoantigens to T cells, producers of pathogenic antibodies, and reservoirs for viruses that trigger demyelination. To interrogate these roles, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) was performed on paired cerebrospinal fluid... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Akshaya Ramesh, Ryan D. Schubert, Ariele L. Greenfield, Ravi Dandekar, Rita Loudermilk, Joseph J. Sabatino Jr, Matthew T. Koelzer, Edwina B. Tran, Kanishka Koshal, Kicheol Kim, Anne–Katrin Probstel, Debarko Banerȷi, University of California, Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

B cells expressing authentic naive human VRC01-class BCRs can be recruited to germinal centers and affinity mature in multiple independent mouse models [Immunology and Inflammation]
Animal models of human antigen-specific B cell receptors (BCRs) generally depend on “inferred germline” sequences, and thus their relationship to authentic naive human B cell BCR sequences and affinities is unclear. Here, BCR sequences from authentic naive human VRC01-class B cells from healthy human donors were selected for the generation... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Deli Huang, Robert K. Abbott, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Patrick D. Skog, Rita Al-Kolla, Bettina Groschel, Tanya R. Blane, Sergey Menis, Jenny Tuyet Tran, Theresa C. Thinnes, Sabrina A. Volpi, Alessia Liguori, Torben Schiffner, Sophia M. Villegas, Oleksandr Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Visualization of human T lymphocyte-mediated eradication of cancer cells in vivo [Immunology and Inflammation]
Lymphocyte-based immunotherapy has emerged as a breakthrough in cancer therapy for both hematologic and solid malignancies. In a subpopulation of cancer patients, this powerful therapeutic modality converts malignancy to clinically manageable disease. However, the T cell- and chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell-mediated antimetastatic activity, especially their impacts on microscopic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Xingkang He, Xin Yin, Jing Wu, Stina L. Wickstrom, Yanhong Duo, Qiqiao Du, Shuhang Qin, Shuzhong Yao, Xu Jing, Kayoko Hosaka, Jieyu Wu, Lasse D. Jensen, Andreas Lundqvist, Alexander I. Salter, Lars Brautigam, Wei Tao, Yuguo Chen, Rolf Kiessling, Yihai Cao Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

POLQ suppresses interhomolog recombination and loss of heterozygosity at targeted DNA breaks [Genetics]
Interhomolog recombination (IHR) occurs spontaneously in somatic human cells at frequencies that are low but sufficient to ameliorate some genetic diseases caused by heterozygous mutations or autosomal dominant mutations. Here we demonstrate that DNA nicks or double-strand breaks (DSBs) targeted by CRISPR-Cas9 to both homologs can stimulate IHR and associated... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Luther Davis, Kevin J. Khoo, Yinbo Zhang, Nancy Maizels Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Multiplexed conditional genome editing with Cas12a in Drosophila [Genetics]
CRISPR-Cas genome engineering has revolutionized biomedical research by enabling targeted genome modification with unprecedented ease. In the popular model organism Drosophila melanogaster, gene editing has so far relied exclusively on the prototypical CRISPR nuclease Cas9. Additional CRISPR systems could expand the genomic target space, offer additional modes of regulation, and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Fillip Port, Maja Starostecka, Michael Boutros Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The genetic basis for PRC1 complex diversity emerged early in animal evolution [Evolution]
Polycomb group proteins are essential regulators of developmental processes across animals. Despite their importance, studies on Polycomb are often restricted to classical model systems and, as such, little is known about the evolution of these important chromatin regulators. Here we focus on Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and trace the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: James M. Gahan, Fabian Rentzsch, Christine E. Schnitzler Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Human social preferences cluster and spread in the field [Evolution]
While it is undeniable that the ability of humans to cooperate in large-scale societies is unique in animal life, it remains open how such a degree of prosociality is possible despite the risks of exploitation. Recent evidence suggests that social networks play a crucial role in the development of prosociality... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alexander Ehlert, Martin Kindschi, Rene Algesheimer, Heiko Rauhut Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Latitudinal gradient in the respiration quotient and the implications for ocean oxygen availability [Environmental Sciences]
Climate-driven depletion of ocean oxygen strongly impacts the global cycles of carbon and nutrients as well as the survival of many animal species. One of the main uncertainties in predicting changes to marine oxygen levels is the regulation of the biological respiration demand associated with the biological pump. Derived from... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Allison R. Moreno, Catherine A. Garcia, Alyse A. Larkin, Jenna A. Lee, Wei-Lei Wang, J. Keith Moore, Francois W. Primeau, Adam C. Martiny Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Bioinspired MXene-integrated colloidal crystal arrays for multichannel bioinformation coding [Engineering]
Information coding strategies are becoming increasingly crucial due to the storage demand brought by the information explosion. In particular, bioinformation coding has attracted great attention for its advantages of excellent storage capacity and long lifetime. Herein, we present an innovative bioinspired MXene-integrated photonic crystal (PhC) array for multichannel bioinformation coding.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Feika Bian, Lingyu Sun, Lijun Cai, Yu Wang, Yuanjin Zhao Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Biotic rescaling reveals importance of species interactions for variation in biodiversity responses to climate change [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Generality in understanding biodiversity responses to climate change has been hampered by substantial variation in the rates and even directions of response to a given change in climate. We propose that such context dependencies can be clarified by rescaling climate gradients in terms of the underlying biological processes, with biotic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Vigdis Vandvik, Olav Skarpaas, Kari Klanderud, Richard J. Telford, Aud H. Halbritter, Deborah E. Goldberg Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Summertime stationary waves integrate tropical and extratropical impacts on tropical cyclone activity [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Tropical cyclones (TC) are one of the most severe storm systems on Earth and cause significant loss of life and property upon landfall in coastal areas. A better understanding of their variability mechanisms will help improve the TC seasonal prediction skill and mitigate the destructive impacts of the storms. Early... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zhuo Wang, Gan Zhang, Timothy J. Dunkerton, Fei-Fei Jin Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

A chemical dynamics study on the gas phase formation of thioformaldehyde (H2CS) and its thiohydroxycarbene isomer (HCSH) [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Complex organosulfur molecules are ubiquitous in interstellar molecular clouds, but their fundamental formation mechanisms have remained largely elusive. These processes are of critical importance in initiating a series of elementary chemical reactions, leading eventually to organosulfur molecules—among them potential precursors to iron-sulfide grains and to astrobiologically important molecules, such as... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Srinivas Doddipatla, Chao He, Ralf I. Kaiser, Yuheng Luo, Rui Sun, Galiya R. Galimova, Alexander M. Mebel, Tom J. Millar Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

The contribution of black carbon to global ice nucleating particle concentrations relevant to mixed-phase clouds [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Black carbon (BC) aerosol plays an important role in the Earth’s climate system because it absorbs solar radiation and therefore potentially warms the climate; however, BC can also act as a seed for cloud particles, which may offset much of its warming potential. If BC acts as an ice nucleating... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Gregory P. Schill, Paul J. DeMott, Ethan W. Emerson, Anne Marie C. Rauker, John K. Kodros, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Thomas C. J. Hill, Ezra J. T. Levin, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Delphine K. Farmer, Sonia M. Kreidenweis Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Anoxic photogeochemical oxidation of manganese carbonate yields manganese oxide [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The oxidation states of manganese minerals in the geological record have been interpreted as proxies for the evolution of molecular oxygen in the Archean eon. Here we report that an Archean manganese mineral, rhodochrosite (MnCO3), can be photochemically oxidized by light under anoxic, abiotic conditions. Rhodochrosite has a calculated bandgap... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Winnie Liu, Jihua Hao, Evert J. Elzinga, Piotr Piotrowiak, Vikas Nanda, Nathan Yee, Paul G. Falkowski Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Restoration of fragmentary Babylonian texts using recurrent neural networks [Computer Sciences]
The main sources of information regarding ancient Mesopotamian history and culture are clay cuneiform tablets. Many of these tablets are damaged, leading to missing information. Currently, the missing text is manually reconstructed by experts. We investigate the possibility of assisting scholars, by modeling the language using recurrent neural networks and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ethan Fetaya, Yonatan Lifshitz, Elad Aaron, Shai Gordin Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

CO2 reduction driven by a pH gradient [Chemistry]
All life on Earth is built of organic molecules, so the primordial sources of reduced carbon remain a major open question in studies of the origin of life. A variant of the alkaline-hydrothermal-vent theory for life’s emergence suggests that organics could have been produced by the reduction of CO2 via... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Reuben Hudson, Ruvan de Graaf, Mari Strandoo Rodin, Aya Ohno, Nick Lane, Shawn E. McGlynn, Yoichi M. A. Yamada, Ryuhei Nakamura, Laura M. Barge, Dieter Braun, Victor Sojo Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Site-specific covalent labeling of large RNAs with nanoparticles empowered by expanded genetic alphabet transcription [Chemistry]
Conjugation of RNAs with nanoparticles (NPs) is of significant importance because of numerous applications in biology and medicine, which, however, remains challenging especially for large ones. So far, the majority of RNA labeling relies on solid-phase chemical synthesis, which is generally limited to RNAs smaller than 100 nucleotides (nts). We,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yan Wang, Yaoyi Chen, Yanping Hu, Xianyang Fang Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Facilitating hydrogen atom migration via a dense phase on palladium islands to a surrounding silver surface [Chemistry]
The migration of species across interfaces can crucially affect the performance of heterogeneous catalysts. A key concept in using bimetallic catalysts for hydrogenation is that the active metal supplies hydrogen atoms to the host metal, where selective hydrogenation can then occur. Herein, we demonstrate that, following dihydrogen dissociation on palladium... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Christopher R. O’Connor, Kaining Duanmu, Dipna A. Patel, Eri Muramoto, Matthiȷs A. van Spronsen, Dario Stacchiola, E. Charles H. Sykes, Philippe Sautet, Robert J. Madix, Cynthia M. Friend Tags: Inaugural Articles Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Inner Workings: How human biology and behavior affect indoor air quality [Chemistry]
People in the United States spend more than 90% of their lives inside buildings or vehicles (1), and yet most research into air pollution focuses on the outdoors. Relatively little is known about what we breathe for most of our lives. HOMEChem researchers took analytical measurements while volunteers carried out... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Nina Notman Tags: Inner Workings, Chemistry, Environmental Sciences Source Type: research

Opinion: Neonicotinoids pose undocumented threats to food webs [Chemistry]
One of the main lessons that emerged from Silent Spring (1) is that we overuse pesticides at our own peril because human and natural environments are unquestionably linked. It is time to revisit these lessons given current use patterns of neonicotinoid insecticides. Neonicotinoids pose broader risks to biodiversity and food... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: S. D. Frank, J. F. Tooker Tags: Opinions, Chemistry, Environmental Sciences Source Type: research

The cryoelectron microscopy structure of the human CDK-activating kinase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The human CDK-activating kinase (CAK), a complex composed of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 7, cyclin H, and MAT1, is a critical regulator of transcription initiation and the cell cycle. It acts by phosphorylating the C-terminal heptapeptide repeat domain of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) subunit RPB1, which is an important... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Basil J. Greber, Juan M. Perez-Bertoldi, Kif Lim, Anthony T. Iavarone, Daniel B. Toso, Eva Nogales Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Multiscale computation delivers organophosphorus reactivity and stereoselectivity to immunoglobulin scavengers [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) maturation of an immunoglobulin (Ig) powered by supercomputation delivers novel functionality to this catalytic template and facilitates artificial evolution of biocatalysts. We here employ density functional theory-based (DFT-b) tight binding and funnel metadynamics to advance our earlier QM/MM maturation of A17 Ig-paraoxonase (WTIgP) as a reactibody... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yuliana A. Mokrushina, Andrey V. Golovin, Ivan V. Smirnov, Spyros D. Chatziefthimiou, Anastasia V. Stepanova, Tatyana V. Bobik, Arthur O. Zalevsky, Alexander S. Zlobin, Kirill A. Konovalov, Stanislav S. Terekhov, Alexey V. Stepanov, Sofiya O. Pipiya, Olga Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Multivalent weak interactions enhance selectivity of interparticle binding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Targeted drug delivery critically depends on the binding selectivity of cargo-transporting colloidal particles. Extensive theoretical work has shown that two factors are necessary to achieve high selectivity for a threshold receptor density: multivalency and weak interactions. Here, we study a model system of DNA-coated particles with multivalent and weak interactions... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: M. R. W. Scheepers, L. J. van IJzendoorn, M. W. J. Prins Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Stochastic reaction networks in dynamic compartment populations [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Compartmentalization of biochemical processes underlies all biological systems, from the organelle to the tissue scale. Theoretical models to study the interplay between noisy reaction dynamics and compartmentalization are sparse, and typically very challenging to analyze computationally. Recent studies have made progress toward addressing this problem in the context of specific... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lorenzo Duso, Christoph Zechner Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Defining an amyloid link Between Parkinson’s disease and melanoma [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We present a hypothesis that there is an amyloid link between α-syn and Pmel17 (premelanosomal protein), a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Dexter N. Dean, Jennifer C. Lee Tags: Brief Reports Biological Sciences Source Type: research

RubyACRs, nonalgal anion channelrhodopsins with highly red-shifted absorption [Biochemistry]
We report two previously unknown families of anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs), one from the heterotrophic protists labyrinthulea and the other from haptophyte algae. Four closely related labyrinthulea ACRs, named RubyACRs here, exhibit a unique retinal-binding pocket that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Elena G. Govorunova, Oleg A. Sineshchekov, Hai Li, Yumei Wang, Leonid S. Brown, John L. Spudich Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Avoiding ventilator-associated pneumonia: Curcumin-functionalized endotracheal tube and photodynamic action [Applied Physical Sciences]
Hospital-acquired infections are a global health problem that threatens patients’ treatment in intensive care units, causing thousands of deaths and a considerable increase in hospitalization costs. The endotracheal tube (ETT) is a medical device placed in the patient’s trachea to assist breathing and delivering oxygen into the lungs. However, bacterial... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Amanda C. Zangirolami, Lucas D. Dias, Kate C. Blanco, Carolina S. Vinagreiro, Natalia M. Inada, Luis G. Arnaut, Mariette M. Pereira, Vanderlei S. Bagnato Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Direct kinetic fingerprinting and digital counting of single protein molecules [Applied Biological Sciences]
The sensitive and accurate quantification of protein biomarkers plays important roles in clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. Sandwich ELISA and its variants accomplish the capture and detection of a target protein via two antibodies that tightly bind at least two distinct epitopes of the same antigen and have been the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Tanmay Chatterjee, Achim Knappik, Erin Sandford, Muneesh Tewari, Sung Won Choi, William B. Strong, Evan P. Thrush, Kenneth J. Oh, Ning Liu, Nils G. Walter, Alexander Johnson-Buck Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Next-generation gene drive for population modification of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae [Applied Biological Sciences]
A Cas9/guide RNA-based gene drive strain, AgNosCd-1, was developed to deliver antiparasite effector molecules to the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The drive system targets the cardinal gene ortholog producing a red-eye phenotype. Drive can achieve 98 to 100% in both sexes and full introduction was observed in small cage... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Rebeca Carballar–Leȷarazu, Christian Ogaugwu, Taylor Tushar, Adam Kelsey, Thai Binh Pham, Jazmin Murphy, Hanno Schmidt, Yoosook Lee, Gregory C. Lanzaro, Anthony A. James Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Gold-based therapy: From past to present [Medical Sciences]
Despite an abundant literature on gold nanoparticles use for biomedicine, only a few of the gold-based nanodevices are currently tested in clinical trials, and none of them are approved by health agencies. Conversely, ionic gold has been used for decades to treat human rheumatoid arthritis and benefits from 70-y hindsight... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alice Balfourier, Jelena Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Nathalie Luciani, Florent Carn, Florence Gazeau Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Trip duration modifies spatial spread of infectious diseases [Population Biology]
Early theories of pathogen transmission were based on random interactions among host individuals with models essentially borrowed from chemistry (1), providing fundamental analytical results including the structure of the basic reproductive number for pathogen invasion (the number of secondary cases caused by an infectious individual in a susceptible population) and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Andrew W. Park Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

How the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (MCUcx) works [Physiology]
The MCU holocomplex, MCUcx Cytosolic calcium enters the mitochondrial matrix through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) where it acts as a signal that regulates ATP production (1), metabolic fuel selection (1–3), and if excessively high, triggers cell death (4). The complete complex of the MCU subunits is now referred to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Liron Boyman, W. Jonathan Lederer Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Anacardic acid, interleukin-33, and the quest for remyelination [Immunology and Inflammation]
In PNAS, Ljunggren-Rose et al. (1) present results from a study assessing the effect of anacardic acid, a salicylic acid derivative with a 15- or 17-carbon-containing alkyl chain substituent (i.e., 2-hydroxy 6-alkylbenzoic acid), on remyelination. Anacardic acids are phytochemicals that are found in foods such as cashews and mangoes. Myelin... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Murali Ramanathan Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Baboons, bonds, biology, and lessons about early life adversity [Evolution]
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been defined as those that exhibit a dose–response relationship with health risk behaviors and chronic diseases known to increase mortality (1). ACEs are also associated with biomarkers related to inflammation, genetics, and endocrine functioning (e.g., cortisol) (2). The standard compendium of 10 ACEs includes abuse... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Louise C. Hawkley, John P. Capitanio Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

QnAs with Mariano Morales [QnAs]
Mariano Morales is attempting to piece together South America’s climate history through its trees, specifically by examining tree rings. A researcher at the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas at the Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales in Mendoza, Argentina, Morales combines dendrochronology with archaeology, history, and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Beth Azar Tags: QnAs Source Type: research

Reply to Liu: The disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton is an early event during NETosis [Biological Sciences]
We used quantitative, high-resolution live-cell imaging of neutrophil-like human cells (dHL60) and mouse and human blood-derived polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) stimulated with ionomycin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or Candida albicans to identify 13 cellular events occurring during neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis) (1). Following thousands of single cells over time showed that these... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hawa Racine Thiam, Siu Ling Wong, Rong Qiu, Mark Kittisopikul, Amir Vahabikashi, Anne E. Goldman, Robert D. Goldman, Denisa D. Wagner, Clare M. Waterman Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Functional actin cytoskeleton is required in early stage of NETosis induction [Biological Sciences]
Neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis) is a dynamic process featuring nuclear chromatin extrusion and extracellular trap formation (1) in which ruptures of nuclear envelope and plasma membrane are prerequisite events. Thiam et al. (1) analyze several important cellular events, including cytoskeleton organization, during NETosis using time-lapse microscopy. They conclude that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ming-Lin Liu Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Fold class and evolutionary mobility of protein modules [Letters (Online Only)]
Reversion-inducing Cysteine-rich Protein with Kazal Motifs (RECK) protein contains five tandem extracellular CC domains that play an essential role in the regulation of signaling by WNT7A and WNT7B. As pointed out by Chang et al. (1), in the RECK gene the CC domains are encoded by exons flanked by phase... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Laszlo Patthy Tags: Letters Source Type: research