Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Council Page
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Avoidance, Insight, Impairment Recognition Concordance, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Outcomes in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Insight and avoidance are commonly discussed factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that have demonstrated associations with increased severity as well as reduced treatment response in adults, but have not been sufficiently examined in pediatric OCD. The present study examines the impacts of avoidance, insight, and impairment recognition concordance, on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) outcomes, as well as impacts of CBT on insight and avoidance, in a large sample of OCD-affected youth. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert R. Selles, Davi ð R.M.A. Højgaard, Tord Ivarsson, Per Hove Thomsen, Nicole Michelle McBride, Eric A. Storch, Daniel Geller, Sabine Wilhelm, Lara J. Farrell, Allison M. Waters, Sharna Mathieu, BPsych, S. Evelyn Stewart Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Change in the Prevention of Depression: An Indicated School-Based Prevention Trial at the Transition to High School
Depression represents a major public health concern and prevalence increases significantly during adolescence. The high school transition may exacerbate risk of depression for youth with pre-existing vulnerability. The High School Transition Program (HSTP) is a brief skills-based intervention that has demonstrated efficacy in preventing depression in adolescents. The current study aimed to evaluate the theorized mechanisms of change of the HSTP intervention by testing a multiple mediation model including school attachment (SA) and self-esteem (SE) as two mediators of treatment outcomes. (Source: Journal of the American Aca...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer B. Blossom, Molly C. Adrian, Ann Vander Stoep, Elizabeth McCauley Tags: New Research Source Type: research

The Real Emergency at our Southern Border is Mental Health
On February 15, 2019, President Trump declared a national emergency at the border of the United States and Mexico stating that “We’re talking about an invasion of our country with drugs, with human traffickers, with all types of criminals and gangs.”1 As clinical scientists, we are able to unpack data from the federal government and other sources in order to evaluate this statement. In contrast to the declaration, ava ilable data fails to support an invasion of drugs and criminals and, instead, points to a real humanitarian emergency regarding the mental health of children and families migrating to the US...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amanda Venta Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Abnormal Thalamic Functional Connectivity During Light Non –Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Children With Primary Nocturnal Enuresis
To investigate abnormalities of thalamocortical and intrathalamic functional connectivity (FC) in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) during light non –rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep using a simultaneous EEG–functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bing Yu, Shanshan Xiao, Yi You, Hongwei Ma, Miao Peng, Yang Hou, Qiyong Guo Tags: New research Source Type: research

Abnormal Thalamic Functional Connectivity During Light Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Children With Primary Nocturnal Enuresis
The present work investigated abnormalities of thalamocortical and intrathalamic functional connectivity (FC) in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) during light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep using a simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) method. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bing Yu, Shanshan Xiao, Yi You, Hongwei Ma, Miao Peng, Yang Hou, Qiyong Guo Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Stigma and Acceptance of Sierra Leone ’s Child Soldiers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adult Mental Health and Social Functioning
To investigate the associations of war and postconflict factors with mental health among Sierra Leone ’s former child soldiers as adults. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Dana L. Thomson, Robert T. Brennan, Cara M. Antonaccio, Stephen E. Gilman, Tyler J. VanderWeele Tags: New research Source Type: research

Stigma and Acceptance of Sierra Leone's Child Soldiers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adult Mental Health and Social Functioning
To investigate the associations of war and post-conflict factors with mental health among Sierra Leone ’s former child soldiers as adults. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Dana L. Thomson, Robert T. Brennan, Cara M. Antonaccio, Stephen E. Gilman, Tyler J. VanderWeele Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Reward-Related Brain Activity Prospectively Predicts Increases in Alcohol Use in Adolescents
Altered activity within reward-related neural regions, including the ventral striatum (VS) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), is associated with concurrent problematic substance use. The aims of the present study were to (a) identify patterns of reward-related neural activity that prospectively predict changes in alcohol use two years after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning in a sample of adolescents, and (b) examine whether these patterns differ by sex. We also tested whether depression symptoms or impulsivity mediated associations between neural activity and future alcohol use. (Source: Journal of the American ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Johnna R. Swartz, David G. Weissman, Emilio Ferrer, Sarah J. Beard, Catherine Fassbender, Richard W. Robins, Paul D. Hastings, Amanda E. Guyer Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Editorial: The Promise of Psychiatric Translational Research: Exploring How the Gut Can Influence Brain Development
How the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can influence the development and functioning of the central nervous system is one of the hottest translational research topics today. In animal studies, GI infections have been linked to enteric inflammation, disrupted intestinal permeability, and changes in diversity in the gut microbiome as well as brain dysfunction.1 In humans, infectious gastroenteritis has been associated with modified composition of the gut microbiome and systemic inflammation.2 While gastroenteritis has not been causally linked to dysregulation of the brain in humans, it has been associated with later chronic GI ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eva Szigethy Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Factors Associated With Multiple Psychiatric Readmissions for Youths With Mood Disorders
This study builds upon prior research by examining patient-, hospital-, and community-level factors associated with single and multiple readmissions for youth. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - June 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Matthew S. Phillips, Danielle L. Steelesmith, John V. Campo, Taniya Pradhan, Cynthia A. Fontanella Source Type: research

Editorial: Antidepressants to the Rescue in Severe Mood Dysregulation and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder?
Explosive, raging children populate emergency departments, inpatient units, residential programs, juvenile facilities, and special education classrooms. When less serious, they are excluded from social and other activities because they are unpleasant and disruptive. Often they feel badly and even suicidal because of their behavior and the trouble it causes. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabrielle A. Carlson, Daniel N. Klein Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: Parent-Based Treatment for Childhood Anxiety
Anxiety Disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses in childhood and adolescence.1 The mainstays of treatment for childhood anxiety disorders are Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and medications.2 Both of these treatments focus primarily on the child. However, parents and families often play a major role in the reinforcement of anxiety disorders through accommodations that may adversely affect the child ’s development.3 Examples of such accommodations include keeping a child with separation anxiety disorder home from school, permitting a child with social anxiety disorder to avoid social events, or pr...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert McKelvey Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: What Constitutes “Evidence-Based” Educational Practice?
The requirement for educational provision for all children to be evidence based has been highlighted in many government policies.1 The significant additional costs of educating children with autism, and difficulties in recruiting adequately trained teachers, has placed increasing pressure on education authorities to provide more cost-effective instruction methods for pupils with autism. Computer-assisted interventions (CAI) have been suggested as a possible means of meeting the educational needs of this group and findings from mostly small, uncontrolled studies have indicated positive improvements in areas such as academic...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Patricia Howlin Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Heterogeneity of Anxious Phenotypes: Neural Responses to Errors in Treatment-Seeking Anxious and Behaviorally-Inhibited Youth
While behaviorally-inhibited (BI) temperament predicts risk for anxiety, anxiety in BI may involve distinct neural responses to errors. The current study examines the relations between anxiety and neural correlates of error processing both in youth identified as BI in early childhood and in youth seeking treatment for an anxiety disorder. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ashley R. Smith, Lauren K. White, Ellen Leibenluft, Anastasia L. McGlade, Adina C. Heckelman, Simone P. Haller, George A. Buzzell, Nathan A. Fox, Daniel S. Pine Tags: New Research Source Type: research

A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Citalopram Adjunctive to Stimulant Medication in Youth With Chronic Severe Irritability
Despite the clinical importance of chronic and severe irritability, there is a paucity of controlled trials for its pharmacological treatment. Here, we examine the effects of adding citalopram (CTP) to methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of chronic severe irritability in youth using a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kenneth Towbin, Pablo Vidal-Ribas, Melissa A. Brotman, Andrew Pickles, Katherine V. Miller, Ariela Kaiser, Aria D. Vitale, Chana Engel, Gerald P. Overman, Mollie Davis, Beth Lee, Cheri McNeil, Wanda Wheeler, Catherine H. Yokum, Catherine T. Haring, Alexan Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Editorial: Antidepressants to the Rescue in Severe Mood Dysregulation (SMD) and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)?
Explosive, raging, children populate emergency rooms, inpatient units, residential programs, juvenile facilities and special education classrooms. When less serious, they are excluded from social and other activities because they are unpleasant and disruptive. Often, they feel badly and even suicidal because of their behavior and the trouble it causes. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabrielle A. Carlson, Daniel N. Klein Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: Evaluating the Clinical and Financial Outcomes  of Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy on a Psychiatric Inpatient Unit: A Change in Practice and Culture
Applying and evaluating evidence-based treatments (EBTs) across the mental health care continuum continues to gain support and cultivate strategies for development, training, implementation, and evaluation.1 However, there is a disconnect between science and practice, resulting in limited implementation of EBTs in real-world clinical settings, such as outpatient care, partial hospitalization programs, intensive outpatient programs, psychiatric inpatient hospitalization, and residential care. Although some EBTs and associated interventions have been evaluated in outpatient settings, few have been evaluated in acute and inte...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jarrod M. Leffler Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: Causal, Predispositional, or Correlate? Group Differences in Cognitive Control-Related Brain Function in Cannabis-Using Youth Raise New Questions
Increasingly permissive attitudes and laws surrounding cannabis have been accompanied by more prevalent use and increased perceptions of its safety.1 However, in stark contrast to this sea-change, remarkably little is known about the potential consequences and etiology of cannabis involvement. In particular, it is unclear what biological mechanisms may undergird associations with negative outcomes (eg, reduced cognition, increased psychosis, depression)2 and whether these substrates arise from cannabis use and/or represent predispositional risk factors. As cannabis remains at the forefront of public discussion and policy, ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David A.A. Baranger, Ryan Bogdan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Systematic Review: United States Workforce for Autism-Related Child Healthcare Services
A diversity of United States health professional disciplines provide services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a systematic review examining the availability, distribution and competencies of the U.S. workforce for autism-related child healthcare services, and assess studies ’ strength of evidence. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ryan K. McBain, Vishnupriya Kareddy, Jonathan H. Cantor, Bradley D. Stein, Hao Yu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Editorial: What Do Cannabis-Related Differences in Corticostriatal Circuitry Subserving Cognitive Control Mean?
Increasingly permissive attitudes and laws surrounding cannabis have been accompanied by more prevalent use and increased perceptions of its safety.1 However, in stark contrast to this sea-change, remarkably little is known about the potential consequences and etiology of cannabis involvement. In particular, it is unclear what biological mechanisms may undergird associations with negative outcomes (eg, reduced cognition, increased psychosis, depression)2 and whether these substrates arise from cannabis use and/or represent predispositional risk factors. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David A.A. Baranger, Ryan Bogdan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: Evaluating the Clinical and Financial Outcomes of Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy on a Psychiatric Inpatient Unit: A Change in Practice and Culture
Applying and evaluating evidence based treatments (EBTs) across the mental health care continuum continues to gain support and cultivate strategies for development, training, implementation and evaluation.1 However, there is a disconnect between science and practice, resulting in limited implementation of EBTs in real-world clinical settings such as outpatient, partial hospitalization programs (PHP), intensive outpatient programs (IOP), psychiatric inpatient hospitalization (IP), and residential care. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jarrod M. Leffler Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: Room for Improvement in the Treatment of Youth Depression
Psychotherapy has been studied for decades and is often used to treat youth who are depressed. How well does it work? Eckshtain et al. answered this question with a thoughtful, complex meta-analysis of 53 psychotherapy trials.1 Psychotherapy was significantly superior relative to control groups. More revealingly, treatment effects were small-to-moderate (g = .49) when compared to no-treatment, small (g = .29) when compared to a broad range of usual care interventions, and middling and statistically insignificant (g = .16) relative to placebo interventions (nearly all placebo psychotherapies merely controlling for therapist...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Glen I. Spielmans Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Classifying Mood Symptom Trajectories in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder
The Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study (Birmaher and colleagues) found that children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders followed one of four distinct mood trajectories over 8 years of follow-up, with as many as 25% showing a predominantly euthymic course. We evaluated whether similar patterns of illness course are observed in adolescents with bipolar I and II disorder who participated in a 2-year clinical trial. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marc J. Weintraub, Christopher D. Schneck, David A. Axelson, Boris Birmaher, Robert A. Kowatch, David J. Miklowitz Tags: New Research Source Type: research

The Need for a Developmentally Based Measure of Social Communication Skills
The ability to demonstrate and quantify changes in social communication skills has been hindered by a lack of existing measures with appropriate standardization and psychometric properties. Such a measure would be helpful for research in many populations but would be particularly crucial for detecting incremental changes in youth with neurodevelopmental disorders who might gain skills but still lag substantially behind same-age peers. Although study designs and statistical methods are under development to try to account for slow and/or nonlinear, but potentially meaningful, improvements,1 there is a dearth of measures desi...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Somer Bishop, Cristan Farmer, Aaron Kaat, Stelios Georgiades, Stephen Kanne, Audrey Thurm Tags: Translations Source Type: research

What Is “High Risk” and What Are We Actually Supposed to Do About It?
Regulatory agencies are increasingly taking on the important issue of effective risk assessment, risk stratification, and treatment planning for youth with psychiatric illness.1 The Joint Commission mandates a suicide assessment for patients “who exhibit suicidal behavior or who have screened positive for suicidal ideation” followed by risk stratification: after “this assessment, patients should be classified as high, medium or low risk of suicide.”2 We anticipate that just as screening for depression and suicidality was initial ly restricted to emergency departments and inpatient units before being...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Schuyler W. Henderson, Ruth Gerson, Blake Phillips Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Gender Equality: Beyond the Binary
The passion that the women ’s movement has evoked in the past few years is inspiring. Children joined their moms in marches in many cities across the United States. Teens saw their favorite artists and celebrities tweeting #MeToo and exclaiming “time’s up” with fervor. We all witnessed the public outing and profession al demise of sexists and rapists. Critical progress was made, and the issue certainly deserves its day and more. But were some kids watching girl-power fight back, and wishing that gender equality included them, as well? (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julie Chilton Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

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I was excited to review Affirmative Mental Health Care for Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth: A Clinical Guide, as it came highly recommended by some colleagues, and I respect the work of the editors. However, I was also slightly skeptical about how this book would be different from other anthologies on transgender health care. I was not disappointed! This was a fast read with digestible information and excellent case examples to highlight how to provide affirmative care for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christy Olezeski Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

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Transgender and gender expansive youth face increased challenges in many realms, including home, school, foster care, the legal system, and health care. They have a disproportionately elevated risk of developing depression and suicidality, but continue to be pathologized and invalidated by clinicians without adequate knowledge of the relevant issues. This can make it extremely difficult for transgender youth to access safe and gender-affirming mental health services. As members of the child psychiatry community, we must educate ourselves to become competent providers and advocates for this vulnerable, often underserved pop...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mamatha Challa Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

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Nonfiction books earmarked for young adults are not generally a genre I find interesting. Lily and Dunkin surprised me; this story captivated me so completely that I finished it in 48 hours. Although Donna Gephart writes for a younger audience, her work deals with universal issues that affect everyone. In addition, although her book was new to me, it has won multiple awards since its publication —National Public Radio’s Best Kids’ Book of 2016, Amazon’s Top Children’s Book of 2016, and the 2016 Rainbow Awards Best Transgender Fiction& Biography/Memoir Book. (Source: Journal of the American...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nicole Mavrides Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

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When people change their physical sex traits and their social gender presentation to align with their affirmed gender (frequently referred to as “transitioning”), the breadth and enormity of the experience is hard to adequately describe. There have been plenty of books using narrative to recount personal experiences of transition, but First Year Out by Sabrina Symington uniquely paints the process of physical and social transition throug h the medium of graphic novel. Readers intimately walk alongside Lily, a transgender woman, as she navigates her first year of transition from male to female. (Source: Journal ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nathaniel G. Sharon Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

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In science, [ …] novelty emerges only with difficulty, manifested by resistance, against a background provided by expectation.— Thomas Kuhn (1962)1 (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amy Lynn Meadows Tags: Book forum Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Council Page
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Development of Three Web-Based Computerized Versions of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS-COMP) Child Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview: Preliminary Validity Data
To present initial validity data on three web-based computerized versions of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS-COMP). (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lisa Townsend, Kenneth Kobak, Catherine Kearney, Michael Milham, Charissa Andreotti, Jasmine Escalera, Lindsay Alexander, Mary Kay Gill, Boris Birmaher, Raeanne Sylvester, Dawn Rice, Alison Deep, Joan Kaufman Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Editorial: Hoarding and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Hoarding disorder is more than surplus clothes and belongings that could be remedied by a visit from Marie Kondo (https://konmari.com). It is officially recognized as a distinct condition in the DSM-5 and placed under obsessive-compulsive conditions.1 Prior to the designation in the DSM-5, hoarding was regarded as a diagnostic element in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder or a symptom nested within obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). 2 In the DSM-5, hoarding disorder is defined by great reluctance or outright refusal to discard belongings – including articles of limited value. (Source: Journal of the American...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lawrence Scahill Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial: Home-Visiting Interventions and Caregiver Mental Health
This article highlights three critical issues fundamental to the promise of home-visiting interventions to advance developmental potential for families with young children globally: the opportunity to attend to caregiver mental health, the need for more integr ated interventions that expand on the platform of early childhood development (ECD) to address broader issues in the home environment (eg, poverty, malnutrition, family violence) which may contribute to caregiver and child wellbeing overall and the promise of implementation science to study both eff ectiveness and implementation questions simultaneously. (Source: Jou...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Genetic Associations Between Executive Functions and a General Factor of Psychopathology
Symptoms of psychopathology covary across diagnostic boundaries, and a family history of elevated symptoms for a single psychiatric disorder places an individual at heightened risk for a broad range of other psychiatric disorders. Both twin-based and genome-wide molecular methods indicate a strong genetic basis for the familial aggregation of psychiatric disease. This has led researchers to prioritize the search for highly heritable childhood risk factors for transdiagnostic psychopathology. Cognitive abilities that involve the selective control and regulation of attention, known as executive functions (EFs), are a promisi...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: K. Paige Harden, Laura E. Engelhardt, Frank D. Mann, Megan W. Patterson, Andrew D. Grotzinger, Stephanie L. Savicki, Megan L. Thibodeaux, Samantha M. Freis, Jennifer L. Tackett, Jessica A. Church, Elliot M. Tucker-Drob Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Brain Development and Stochastic Processes During Prenatal and Early Life: You Can ’t Lose It if You’ve Never Had It; But It’s Better To Have It and Lose It, Than Never Ever to Have Had It at All
Brain development, although largely driven by genetic processes, also is influenced by environmental factors. However, there has been little discussion in the psychiatric literature on the role of stochastic, or chance, events that take place during neurodevelopment. Studies suggest that the brain capitalizes on and regulates the extent of stochastic processes during development. Furthermore, because neurodevelopment is influenced by environmental factors, there is emerging evidence that fostering those positive environmental factors during prenatal and early life could optimize neurodevelopment and provide greater resilie...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tonya White Tags: In context Source Type: research

Editorial: Better Treatments and the Importance of Publishing Negative Clinical Trials
We need better treatments for children with mental health problems, particularly those struggling with depression and suicidality. Every reader of this editorial already knows this. While our best treatments help many children and adolescents, some experience only modest improvements such that they are still burdened with much of the weight of mental illness. And some experience no benefit at all. These conclusions are supported by two recent meta analytic studies. In a comprehensive meta-analysis of the efficacy of treatments for anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct problems, and depression, outcomes...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Douglas K. Novins, Elizabeth McCauley Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Time-Dependent Effects of Exposure to Physical and Sexual Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Late Childhood: In Search of Sensitive Periods in Development
Exposure to interpersonal violence is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, it is unclear whether there are sensitive periods when exposure is most deleterious. We aimed to determine if there were time-periods when physical or sexual violence exposure was associated with greater child psychopathology. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Erin C. Dunn, Kristen Nishimi, Alexander Neumann, Alice Renaud, Charlotte A.M. Cecil, Ezra S. Susser, Henning Tiemeier Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Antipsychotic Use Among Youths in Foster Care Enrolled in a Specialized Managed Care Organization Intervention
This study examined a multimodal antipsychotic intervention implemented by a specialized MMCO for youths in foster care with routine mental health screening, health passports, elective psychiatric consultation line, and retrospective drug utilization reviews to determine whether this multimodal intervention significantly reduced antipsychotic dispensing for youths with conditions without U.S. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thomas I. Mackie, Sharon Cook, Stephen Crystal, Mark Olfson, Ayse Akincigil Tags: New research Source Type: research

Antipsychotic Use Among Youth in Foster Care Enrolled in a Specialized Managed Care Organization Intervention
This study examines a multi-modal antipsychotic intervention implemented by a specialized MMCO for youth in foster care with 1) routine mental health screening; 2) health passports; 3) elective psychiatric consultation line; and 4) retrospective drug utilization reviews. We examine whether this multi-modal intervention significantly reduced antipsychotic dispensing for youth with conditions without FDA-approved indications. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thomas I. Mackie, Sharon Cook, Stephen Crystal, Mark Olfson, Ayse Akincigil Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Editorial: Conduct Disorder as a Neurodevelopmental Condition: White Matter Brain Microstructure and the Importance of Gender, Callous Traits, and Development
While conduct disorder (CD) is a very prevalent mental disorder in young people, little research funding is allocated to investigating its etiology.1 This is needed as the presence of CD can greatly impact the young person ’s life across various domains, as well as impact their family, peers and society at large. Hence, a better understanding of the neurodevelopment of CD is important for tailoring treatment and prevention strategies. And as we know that CD symptomatology varies across affected individuals, the corr esponding neural correlates might also be different for different people. (Source: Journal of the Amer...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Koen Bolhuis Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Adrenarcheal Timing Longitudinally Predicts Anxiety Symptoms Via Amygdala Connectivity During Emotion Processing
This study aimed to examine longitudinally whether adrenarcheal timing (adrenarcheal hormone levels independent of age) and tempo (change in hormone levels over time) were associated with amygdala functional connectivity, and how this in turn related to anxiety symptoms in the transition from childhood to adolescence. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marjolein E.A. Barendse, Julian G. Simmons, George Patton, Lisa Mundy, Michelle L. Byrne, Marc L. Seal, Nicholas B. Allen, Sarah Whittle Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Editorial: Linking Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation in Adolescents to Regulatory Cortex
A major goal of psychiatric neuroscience is to identify brain regions and circuits that underlie clinical phenomena towards more precise understanding of their nature and treatment.1 These are early days in this effort, especially for pediatric mental health, but already there is evidence that brain changes may herald psychosis in youth at genetic risk for schizophrenia2 or response to therapy in youth with anxiety.3 Elucidating these brain-behavior relationships requires one to identify a clinically meaningful phenotype and associate it with specific brain regions or circuits that plausibly underlie the phenotype. (Source...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joel Stoddard Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

A Novel Approach to Tackling Bullying in Schools: Personality-Targeted Intervention for Adolescent Victims and Bullies in Australia
To examine the secondary effects of a personality-targeted intervention on bullying and harms among adolescent victims and bullies. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - April 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Erin V. Kelly, Nicola C. Newton, Lexine A. Stapinski, Patricia J. Conrod, Emma L. Barrett, Katrina E. Champion, Maree Teesson Tags: New Research Source Type: research