White Matter Microstructure in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) codifies severe, chronic irritability. Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) also present with irritability, but with an episodic course. To date, it is not clear whether aberrant white matter microstructure – a well-replicated finding in BD – can be observed in DMDD and relates to symptoms of irritability. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julia O. Linke, Nancy E. Adleman, Joelle Sarlls, Andrew Ross, Samantha Perlstein, Heather R. Frank, Kenneth E. Towbin, Daniel S. Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A. Brotman Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Cannabis-Associated Psychotic-Like Experiences Are Mediated by Developmental Changes in the Parahippocampal Gyrus
Cannabis consumption during adolescence has been reported as a risk-factor for psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and schizophrenia. However, brain developmental processes associated with cannabis-related PLEs are still ill-described. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tao Yu, Tianye Jia, Liping Zhu, Sylvane Desrivi ères, Christine Macare, Yan Bi, Arun L.W. Bokde, Erin Burke Quinlan, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, ChuanXin Liu, Lei Ji, Tobias Banaschewski, Decheng Ren, Li Du, Binyin Hou, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Hu Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Systematic Review: Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants: Risk Factors, Outcomes, and Risk Reduction Strategies
To review all literature on the nonmedical use (NMU) and diversion of prescription stimulants to better understand the characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of NMU and review risk-reduction strategies. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephen V. Faraone, Anthony L. Rostain, C. Brendan Montano, Oren Mason, Kevin M. Antshel, Jeffrey H. Newcorn Tags: Review Source Type: research

Borderline Symptoms at Age 12 Signal Risk for Poor Outcomes During the Transition to Adulthood: Findings From a Genetically Sensitive Longitudinal Cohort Study
Borderline personality disorder in adolescence remains a controversial construct. Here we addressed concerns about the prognostic significance of adolescent borderline pathology by testing whether borderline symptoms at age 12 years predict functioning during the transition to adulthood, at age 18 years, in areas critical to life-course development. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jasmin Wertz, Avshalom Caspi, Antony Ambler, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W. Belsky, Andrea Danese, Helen L. Fisher, Timothy Matthews, Leah Richmond-Rakerd, Terrie E. Moffitt Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Editorial: Identifying Youth With Mood Disorders at High Short-Term Risk of Hospital Readmission
Children and adolescents with mood disorder diagnoses are at greater risk of psychiatric hospital admission than youth with disruptive disorders or even psychotic disorders diagnoses.1,2 They account for over two thirds of all child and adolescent mental health admissions to general hospitals and after leaving the hospital they have a substantial risk of early hospital readmission.3 Yet despite these risks, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to identifying which child and adolescent inpatients with mood disorders are at particularly high risk of early hospital readmission. (Source: Journal of the American Acade...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mark Olfson Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: How Badly Do We Undercount Chronic Maltreatment, and How Much Should Clinicians Care?
Child maltreatment is both common1-4 and costly5,6 for children, communities, and society. Recent estimates suggest that roughly 1 in 8 American children will ever experience confirmed maltreatment4 and that the average lifetime cost per maltreatment victim is in excess of $210,000.5 This is the furthest thing from news for those who work in the child welfare system. But for those of us —whether adolescent and child psychiatrists, demographers, criminologists, or economists—who have an interest in marginalized children but are less “in the weeds” of the child welfare system, both the cost and the sc...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christopher Wildeman Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication and Unintentional Injuries in Children and Adolescents
Our objective was to determine whether ADHD medication is associated with a decreased risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents in the United States across sexes, age groups and injury types. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laura Ghirardi, Henrik Larsson, Zheng Chang, Qi Chen, Patrick D. Quinn, Kwan Hur, Robert D. Gibbons, Brian M. D ’Onofrio Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Editorial: The Genetic Overlap Between Cognitive Abilities and a Transdiagnostic Vulnerability for Psychopathology
Cognitive abilities like working memory, selective attention, inhibition, alertness, and flexibility are collectively known as executive functioning (EF), which is essential in daily life routines. For instance, EF is important when planning a series of actions, in novel situations, or during the performance of complex tasks. General intelligence or g, is a related construct and involves for instance the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, and learn from experience. The concept g is usually measured with a psychometric intelligence test. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tinca J.C. Polderman Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Brief Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Anxiety and Depression in Primary Care: A Follow-Up
To report on the 32-week outcome of the Brief Behavioral Therapy (BBT) for Pediatric Anxiety and Depression in Primary Care clinical trial. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David A. Brent, Giovanna Porta, Michelle S. Rozenman, Araceli Gonzalez, Karen T.G. Schwartz, Frances L. Lynch, John F. Dickerson, Satish Iyengar, V. Robin Weersing Tags: New Research Source Type: research

In Reply
The Letter to the Editor by Verhees et  al. raises interesting questions about how to potentiate the mechanism of change in attachment-focused therapies.1 The basic assumption of attachment theory is that that children who grow up with insensitive or inconsistent parenting or trauma internalize a view of the world as unsafe and view the mselves as unworthy of love and protection. These early relational experiences lay down the foundation of one’s view of oneself and expectation of others. This schema, combined with temperament and biology, inform and influence future relationships and experiences. But for Bowlby...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Guy S. Diamond Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Eye-Tracking of Attention to Threat in Child and Adolescent Anxiety
Attention biases for threat may reflect an early risk marker for anxiety disorders. Yet questions remain on the direction and time-course of anxiety-linked biased attention patterns in youth. A meta-analysis of eye-tracking studies of biased attention for threat was used to compare the presence of an initial vigilance towards threat and a subsequent avoidance in anxious and non-anxious youth. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephen Lisk, Ayesha Vaswani, Marian Linetzky, Yair Bar-Haim, Jennifer Y.F. Lau Tags: Review Source Type: research

Review: Exteroceptive Sensory Abnormalities in Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Critical Review
Childhood anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are defined by fear, worry, and uncertainty, but there is also evidence that affected children possess exteroceptive sensory abnormalities. These sensory features may often instigate symptoms and cause significant distress and functional impairment. In addition, a purported class of conditions known as “sensory processing disorders” may significantly overlap with childhood anxiety and OCD, which provides further support for a connection between abnormal sensation and fear-based psychopathology. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David C. Houghton, Dan J. Stein, Bernadette M. Cortese Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sensory-to-Cognitive Systems Integration Is Associated With Clinical Severity in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Impaired multisensory integration in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may arise from functional dysconnectivity among brain systems. Our study examines the functional connectivity integration between primary modal sensory regions and heteromodal processing cortex in ASD, and whether abnormalities in network integration relate to clinical severity. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kenia Mart ínez, Magdalena Martínez-García, Luis Marcos-Vidal, Joost Janssen, Francisco X. Castellanos, Clara Pretus, Óscar Villarroya, Laura Pina-Camacho, Covadonga M. Díaz-Caneja, Mara Parellada, Celso Arango, Manuel Desco, Jorge Sepulcre, Susanna Tags: New Research Source Type: research

A National Examination of Child Psychiatric Telephone Consultation Programs ’ Impact on Children’s Mental Health Care Utilization
Estimates are that half of children with mental health problems do not receive needed treatment.1 One of the barriers they face is that there are not enough child mental health specialty providers to meet their needs.2 Pediatric providers, who might partially fill this gap, often feel they lack the training to treat children ’s mental health disorders without consulting a specialist.3 (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bradley D. Stein, Aaron Kofner, William B. Vogt, Hao Yu Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Growing Up With an Undocumented Parent in America: Psychosocial Adversity in Domestically Residing Immigrant Children
There are currently 6 to 7 million children residing in the United States with at least one undocumented parent. These children are living in our communities and are at risk for a number of psychosocial adversities. Such adversities include poverty, cramped living conditions, decreased access to washers and dryers, food insecurity, malnourishment, difficulties with academic achievement, increased risk for learning disabilities, parental loss and separation, decreased access to preschool, lack of social support and family ties in the community, and decreased access to health care, housing, and financial assistance. As such,...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shawn S. Sidhu, Suzan J. Song Tags: Clinical perspectives Source Type: research

Growing Up With an Undocumented Parent in America: Psychosocial Adversity in Domestically-Residing Immigrant Children
Enrique is a 6-year-old male child presenting for an evaluation at the request of his school. Both he and his undocumented mother appear tense and worried. He was born in the United States after his parents migrated from El Salvador due to safety concerns, and the police arrested his father in a workplace raid two months prior to this visit. Since then Enrique and his mother have been living in cramped quarters without access to a washing machine. Enrique ’s mother has been looking for work and money is tight. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shawn S. Sidhu, Suzan J. Song Tags: Clinical Perspectives Source Type: research

Debate: Are Stimulant Medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Effective in the Long-Term?
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diagnoses in child and adolescent mental health services, in the United States as well as in many other countries. Medication, including stimulant and non-stimulant options, is an important element of the multimodal approach to ADHD management. Stimulants are recommended as the first line pharmacological treatment.1 A recent study including data from over 150 million individuals in 13 countries showed an increase in the prevalence of ADHD medications use over the past 15 years in all countries, albeit with large variations across countries. (Source: ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Samuele Cortese, James M. Swanson, David Coghill Tags: In Context Source Type: research

Current Challenges in Addressing Youth Mental Health in the Context of Violent Radicalization
Although structural violence and social inequality affect youth physical and mental health throughout the world,1 the problem of violent radicalization (VR) has more recently emerged as an area of concern for professionals working with youth. Radicalization is a dynamic, complex process that is generated and fueled by intercommunity frictions and conflicting political, social, and economic discourses and interests.2 It takes the form of a shift away from a moderate point of view to a rigid one that rejects the status quo and demands drastic societal change, although not necessarily through violence.2 Violent radicalization...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: C écile Rousseau, Ghayda Hassan Tags: Translations Source Type: research

LGBT Youth, Mental Health, and Spiritual Care: Psychiatric Collaboration With Health Care Chaplains
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth have unique medical and mental health needs. Exposure to stigma such as family non-acceptance is associated with adverse mental health outcomes that are important sources of morbidity and mortality in this population. These include depression, anxiety, substance abuse, suicidality, and risk behaviors that mediate exposure to human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections. Different religious and/or spiritual traditions hold various beliefs and attitudes about LGBT people. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stewart L. Adelson, Emilee Walker-Cornetta, Naomi Kalish Tags: Translations Source Type: research

Counting What Counts: The Case for Harmonized Outcomes in Child and Youth Mental Health Research
The objective of this commentary is to examine the potential of developing and implementing “Core Outcome Sets” (COS) as a means of reducing variability in the measurement and reporting of outcomes across RCTs and cohort studies, and thereby promoting the translation of evidence to practice. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peter Szatmari, Martin Offringa, Nancy J. Butcher, Suneeta Monga Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Helen R. Beiser, MD (1915-2018)
Dr. Helen R. Beiser died in the presence of her loving family in March 2018 at 103 years young, but her legacy lives on. Her impact on the field of child and adolescent psychiatry is deep. She was a prolific teacher, author, and clinician who left us lessons to use today. In her plenary address as AACAP President in 1983, she spoke about “curiosity as a powerful motivating force in human behavior and creativity, as well as a lot of fun.”1 Her life and legacy is a reflection of this curiosity. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karen Pierce Tags: In memoriam Source Type: research

A Little Magic
Despite advances in the neuroscience of addiction, progress in medication-assisted treatment (MAT), and legislative momentum, in 2017 more than 70,000 Americans died due to drug overdose.2,3 Clearly there are no perfect answers to the opioid crisis. Albeit messy, we must begin somewhere, and one upstream approach includes providing public education and reducing stigma such that people will reach out for help and find support readily accessible.4 Kate Messner ’s middle-reader novel, The Seventh Wish and Jarret Krosoczka’s young adult−focused graphic memoir, Hey, Kiddo provide excellent starting points. Thi...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Craigan Usher Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

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Each day I interact with individuals, including teens, whose lives have been affected by heroin use. I bear witness to pain, loss, family disintegration, shame, and hopelessness. Yet I also see the miracle of change. Despite recent media attention and increasing public awareness, opiate addiction is not a new phenomenon. Over the past few years, articles about the increasing incidence of opiate overdoses have dominated the news. In fact, while reading The Seventh Wish, a headline announced that the risk of an opiate overdose has surpassed the risk of dying in a car accident in our country. (Source: Journal of the American ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anandam Hilde Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

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The graphic novel Hey, Kiddo opens in “Hope Cemetery,” where the teenage protagonist is being taught to drive. His grandfather turned-driving-instructor quips that their location is perfect: “Everyone is already dead.” This is a fitting introduction for Jarrett Krosoczka’s melancholy yet heartwarming memoir of growing up in th e shadow of his mother’s drug addiction. Although Krosoczka’s tale is set in the 1980s and 1990s, in light of our opioid crisis, it is poignantly “now.” (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer Creedon Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

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Only a few medical school lectures from a decade ago stand out in my mind, but one in particular haunts me. In 2008, during my internal medicine clerkship, a pain specialist lectured on the utility of prescription opioids for the treatment of chronic, nonmalignant pain. New to medicine, I was wary of the risks that taking this lecturer ’s approach entailed, particularly as many of the “old-school” surgeons with whom I had already rotated prescribed opioids so conservatively. The lecturer that day not only argued against such conservative practice, but he asserted that physicians’ fear of prescribing...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Scott Hunter Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

Strengthening Attachment-Based Therapies: A Case for Cognitive Bias Modification?
A recent article published in the Journal describes the effectiveness of attachment-based family therapy in decreasing suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms in adolescents. 1Because insecure attachment is a transdiagnostic risk factor in the development of psychological problems in children and adolescents, improving attachment relationships is an important therapeutic endeavor. In their article, Diamond et  al. suggest that programs such as attachment-based family therapy might become more effective or “fortified by integrating more specific cognitive and emotional skills training.” 1In the current le...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martine W.F.T. Verhees, Eva Ceulemans, Guy Bosmans Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Dr. Diamond Replies
The Letter to the Editor by Verhees et  al. raises interesting questions about how to potentiate the mechanism of change in attachment-focused therapies.1 The basic assumption of attachment theory is that that children who grow up with insensitive or inconsistent parenting or trauma internalize a view of the world as unsafe and view the mselves as unworthy of love and protection. These early relational experiences lay down the foundation of one’s view of oneself and expectation of others. This schema, combined with temperament and biology, inform and influence future relationships and experiences. But for Bowlby...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Guy S. Diamond Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Council Page
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Avoidance, Insight, Impairment Recognition Concordance, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Outcomes in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Insight and avoidance are commonly discussed factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that have demonstrated associations with increased severity as well as reduced treatment response in adults, but have not been sufficiently examined in pediatric OCD. The present study examines the impacts of avoidance, insight, and impairment recognition concordance, on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) outcomes, as well as impacts of CBT on insight and avoidance, in a large sample of OCD-affected youth. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert R. Selles, Davi ð R.M.A. Højgaard, Tord Ivarsson, Per Hove Thomsen, Nicole Michelle McBride, Eric A. Storch, Daniel Geller, Sabine Wilhelm, Lara J. Farrell, Allison M. Waters, Sharna Mathieu, BPsych, S. Evelyn Stewart Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Change in the Prevention of Depression: An Indicated School-Based Prevention Trial at the Transition to High School
Depression represents a major public health concern and prevalence increases significantly during adolescence. The high school transition may exacerbate risk of depression for youth with pre-existing vulnerability. The High School Transition Program (HSTP) is a brief skills-based intervention that has demonstrated efficacy in preventing depression in adolescents. The current study aimed to evaluate the theorized mechanisms of change of the HSTP intervention by testing a multiple mediation model including school attachment (SA) and self-esteem (SE) as two mediators of treatment outcomes. (Source: Journal of the American Aca...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer B. Blossom, Molly C. Adrian, Ann Vander Stoep, Elizabeth McCauley Tags: New Research Source Type: research

The Real Emergency at our Southern Border is Mental Health
On February 15, 2019, President Trump declared a national emergency at the border of the United States and Mexico stating that “We’re talking about an invasion of our country with drugs, with human traffickers, with all types of criminals and gangs.”1 As clinical scientists, we are able to unpack data from the federal government and other sources in order to evaluate this statement. In contrast to the declaration, ava ilable data fails to support an invasion of drugs and criminals and, instead, points to a real humanitarian emergency regarding the mental health of children and families migrating to the US...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amanda Venta Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Abnormal Thalamic Functional Connectivity During Light Non –Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Children With Primary Nocturnal Enuresis
To investigate abnormalities of thalamocortical and intrathalamic functional connectivity (FC) in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) during light non –rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep using a simultaneous EEG–functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bing Yu, Shanshan Xiao, Yi You, Hongwei Ma, Miao Peng, Yang Hou, Qiyong Guo Tags: New research Source Type: research

Abnormal Thalamic Functional Connectivity During Light Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Children With Primary Nocturnal Enuresis
The present work investigated abnormalities of thalamocortical and intrathalamic functional connectivity (FC) in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) during light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep using a simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) method. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bing Yu, Shanshan Xiao, Yi You, Hongwei Ma, Miao Peng, Yang Hou, Qiyong Guo Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Stigma and Acceptance of Sierra Leone ’s Child Soldiers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adult Mental Health and Social Functioning
To investigate the associations of war and postconflict factors with mental health among Sierra Leone ’s former child soldiers as adults. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Dana L. Thomson, Robert T. Brennan, Cara M. Antonaccio, Stephen E. Gilman, Tyler J. VanderWeele Tags: New research Source Type: research

Stigma and Acceptance of Sierra Leone's Child Soldiers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adult Mental Health and Social Functioning
To investigate the associations of war and post-conflict factors with mental health among Sierra Leone ’s former child soldiers as adults. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Dana L. Thomson, Robert T. Brennan, Cara M. Antonaccio, Stephen E. Gilman, Tyler J. VanderWeele Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Reward-Related Brain Activity Prospectively Predicts Increases in Alcohol Use in Adolescents
Altered activity within reward-related neural regions, including the ventral striatum (VS) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), is associated with concurrent problematic substance use. The aims of the present study were to (a) identify patterns of reward-related neural activity that prospectively predict changes in alcohol use two years after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning in a sample of adolescents, and (b) examine whether these patterns differ by sex. We also tested whether depression symptoms or impulsivity mediated associations between neural activity and future alcohol use. (Source: Journal of the American ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Johnna R. Swartz, David G. Weissman, Emilio Ferrer, Sarah J. Beard, Catherine Fassbender, Richard W. Robins, Paul D. Hastings, Amanda E. Guyer Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Editorial: The Promise of Psychiatric Translational Research: Exploring How the Gut Can Influence Brain Development
How the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can influence the development and functioning of the central nervous system is one of the hottest translational research topics today. In animal studies, GI infections have been linked to enteric inflammation, disrupted intestinal permeability, and changes in diversity in the gut microbiome as well as brain dysfunction.1 In humans, infectious gastroenteritis has been associated with modified composition of the gut microbiome and systemic inflammation.2 While gastroenteritis has not been causally linked to dysregulation of the brain in humans, it has been associated with later chronic GI ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eva Szigethy Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Factors Associated With Multiple Psychiatric Readmissions for Youths With Mood Disorders
This study builds upon prior research by examining patient-, hospital-, and community-level factors associated with single and multiple readmissions for youth. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Matthew S. Phillips, Danielle L. Steelesmith, John V. Campo, Taniya Pradhan, Cynthia A. Fontanella Source Type: research

Editorial: Antidepressants to the Rescue in Severe Mood Dysregulation and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder?
Explosive, raging children populate emergency departments, inpatient units, residential programs, juvenile facilities, and special education classrooms. When less serious, they are excluded from social and other activities because they are unpleasant and disruptive. Often they feel badly and even suicidal because of their behavior and the trouble it causes. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabrielle A. Carlson, Daniel N. Klein Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: Parent-Based Treatment for Childhood Anxiety
Anxiety Disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses in childhood and adolescence.1 The mainstays of treatment for childhood anxiety disorders are Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and medications.2 Both of these treatments focus primarily on the child. However, parents and families often play a major role in the reinforcement of anxiety disorders through accommodations that may adversely affect the child ’s development.3 Examples of such accommodations include keeping a child with separation anxiety disorder home from school, permitting a child with social anxiety disorder to avoid social events, or pr...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert McKelvey Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: What Constitutes “Evidence-Based” Educational Practice?
The requirement for educational provision for all children to be evidence based has been highlighted in many government policies.1 The significant additional costs of educating children with autism, and difficulties in recruiting adequately trained teachers, has placed increasing pressure on education authorities to provide more cost-effective instruction methods for pupils with autism. Computer-assisted interventions (CAI) have been suggested as a possible means of meeting the educational needs of this group and findings from mostly small, uncontrolled studies have indicated positive improvements in areas such as academic...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Patricia Howlin Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Heterogeneity of Anxious Phenotypes: Neural Responses to Errors in Treatment-Seeking Anxious and Behaviorally-Inhibited Youth
While behaviorally-inhibited (BI) temperament predicts risk for anxiety, anxiety in BI may involve distinct neural responses to errors. The current study examines the relations between anxiety and neural correlates of error processing both in youth identified as BI in early childhood and in youth seeking treatment for an anxiety disorder. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ashley R. Smith, Lauren K. White, Ellen Leibenluft, Anastasia L. McGlade, Adina C. Heckelman, Simone P. Haller, George A. Buzzell, Nathan A. Fox, Daniel S. Pine Tags: New Research Source Type: research

A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Citalopram Adjunctive to Stimulant Medication in Youth With Chronic Severe Irritability
Despite the clinical importance of chronic and severe irritability, there is a paucity of controlled trials for its pharmacological treatment. Here, we examine the effects of adding citalopram (CTP) to methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of chronic severe irritability in youth using a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kenneth Towbin, Pablo Vidal-Ribas, Melissa A. Brotman, Andrew Pickles, Katherine V. Miller, Ariela Kaiser, Aria D. Vitale, Chana Engel, Gerald P. Overman, Mollie Davis, Beth Lee, Cheri McNeil, Wanda Wheeler, Catherine H. Yokum, Catherine T. Haring, Alexan Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Editorial: Antidepressants to the Rescue in Severe Mood Dysregulation (SMD) and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)?
Explosive, raging, children populate emergency rooms, inpatient units, residential programs, juvenile facilities and special education classrooms. When less serious, they are excluded from social and other activities because they are unpleasant and disruptive. Often, they feel badly and even suicidal because of their behavior and the trouble it causes. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabrielle A. Carlson, Daniel N. Klein Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: Evaluating the Clinical and Financial Outcomes  of Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy on a Psychiatric Inpatient Unit: A Change in Practice and Culture
Applying and evaluating evidence-based treatments (EBTs) across the mental health care continuum continues to gain support and cultivate strategies for development, training, implementation, and evaluation.1 However, there is a disconnect between science and practice, resulting in limited implementation of EBTs in real-world clinical settings, such as outpatient care, partial hospitalization programs, intensive outpatient programs, psychiatric inpatient hospitalization, and residential care. Although some EBTs and associated interventions have been evaluated in outpatient settings, few have been evaluated in acute and inte...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jarrod M. Leffler Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: Causal, Predispositional, or Correlate? Group Differences in Cognitive Control-Related Brain Function in Cannabis-Using Youth Raise New Questions
Increasingly permissive attitudes and laws surrounding cannabis have been accompanied by more prevalent use and increased perceptions of its safety.1 However, in stark contrast to this sea-change, remarkably little is known about the potential consequences and etiology of cannabis involvement. In particular, it is unclear what biological mechanisms may undergird associations with negative outcomes (eg, reduced cognition, increased psychosis, depression)2 and whether these substrates arise from cannabis use and/or represent predispositional risk factors. As cannabis remains at the forefront of public discussion and policy, ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David A.A. Baranger, Ryan Bogdan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Systematic Review: United States Workforce for Autism-Related Child Healthcare Services
A diversity of United States health professional disciplines provide services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a systematic review examining the availability, distribution and competencies of the U.S. workforce for autism-related child healthcare services, and assess studies ’ strength of evidence. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ryan K. McBain, Vishnupriya Kareddy, Jonathan H. Cantor, Bradley D. Stein, Hao Yu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Editorial: What Do Cannabis-Related Differences in Corticostriatal Circuitry Subserving Cognitive Control Mean?
Increasingly permissive attitudes and laws surrounding cannabis have been accompanied by more prevalent use and increased perceptions of its safety.1 However, in stark contrast to this sea-change, remarkably little is known about the potential consequences and etiology of cannabis involvement. In particular, it is unclear what biological mechanisms may undergird associations with negative outcomes (eg, reduced cognition, increased psychosis, depression)2 and whether these substrates arise from cannabis use and/or represent predispositional risk factors. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David A.A. Baranger, Ryan Bogdan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research