Exploiting evolutionary trade-offs for posttreatment management of drug-resistant populations [Evolution]
Antibiotic resistance frequently evolves through fitness trade-offs in which the genetic alterations that confer resistance to a drug can also cause growth defects in resistant cells. Here, through experimental evolution in a microfluidics-based turbidostat, we demonstrate that antibiotic-resistant cells can be efficiently inhibited by amplifying the fitness costs associated with... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Sergey V. Melnikov, David L. Stevens, Xian Fu, Hui Si Kwok, Jin–Tao Zhang, Yue Shen, Jeffery Sabina, Kevin Lee, Harry Lee, Dieter Soll Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Earwig fan designing: Biomimetic and evolutionary biology applications [Evolution]
Technologies to fold structures into compact shapes are required in multiple engineering applications. Earwigs (Dermaptera) fold their fanlike hind wings in a unique, highly sophisticated manner, granting them the most compact wing storage among all insects. The structural and material composition, in-flight reinforcement mechanisms, and bistable property of earwig wings... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kazuya Saito, Ricardo Perez–de la Fuente, Koichi Arimoto, Young ah Seong, Hitoshi Aonuma, Ryuma Niiyama, Zhong You Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Flat latitudinal diversity gradient caused by the Permian-Triassic mass extinction [Evolution]
The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is recognized as one of the most pervasive, global patterns of present-day biodiversity. However, the controlling mechanisms have proved difficult to identify because many potential drivers covary in space. The geological record presents a unique opportunity for understanding the mechanisms which drive the LDG by... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Haijun Song, Shan Huang, Enhao Jia, Xu Dai, Paul B. Wignall, Alexander M. Dunhill Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

River basin salinization as a form of aridity [Environmental Sciences]
Soil-salinization affects, to a different extent, more than one-third of terrestrial river basins (estimate based on the Food and Agriculture Organization Harmonized World Soil Database, 2012). Among these, many are endorheic and ephemeral systems already encompassing different degrees of aridity, land degradation, and vulnerability to climate change. The primary effect... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Saverio Perri, Samir Suweis, Alex Holmes, Prashanth R. Marpu, Dara Entekhabi, Annalisa Molini Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Opinion: Midwater ecosystems must be considered when evaluating environmental risks of deep-sea mining [Environmental Sciences]
Despite rapidly growing interest in deep-sea mineral exploitation, environmental research and management have focused on impacts to seafloor environments, paying little attention to pelagic ecosystems. Nonetheless, research indicates that seafloor mining will generate sediment plumes and noise at the seabed and in the water column that may have extensive ecological... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jeffrey C. Drazen, Craig R. Smith, Kristina M. Gjerde, Steven H. D. Haddock, Glenn S. Carter, C. Anela Choy, Malcolm R. Clark, Pierre Dutrieux, Erica Goetze, Chris Hauton, Mariko Hatta, J. Anthony Koslow, Astrid B. Leitner, Aude Pacini, Jessica N. Perelma Tags: Opinions, Ecology, Environmental Sciences Source Type: research

Epidemics as an adaptive driving force determining lifespan setpoints [Evolution]
Species-specific limits to lifespan (lifespan setpoint) determine the life expectancy of any given organism. Whether limiting lifespan provides an evolutionary benefit or is the result of an inevitable decline in fitness remains controversial. The identification of mutations extending lifespan suggests that aging is under genetic control, but the evolutionary driving... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Peter V. Lidsky, Raul Andino Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A tiny ornithodiran archosaur from the Triassic of Madagascar and the role of miniaturization in dinosaur and pterosaur ancestry [Evolution]
Early members of the dinosaur–pterosaur clade Ornithodira are very rare in the fossil record, obscuring our understanding of the origins of this important group. Here, we describe an early ornithodiran (Kongonaphon kely gen. et sp. nov.) from the Mid-to-Upper Triassic of Madagascar that represents one of the smallest nonavian ornithodirans.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Christian F. Kammerer, Sterling J. Nesbitt, John J. Flynn, Lovasoa Ranivoharimanana, Andre R. Wyss Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A cocrystal structure of dengue capsid protein in complex of inhibitor [Microbiology]
Dengue virus (DENV) was designated as a top 10 public health threat by the World Health Organization in 2019. No clinically approved anti-DENV drug is currently available. Here we report the high-resolution cocrystal structure (1.5 Å) of the DENV-2 capsid protein in complex with an inhibitor that potently suppresses DENV-2... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hongjie Xia, Xuping Xie, Jing Zou, Christian G. Noble, William K. Russell, Luis Marcelo F. Holthauzen, Kyung H. Choi, Mark A. White, Pei-Yong Shi Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Surface sensing stimulates cellular differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus [Microbiology]
Cellular differentiation is a fundamental strategy used by cells to generate specialized functions at specific stages of development. The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus employs a specialized dimorphic life cycle consisting of two differentiated cell types. How environmental cues, including mechanical inputs such as contact with a surface, regulate this cell cycle... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Rhett A. Snyder, Courtney K. Ellison, Geoffrey B. Severin, Gregory B. Whitfield, Christopher M. Waters, Yves V. Brun Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mammalian deltavirus without hepadnavirus coinfection in the neotropical rodent Proechimys semispinosus [Microbiology]
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a human hepatitis-causing RNA virus, unrelated to any other taxonomic group of RNA viruses. Its occurrence as a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a singular case in animal virology for which no consensus evolutionary explanation exists. Here we present a mammalian deltavirus... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Sofia Paraskevopoulou, Fabian Pirzer, Nora Goldmann, Julian Schmid, Victor Max Corman, Lina Theresa Gottula, Simon Schroeder, Andrea Rasche, Doreen Muth, Jan Felix Drexler, Alexander Christoph Heni, Georg Joachim Eibner, Rachel A. Page, Terry C. Jones, Ma Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Human TRIM5{alpha} senses and restricts LINE-1 elements [Immunology and Inflammation]
Mobile genetic elements have significantly shaped our genomic landscape. LINE-1 retroelements are the only autonomously active elements left in the human genome. Since new insertions can have detrimental consequences, cells need to efficiently control LINE-1 retrotransposition. Here, we demonstrate that the intrinsic immune factor TRIM5α senses and restricts LINE-1 retroelements.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Bianca Volkmann, Sabine Wittmann, Justine Lagisquet, Janina Deutschmann, Kristin Eissmann, James J. Ross, Brigitte Biesinger, Thomas Gramberg Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine enhances both cross-reactive memory B cell and strain-specific naive B cell responses in humans [Immunology and Inflammation]
In this study we compared the antibody responses in humans after vaccination with an AS03-adjuvanted versus nonadjuvanted H5N1 avian influenza virus inactivated vaccine. Healthy young adults received two doses of either formulation 3 wk apart. We found that AS03 significantly enhanced H5... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ali H. Ellebedy, Raffael Nachbagauer, Katherine J. L. Jackson, Ya-Nan Dai, Julianna Han, Wafaa B. Alsoussi, Carl W. Davis, Daniel Stadlbauer, Nadine Rouphael, Veronika Chromikova, Megan McCausland, Cathy Y. Chang, Mario Cortese, Mary Bower, Chakravarthy C Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Type I IFN is siloed in endosomes [Immunology and Inflammation]
Type I IFN (IFN-I) is thought to be rapidly internalized and degraded following binding to its receptor and initiation of signaling. However, many studies report the persistent effects mediated by IFN-I for days or even weeks, both ex vivo and in vivo. These long-lasting effects are attributed to downstream signaling... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jennie B. Altman, Justin Taft, Tim Wedeking, Conor N. Gruber, Michael Holtmannspotter, Jacob Piehler, Dusan Bogunovic Tags: Brief Reports Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Individual learning phenotypes drive collective behavior [Evolution]
Individual differences in learning can influence how animals respond to and communicate about their environment, which may nonlinearly shape how a social group accomplishes a collective task. There are few empirical examples of how differences in collective dynamics emerge from variation among individuals in cognition. Here, we use a naturally... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Chelsea N. Cook, Natalie J. Lemanski, Thiago Mosqueiro, Cahit Ozturk, Jurgen Gadau, Noa Pinter–Wollman, Brian H. Smith Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Quantifying the contribution of Fc-mediated effector functions to the antiviral activity of anti-HIV-1 IgG1 antibodies in vivo [Microbiology]
In combating viral infections, the Fab portion of an antibody could mediate virus neutralization, whereas Fc engagement of Fc-γ receptors (FcγRs) could mediate an array of effector functions. Evidence abounds that effector functions are important in controlling infections by influenza, Ebola, or HIV-1 in animal models. However, the relative contribution... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Pengfei Wang, Mili R. Gajjar, Jian Yu, Neal N. Padte, Agegnehu Gettie, James L. Blanchard, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, Laura E. Liao, Alan S. Perelson, Yaoxing Huang, David D. Ho Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Dynamic CCN3 expression in the murine CNS does not confer essential roles in myelination or remyelination [Neuroscience]
CCN3 is a matricellular protein that promotes oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and myelination in vitro and ex vivo. CCN3 is therefore a candidate of interest in central nervous system (CNS) myelination and remyelination, and we sought to investigate the expression and role of CCN3 during these processes. We found CCN3... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Nira de la Vega Gallardo, Rosana Penalva, Marie Dittmer, Michelle Naughton, John Falconer, Jill Moffat, Alerie G. de la Fuente, Jose R. Hombrebueno, Zhiyong Lin, Bernard Perbal, Rebecca J. Ingram, Emma Evergren, Denise C. Fitzgerald Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Ranking essential bacterial processes by speed of mutant death [Microbiology]
Mutant phenotype analysis of bacteria has been revolutionized by genome-scale screening procedures, but essential genes have been left out of such studies because mutants are missing from the libraries analyzed. Since essential genes control the most fundamental processes of bacterial life, this is a glaring deficiency. To address this limitation,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Larry A. Gallagher, Jeannie Bailey, Colin Manoil Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Behavioral tagging underlies memory reconsolidation [Neuroscience]
Memory reconsolidation occurs when a retrieving event destabilizes transiently a consolidated memory, triggering thereby a new process of restabilization that ensures memory persistence. Although this phenomenon has received wide attention, the effect of new information cooccurring with the reconsolidation process has been less explored. Here we demonstrate that a memory-retrieving... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ivan Rabinovich Orlandi, Camila L. Fullio, Matias Nicolas Schroeder, Martin Giurfa, Fabricio Ballarini, Diego Moncada Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Structure-based development of a subtype-selective orexin 1 receptor antagonist [Pharmacology]
Orexins are neuropeptides that activate the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors OX1R and OX2R. The orexin system plays an important role in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and the regulation of feeding and emotions. The nonselective orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant has been the first drug on the market targeting the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jan Hellmann, Matthaus Drabek, Jie Yin, Jakub Gunera, Theresa Proll, Frank Kraus, Christopher J. Langmead, Harald Hubner, Dorothee Weikert, Peter Kolb, Daniel M. Rosenbaum, Peter Gmeiner Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Fast spiking interneuron activity in primate striatum tracks learning of attention cues [Neuroscience]
Cognitive flexibility depends on a fast neural learning mechanism for enhancing momentary relevant over irrelevant information. A possible neural mechanism realizing this enhancement uses fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) in the striatum to train striatal projection neurons to gate relevant and suppress distracting cortical inputs. We found support for such a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kianoush Banaie Boroujeni, Mariann Oemisch, Seyed Alireza Hassani, Thilo Womelsdorf Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

LRRK2 mediates axon development by regulating Frizzled3 phosphorylation and growth cone-growth cone communication [Neuroscience]
Axon–axon interactions are essential for axon guidance during nervous system wiring. However, it is unknown whether and how the growth cones communicate with each other while sensing and responding to guidance cues. We found that the Parkinson’s disease gene, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), has an unexpected role in growth... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Keisuke Onishi, Runyi Tian, Bo Feng, Yiqiong Liu, Junkai Wang, Yinan Li, Yimin Zou Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

TPC1 deficiency or blockade augments systemic anaphylaxis and mast cell activity [Physiology]
Mast cells and basophils are main drivers of allergic reactions and anaphylaxis, for which prevalence is rapidly increasing. Activation of these cells leads to a tightly controlled release of inflammatory mediators stored in secretory granules. The release of these granules is dependent on intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signals. Ca2+ release from... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Elisabeth Arlt, Marco Fraticelli, Volodymyr Tsvilovskyy, Wiebke Nadolni, Andreas Breit, Thomas J. O’Neill, Stefanie Resenberger, Gunther Wennemuth, Christian Wahl–Schott, Martin Biel, Christian Grimm, Marc Freichel, Thomas Gudermann, Norbert Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Analogy between periodic patterns in thin smectic liquid crystal films and the intermediate state of superconductors [Physics]
Spontaneous breaking of symmetry in liquid crystal (LC) films often reveals itself as a microscopic pattern of molecular alignment. In a smectic-A LC, the emergence of positional order at the transition from the nematic phase leads to periodic textures that can be used as optical microarrays, templates for soft lithography,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Bruno Zappone, Atilla Eren Mamuk, Iryna Gryn, Valentina Arima, Alessandra Zizzari, Roberto Bartolino, Emmanuelle Lacaze, Rolfe Petschek Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Isoform-specific regulation of HCN4 channels by a family of endoplasmic reticulum proteins [Physiology]
Ion channels in excitable cells function in macromolecular complexes in which auxiliary proteins modulate the biophysical properties of the pore-forming subunits. Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive HCN4 channels are critical determinants of membrane excitability in cells throughout the body, including thalamocortical neurons and cardiac pacemaker cells. We previously showed that the properties... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Colin H. Peters, Mallory E. Myers, Julie Juchno, Charlie Haimbaugh, Hicham Bichraoui, Yanmei Du, John R. Bankston, Lori A. Walker, Catherine Proenza Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Specific thylakoid protein phosphorylations are prerequisites for overwintering of Norway spruce (Picea abies) photosynthesis [Plant Biology]
Coping of evergreen conifers in boreal forests with freezing temperatures on bright winter days puts the photosynthetic machinery in great risk of oxidative damage. To survive harsh winter conditions, conifers have evolved a unique but poorly characterized photoprotection mechanism, a sustained form of nonphotochemical quenching (sustained NPQ). Here we focused... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Steffen Grebe, Andrea Trotta, Azfar Ali Bajwa, Ilaria Mancini, Pushan Bag, Stefan Jansson, Mikko Tikkanen, Eva-Mari Aro Tags: Inaugural Articles Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The unusual dRemp retrotransposon is abundant, highly mutagenic, and mobilized only in the second pollen mitosis of some maize lines [Plant Biology]
The frequent mutations recovered recently from the pollen of select maize lines resulted from the meiotic mobilization of specific low-copy number long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, which differ among lines. Mutations that arise at male meiosis produce kernels with concordant mutant phenotypes in both endosperm and embryo because the two sperms... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Qinghua Wang, Jun Huang, Yubin Li, Hugo K. Dooner Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Robustness of plant quantitative disease resistance is provided by a decentralized immune network [Plant Biology]
Quantitative disease resistance (QDR) represents the predominant form of resistance in natural populations and crops. Surprisingly, very limited information exists on the biomolecular network of the signaling machineries underlying this form of plant immunity. This lack of information may result from its complex and quantitative nature. Here, we used an... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Florent Delplace, Carine Huard–Chauveau, Ullrich Dubiella, Mehdi Khafif, Eva Alvarez, Gautier Langin, Fabrice Roux, Remi Peyraud, Dominique Roby Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Complete microviscosity maps of living plant cells and tissues with a toolbox of targeting mechanoprobes [Plant Biology]
Mechanical patterns control a variety of biological processes in plants. The microviscosity of cellular structures effects the diffusion rate of molecules and organelles, thereby affecting processes such as metabolism and signaling. Spatial variations in local viscosity are also generated during fundamental events in the cell life cycle. While crucial to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lucile Michels, Vera Gorelova, Yosapol Harnvanichvech, Jan Willem Borst, Bauke Albada, Dolf Weijers, Joris Sprakel Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The implications of silent transmission for the control of COVID-19 outbreaks [Population Biology]
Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), unprecedented movement restrictions and social distancing measures have been implemented worldwide. The socioeconomic repercussions have fueled calls to lift these measures. In the absence of population-wide restrictions, isolation of infected individuals is key to curtailing transmission. However, the effectiveness of symptom-based isolation... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Seyed M. Moghadas, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Pratha Sah, Abhishek Pandey, Affan Shoukat, Burton H. Singer, Alison P. Galvani Tags: Brief Reports, Coronavirus (COVID-19) Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Contrasting effects of climate change on seasonal survival of a hibernating mammal [Population Biology]
Seasonal environmental conditions shape the behavior and life history of virtually all organisms. Climate change is modifying these seasonal environmental conditions, which threatens to disrupt population dynamics. It is conceivable that climatic changes may be beneficial in one season but result in detrimental conditions in another because life-history strategies vary... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Line S. Cordes, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kenneth B. Armitage, Paul J. CaraDonna, Dylan Z. Childs, Brian D. Gerber, Julien G. A. Martin, Madan K. Oli, Arpat Ozgul Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Working memory capacity predicts individual differences in social-distancing compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Noncompliance with social distancing during the early stage of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a great challenge to the public health system. These noncompliance behaviors partly reflect people’s concerns for the inherent costs of social distancing while discounting its public health benefits. We propose that this oversight may... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Weizhen Xie, Stephen Campbell, Weiwei Zhang Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Influencing choices with conversational primes: How a magic trick unconsciously influences card choices [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Past research demonstrates that unconscious primes can affect people’s decisions. However, these free choice priming paradigms present participants with very few alternatives. Magicians’ forcing techniques provide a powerful tool to investigate how natural implicit primes can unconsciously influence decisions with multiple alternatives. We used video and live performances of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alice Pailhes, Gustav Kuhn Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Predicting personality from patterns of behavior collected with smartphones [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Smartphones enjoy high adoption rates around the globe. Rarely more than an arm’s length away, these sensor-rich devices can easily be repurposed to collect rich and extensive records of their users’ behaviors (e.g., location, communication, media consumption), posing serious threats to individual privacy. Here we examine the extent to which... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Clemens Stachl, Quay Au, Ramona Schoedel, Samuel D. Gosling, Gabriella M. Harari, Daniel Buschek, Sarah Theres Volkel, Tobias Schuwerk, Michelle Oldemeier, Theresa Ullmann, Heinrich Hussmann, Bernd Bischl, Markus Buhner Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Quantifying and explaining variation in life expectancy at census tract, county, and state levels in the United States [Social Sciences]
This study develops a multilevel perspective to understanding variation in life expectancy by simultaneously modeling the geographic variation at the levels of census tracts (CTs),... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Antonio Fernando Boing, Alexandra Crispim Boing, Jack Cordes, Rockli Kim, S. V. Subramanian Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Freedom of choice adds value to public goods [Social Sciences]
Public goods, ranging from judiciary to sanitation to parkland, permeate daily life. They have been a subject of intense interdisciplinary study, with a traditional focus being on participation levels in isolated public goods games (PGGs) as opposed to a more recent focus on participation in PGGs embedded into complex social... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lei Shi, Ivan Romić, Yongȷuan Ma, Zhen Wang, Boris Podobnik, H. Eugene Stanley, Petter Holme, Marko Jusup Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Tracking the reach of COVID-19 kin loss with a bereavement multiplier applied to the United States [Social Sciences]
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a large increase in mortality in the United States and around the world, leaving many grieving the sudden loss of family members. We created an indicator—the COVID-19 bereavement multiplier—that estimates the average number of individuals who will experience the death of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ashton M. Verdery, Emily Smith-Greenaway, Rachel Margolis, Jonathan Daw Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Communicating sentiment and outlook reverses inaction against collective risks [Sustainability Science]
Collective risks permeate society, triggering social dilemmas in which working toward a common goal is impeded by selfish interests. One such dilemma is mitigating runaway climate change. To study the social aspects of climate-change mitigation, we organized an experimental game and asked volunteer groups of three different sizes to invest... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zhen Wang, Marko Jusup, Hao Guo, Lei Shi, Sunčana Geček, Madhur Anand, Matȷaž Perc, Chris T. Bauch, Jurgen Kurths, Stefano Boccaletti, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Correction for Wu et al., Large enhancement of thermoelectric performance in MoS2/h-BN heterostructure due to vacancy-induced band hybridization [Correction]
APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Large enhancement of thermoelectric performance in MoS2/h-BN heterostructure due to vacancy-induced band hybridization,” by Jing Wu, Yanpeng Liu, Yi Liu, Yongqing Cai, Yunshan Zhao, Hong Kuan Ng, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Gang Zhang, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Dongzhi Chi, A. H. Castro Neto, John T. L. Thong,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Richaud et al., Vertical transmission in Caenorhabditis nematodes of RNA molecules encoding a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [Correction]
GENETICS Correction for “Vertical transmission in Caenorhabditis nematodes of RNA molecules encoding a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase,” by Aurélien Richaud, Lise Frézal, Stephen Tahan, Hongbing Jiang, Joshua A. Blatter, Guoyan Zhao, Taniya Kaur, David Wang, and Marie-Anne Félix, which was first published November 18, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1903903116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Fowler et al., Arrhythmogenic late Ca2+ sparks in failing heart cells and their control by action potential configuration [Correction]
PHYSIOLOGY Correction for “Arrhythmogenic late Ca2+ sparks in failing heart cells and their control by action potential configuration,” by Ewan D. Fowler, Nan Wang, Melanie Hezzell, Guillaume Chanoit, Jules C. Hancox, and Mark B. Cannell, which was first published January 22, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1918649117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 2687–2692).... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Retraction for Johnson et al., Officer characteristics and racial disparities in fatal officer-involved shootings [Retractions]
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Retraction for “Officer characteristics and racial disparities in fatal officer-involved shootings,” by David J. Johnson, Trevor Tress, Nicole Burkel, Carley Taylor, and Joseph Cesario, which was first published July 22, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1903856116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 15877–15882). The authors wish to note the following:... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 28, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Retraction Source Type: research

Assessing The Risk of Adalimumab Use For Hidradenitis Suppurativa During The COVID-19 Pandemic
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 27, 2020 Category: Dermatology Authors: Donovan G. Kearns, Vipawee S. Chat, Shelley Uppal, Jashin J. Wu Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors for high frequency basal cell carcinoma in the United States.
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 27, 2020 Category: Dermatology Authors: Audris Chiang, Daniel C. Solis, Howard Rogers, Grace K. Sohn, Hyunje G. Cho, Gillian Saldanha, David Lapidus, Shufeng Li, Kavita Y. Sarin, Jean Y. Tang Source Type: research

Antecedent Immunosuppressive Therapy for Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases in the Setting of a COVID-19 Outbreak
• Little is known about the impact of systemic immunosuppressive (IS) medications common to dermatology on COVID-19 risk. • IS for IMID were not associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or severe sequelae, and anti-TNFα monotherapy was associated with decreased admission rate. Pat ients can be reassured continuing these medications during COVID-19. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 27, 2020 Category: Dermatology Authors: Jesse Veenstra, Connor R. Buechler, Gabrielle Robinson, Stephanie Chapman, Madeline Adelman, Aaron Tisack, Peter Dimitrion, Erika Todter, Laurie Kohen, Henry W. Lim Source Type: research

Assessment of outcomes of calciphylaxis lesions treated with intralesional sodium thiosulfate
● Calciphylaxis is a serious disorder with high morbidity and mortality and no approved therapy. Intralesional sodium thiosulfate (ILSTS) has not been well-studied as a treatment modality. ● This retrospective study identifies ILSTS as a potentially effective treatment option for calciphylaxis w ith few adverse effects. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 27, 2020 Category: Dermatology Authors: Colleen K. Gabel, Emily D. Nguyen, Allison S. Dobry, Olesya Baker, Anna Cristina Garza-Mayers, Lauren N. Ko, Radhika Shah, Jessica St. John, Lauren Strazzula, Sagar U. Nigwekar, Daniela Kroshinsky Source Type: research

Bumetanide for Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (BAMBI): A Single Center, Double-Blinded, Participant-Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase Two, Superiority Trial
Recent trials have indicated positive effects of bumetanide in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested efficacy of bumetanide on core symptom domains using a mono-center, parallel-group, participant-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase-2 superiority trial in a tertiary Netherlands hospital. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jan J. Sprengers, Dorinde M. van Andel, Nicolaas PA. Zuithoff, Mandy G. Keijzer-Veen, Annelien JA. Schulp, Floortje E. Scheepers, Marc R. Lilien, Bob Oranje, Hilgo Bruining Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Efficacy of a second IL-17 inhibitor in patients with psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Multiple biologics for psoriasis exist and interleukin (IL)-17 inhibitors are among those with best efficacy. However, switching treatment is often required at some point and intraclass switch of IL-17 inhibitors is not well investigated. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 27, 2020 Category: Dermatology Authors: Nikolai Dyrberg Loft, Anne-Sofie Halling, Alexander Egeberg, Lone Skov Source Type: research

Dark pigmented lesions: diagnostic accuracy of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy in a tertiary referral center for skin cancer diagnosis.
Capsule summary:Dark pigmented lesions could be challenging based on clinical and dermatoscopic examination only. The integration of reflectance confocal microscopy of 370 dark pigmented lesions with clinical and dermatoscopic suspicion of melanoma, allowed to save 60.6% of unnecessary excisions while improving the number needed to excise (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 27, 2020 Category: Dermatology Authors: Caterina Longo, Mauro Mazzeo, Margherita Raucci, Luigi Cornacchia, Michela Lai, Luca Bianchi, Ketty Peris, Riccardo Pampena, Giovanni Pellacani Source Type: research

Standard Review, Bone Marrow Edema, Clinical Significance, and Treatment Options: A Review.
Authors: Akhavan S, Martinkovich SC, Kasik C, DeMeo PJ Abstract Bone marrow edema (BME) is a descriptive term used to describe high-signal intensity changes detected on magnetic resonance fluid-sensitive sequences that could be attributed to a number of underlying pathologies. Regardless of the cause, physiologic remodeling of the subchondral bone can be limited because of ongoing joint forces, increased focalization of stress, and reduced healing capacity of the subchondral bone. BME is a known prognostic factor associated with pain, dysfunction, and progressive cartilage damage. This review summarizes the current...
Source: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - July 25, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Am Acad Orthop Surg Source Type: research

Risk Adjustment for Episode-of-Care Costs After Total Joint Arthroplasty: What is the Additional Cost of Individual Comorbidities and Demographics?
Authors: Fillingham YA, Zachwieja E, Rondon AJ, Vannello C, Austin MS, Courtney PM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Concerns exist regarding the lack of risk adjustment in alternative payment models for patients who may use more resources in an episode of care. The purpose of this study was to quantify the additional costs associated with individual medical comorbidities and demographic variables. METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive series of primary total hip and knee arthroplasty patients at our institution from 2015 to 2016 using claims data from Medicare and a single private insurer. We collected demographic data and ...
Source: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - July 25, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Am Acad Orthop Surg Source Type: research