Evaluating the prevalence and quality of conference codes of conduct [Social Sciences]
Efforts to increase inclusion in science face multiple barriers, including cultural and social behaviors in settings such as academic conferences. Conferences are beneficial, but the culture can promote inequities and power differentials that harm historically underrepresented groups. Science suffers when conference culture propagates exclusion and discrimination that leads to attrition... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alicia J. Foxx, Rebecca S. Barak, Taran M. Lichtenberger, Lea K. Richardson, Aireale J. Rodgers, Evelyn Webb Williams Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

A large-scale field experiment shows giving advice improves academic outcomes for the advisor [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Common sense suggests that people struggling to achieve their goals benefit from receiving motivational advice. What if the reverse is true? In a preregistered field experiment, we tested whether giving motivational advice raises academic achievement for the advisor. We randomly assigned n = 1,982 high school students to a treatment... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Katherine L. Milkman, Dena M. Gromet, Angela L. Duckworth Tags: Brief Reports Social Sciences Source Type: research

Constraints on the lexicons of human languages have cognitive roots present in baboons (Papio papio) [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Using a pattern extraction task, we show that baboons, like humans, have a learning bias that helps them discover connected patterns more easily than disconnected ones—i.e., they favor rules like “contains between 40% and 80% red” over rules like “contains around 30% red or 100% red.” The task was made... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Emmanuel Chemla, Isabelle Dautriche, Brian Buccola, Joel Fagot Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Evidence for neural rhythms embedded within binocular rivalry [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Evidence for perceptual periodicity emerges from studies showing periodic fluctuations in visual perception and decision making that are accompanied by neural oscillations in brain activity. We have uncovered signs of periodicity in the time course of binocular rivalry, a widely studied form of multistable perception. This was done by analyzing... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Oakyoon Cha, Randolph Blake Tags: Brief Reports Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Conflicting functional effects of xylem pit structure relate to the growth-longevity trade-off in a conifer species [Plant Biology]
Consistent with a ubiquitous life history trade-off, trees exhibit a negative relationship between growth and longevity both among and within species. However, the mechanistic basis of this life history trade-off is not well understood. In addition to resource allocation conflicts among multiple traits, functional conflicts arising from individual morphological traits... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Beth Roskilly, Eric Keeling, Sharon Hood, Arnaud Giuggiola, Anna Sala Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A simple variant selection in stress-driven martensitic transformation [Physics]
The study of orientation variant selection helps to reveal the mechanism and dynamic process of martensitic transformations driven by temperature or pressure/stress. This is challenging due to the multiple variants which may coexist. While effects of temperature and microstructure in many martensitic transformations have been studied in detail, effects of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Binbin Yue, Fang Hong, Naohisa Hirao, Roman Vasin, Hans-Rudolf Wenk, Bin Chen, Ho-Kwang Mao Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

New neural activity patterns emerge with long-term learning [Neuroscience]
Learning has been associated with changes in the brain at every level of organization. However, it remains difficult to establish a causal link between specific changes in the brain and new behavioral abilities. We establish that new neural activity patterns emerge with learning. We demonstrate that these new neural activity... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Emily R. Oby, Matthew D. Golub, Jay A. Hennig, Alan D. Degenhart, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, Byron M. Yu, Steven M. Chase, Aaron P. Batista Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Antibody-dependent enhancement of influenza disease promoted by increase in hemagglutinin stem flexibility and virus fusion kinetics [Microbiology]
Several next-generation (universal) influenza vaccines and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are in clinical development. Some of these mediate inhibitions of virus replication at the postentry stage or use Fc-dependent mechanisms. Nonneutralizing antibodies have the potential to mediate enhancement of viral infection or disease. In the current study, two monoclonal antibodies... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Katie L. Winarski, Juanjie Tang, Laura Klenow, Jeehyun Lee, Elizabeth M. Coyle, Jody Manischewitz, Hannah L. Turner, Kazuyo Takeda, Andrew B. Ward, Hana Golding, Surender Khurana Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Nbn-Mre11 interaction is required for tumor suppression and genomic integrity [Medical Sciences]
We derived a mouse model in which a mutant form of Nbn/Nbs1mid8 (hereafter Nbnmid8) exhibits severely impaired binding to the Mre11−Rad50 core of the Mre11 complex. The Nbnmid8 allele was expressed exclusively in hematopoietic lineages (in Nbn−/mid8vav mice). Unlike Nbnflox/floxvav mice with Nbn deficiency in the bone marrow, Nbn−/mid8vav mice... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jun Hyun Kim, Alexander V. Penson, Barry S. Taylor, John H. J. Petrini Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Efficient T cell-B cell collaboration guides autoantibody epitope bias and onset of celiac disease [Immunology and Inflammation]
B cells play important roles in autoimmune diseases through autoantibody production, cytokine secretion, or antigen presentation to T cells. In most cases, the contribution of B cells as antigen-presenting cells is not well understood. We have studied the autoantibody response against the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in celiac disease patients... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Rasmus Iversen, Bishnudeo Roy, Jorunn Stamnaes, Lene S. Hoydahl, Kathrin Hnida, Ralf S. Neumann, Ilma R. Korponay–Szabo, Knut E. A. Lundin, Ludvig M. Sollid Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Feedback regulation of Arid5a and Ppar-{gamma}2 maintains adipose tissue homeostasis [Immunology and Inflammation]
Immune cells infiltrate adipose tissues and provide a framework to regulate energy homeostasis. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and signaling by which the immune system regulates energy homeostasis in metabolic tissues remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the AT-rich interactive domain 5A (Arid5a), a cytokine-induced nucleic acid binding protein,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jaya Prakash Chalise, Shigeru Hashimoto, Gyanu Parajuli, Sujin Kang, Shailendra Kumar Singh, Yohannes Gemechu, Hozaifa Metwally, Kishan Kumar Nyati, Praveen Kumar Dubey, Mohammad Mahabub-Uz Zaman, Yasuharu Nagahama, Hanieh Hamza, Kazuya Masuda, Tadamitsu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Antigen structure affects cellular routing through DC-SIGN [Immunology and Inflammation]
Dendritic cell (DC) lectins mediate the recognition, uptake, and processing of antigens, but they can also be coopted by pathogens for infection. These distinct activities depend upon the routing of antigens within the cell. Antigens directed to endosomal compartments are degraded, and the peptides are presented on major histocompatibility complex... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Cassie M. Jarvis, Daniel B. Zwick, Joseph C. Grim, Mohammad Murshid Alam, Lynne R. Prost, Jaye C. Gardiner, Soyeong Park, Laraine L. Zimdars, Nathan M. Sherer, Laura L. Kiessling Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Telomere shortening rate predicts species life span [Genetics]
Telomere shortening to a critical length can trigger aging and shorter life spans in mice and humans by a mechanism that involves induction of a persistent DNA damage response at chromosome ends and loss of cellular viability. However, whether telomere length is a universal determinant of species longevity is not... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kurt Whittemore, Elsa Vera, Eva Martinez–Nevado, Carola Sanpera, Maria A. Blasco Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mutations in TFAP2B and previously unimplicated genes of the BMP, Wnt, and Hedgehog pathways in syndromic craniosynostosis [Genetics]
Craniosynostosis (CS) is a frequent congenital anomaly featuring the premature fusion of 1 or more sutures of the cranial vault. Syndromic cases, featuring additional congenital anomalies, make up 15% of CS. While many genes underlying syndromic CS have been identified, the cause of many syndromic cases remains unknown. We performed... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Andrew T. Timberlake, Sheng Chih Jin, Carol Nelson-Williams, Robin Wu, Charuta G. Furey, Barira Islam, Shozeb Haider, Erin Loring, Amy Galm, Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Derek M. Steinbacher, Dawid Larysz, David A. Staffenberg, Roberto L. Flores, Edu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Pervasive Arctic lead pollution suggests substantial growth in medieval silver production modulated by plague, climate, and conflict [Environmental Sciences]
Lead pollution in Arctic ice reflects large-scale historical changes in midlatitude industrial activities such as ancient lead/silver production and recent fossil fuel burning. Here we used measurements in a broad array of 13 accurately dated ice cores from Greenland and Severnaya Zemlya to document spatial and temporal changes in Arctic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Joseph R. McConnell, Nathan J. Chellman, Andrew I. Wilson, Andreas Stohl, Monica M. Arienzo, Sabine Eckhardt, Diedrich Fritzsche, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Thomas Opel, Philip F. Place, Jorgen Peder Steffensen Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Discussing global warming leads to greater acceptance of climate science [Environmental Sciences]
Climate change is an urgent global issue, with demands for personal, collective, and governmental action. Although a large body of research has investigated the influence of communication on public engagement with climate change, few studies have investigated the role of interpersonal discussion. Here we use panel data with 2 time... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Matthew H. Goldberg, Sander van der Linden, Edward Maibach, Anthony Leiserowitz Tags: Brief Reports Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Tuning anion solvation energetics enhances potassium-oxygen battery performance [Engineering]
This study shows that the solvent reorganization energy (λ) correlates... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shrihari Sankarasubramanian, Joshua Kahky, Vijay Ramani Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Trophic control of cryptic coralline algal diversity [Ecology]
Understanding how trophic dynamics drive variation in biodiversity is essential for predicting the outcomes of trophic downgrading across the world’s ecosystems. However, assessing the biodiversity of morphologically cryptic lineages can be problematic, yet may be crucial to understanding ecological patterns. Shifts in keystone predation that favor increases in herbivore abundance... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Katharine R. Hind, Samuel Starko, Jenn M. Burt, Matthew A. Lemay, Anne K. Salomon, Patrick T. Martone Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Hysteresis and critical transitions in a coffee agroecosystem [Ecology]
Seeking to employ ecological principles in agricultural management, a classical ecological debate provides a useful framing. Whether ecosystems are controlled from above (predators are the limiting force over herbivores) or from below (overutilization of plant resources is the limiting force over herbivores) is a debate that has motivated much research.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: John Vandermeer, Ivette Perfecto Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Marine ice sheet instability amplifies and skews uncertainty in projections of future sea-level rise [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
In this study, we use mathematical and computational approaches to identify the ice sheet... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alexander A. Robel, Helene Seroussi, Gerard H. Roe Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Earth’s radiative imbalance from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere determines the temporal evolution of the global climate, and vice versa changes in the climate system can alter the planetary energy fluxes. This interplay is fundamental to our understanding of Earth’s heat budget and the climate system. However, even today, the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Daniel Baggenstos, Marcel Haberli, Jochen Schmitt, Sarah A. Shackleton, Benȷamin Birner, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Thomas Kellerhals, Hubertus Fischer Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Schwann cell precursors contribute to skeletal formation during embryonic development in mice and zebrafish [Developmental Biology]
Immature multipotent embryonic peripheral glial cells, the Schwann cell precursors (SCPs), differentiate into melanocytes, parasympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells, and dental mesenchymal populations. Here, genetic lineage tracing revealed that, during murine embryonic development, some SCPs detach from nerve fibers to become mesenchymal cells, which differentiate further into chondrocytes and mature osteocytes.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Meng Xie, Dmitrii Kamenev, Marketa Kaucka, Maria Eleni Kastriti, Baoyi Zhou, Artem V. Artemov, Mekayla Storer, Kaj Fried, Igor Adameyko, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Andrei S. Chagin Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Large distances separate coregulated genes in living Drosophila embryos [Developmental Biology]
Transcriptional enhancers are short segments of DNA that switch genes on and off in response to a variety of cellular signals. Many enhancers map quite far from their target genes, on the order of tens or even hundreds of kilobases. There is extensive evidence that remote enhancers are brought into... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Tyler Heist, Takashi Fukaya, Michael Levine Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Opinion: What does AI’s success playing complex board games tell brain scientists? [Computer Sciences]
In research, it sometimes happens that advances in one field unexpectedly inform another in a fundamental way. A case in point may be what computer-generated gameplay suggests about how brains operate. Spearheaded by Demis Hassabis, David Silver, and their colleagues at the artificial intelligence (AI) company Google DeepMind, a series... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Dale Purves Tags: Opinions, Front Matter Source Type: research

A di-iron protein recruited as an Fe[II] and oxygen sensor for bacterial chemotaxis functions by stabilizing an iron-peroxy species [Chemistry]
Many bacteria contain cytoplasmic chemoreceptors that lack sensor domains. Here, we demonstrate that such cytoplasmic receptors found in 8 different bacterial and archaeal phyla genetically couple to metalloproteins related to β-lactamases and nitric oxide reductases. We show that this oxygen-binding di-iron protein (ODP) acts as a sensor for chemotactic responses... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alise R. Muok, Yijie Deng, Vadim M. Gumerov, Jenna E. Chong, Jennifer R. DeRosa, Kurni Kurniyati, Rachael E. Coleman, Kyle M. Lancaster, Chunhao Li, Igor B. Zhulin, Brian R. Crane Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Spontaneous self-assembly and structure of perfluoroalkylalkane surfactant hemimicelles by molecular dynamics simulations [Chemistry]
Fully atomistic molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of perfluoroalkylalkane molecules at the surface of water show the spontaneous formation of aggregates whose size and topography closely resemble the experimentally observed hemimicelles for this system. Furthermore, the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) pattern calculated from the simulation trajectories reproduces the experimental GIXD spectra... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Goncalo M. C. Silva, Pedro Morgado, Pedro Lourenco, Michel Goldmann, Eduardo J. M. Filipe Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

The optoelectronic microrobot: A versatile toolbox for micromanipulation [Cell Biology]
Microrobotics extends the reach of human-controlled machines to submillimeter dimensions. We introduce a microrobot that relies on optoelectronic tweezers (OET) that is straightforward to manufacture, can take nearly any desirable shape or form, and can be programmed to carry out sophisticated, multiaxis operations. One particularly useful program is a serial... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shuailong Zhang, Erica Y. Scott, Jastaranpreet Singh, Yujie Chen, Yanfeng Zhang, Mohamed Elsayed, M. Dean Chamberlain, Nika Shakiba, Kelsey Adams, Siyuan Yu, Cindi M. Morshead, Peter W. Zandstra, Aaron R. Wheeler Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Microfluidic protein isolation and sample preparation for high-resolution cryo-EM [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
High-resolution structural information is essential to understand protein function. Protein-structure determination needs a considerable amount of protein, which can be challenging to produce, often involving harsh and lengthy procedures. In contrast, the several thousand to a few million protein particles required for structure determination by cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Claudio Schmidli, Stefan Albiez, Luca Rima, Ricardo Righetto, Inayatulla Mohammed, Paolo Oliva, Lubomir Kovacik, Henning Stahlberg, Thomas Braun Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Dynamic graphical models of molecular kinetics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Most current molecular dynamics simulation and analysis methods rely on the idea that the molecular system can be represented by a single global state (e.g., a Markov state in a Markov state model [MSM]). In this approach, molecules can be extensively sampled and analyzed when they only possess a few... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Simon Olsson, Frank Noe Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Quantitative modelling predicts the impact of DNA methylation on RNA polymerase II traffic [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Patterns of gene expression are primarily determined by proteins that locally enhance or repress transcription. While many transcription factors target a restricted number of genes, others appear to modulate transcription levels globally. An example is MeCP2, an abundant methylated-DNA binding protein that is mutated in the neurological disorder Rett syndrome.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Justyna Cholewa-Waclaw, Ruth Shah, Shaun Webb, Kashyap Chhatbar, Bernard Ramsahoye, Oliver Pusch, Miao Yu, Philip Greulich, Bartlomiej Waclaw, Adrian P. Bird Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Crumpling of silver nanowires by endolysosomes strongly reduces toxicity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Fibrous particles interact with cells and organisms in complex ways that can lead to cellular dysfunction, cell death, inflammation, and disease. The development of conductive transparent networks (CTNs) composed of metallic silver nanowires (AgNWs) for flexible touchscreen displays raises new possibilities for the intimate contact between novel fibers and human... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sylvia G. Lehmann, Dȷadidi Toybou, Ana–Elena Pradas del Real, Devrah Arndt, Abderrahmane Tagmount, Muriel Viau, Malak Safi, Alexandra Pacureanu, Peter Cloetens, Sylvain Bohic, Murielle Salome, Hiram Castillo–Michel, Brenda Omana–S Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Ternary nitride semiconductors in the rocksalt crystal structure [Applied Physical Sciences]
Inorganic nitrides with wurtzite crystal structures are well-known semiconductors used in optical and electronic devices. In contrast, rocksalt-structured nitrides are known for their superconducting and refractory properties. Breaking this dichotomy, here we report ternary nitride semiconductors with rocksalt crystal structures, remarkable electronic properties, and the general chemical formula MgxTM1−xN (TM... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sage R. Bauers, Aaron Holder, Wenhao Sun, Celeste L. Melamed, Rachel Woods-Robinson, John Mangum, John Perkins, William Tumas, Brian Gorman, Adele Tamboli, Gerbrand Ceder, Stephan Lany, Andriy Zakutayev Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Variational implicit-solvent predictions of the dry-wet transition pathways for ligand-receptor binding and unbinding kinetics [Applied Mathematics]
Ligand–receptor binding and unbinding are fundamental biomolecular processes and particularly essential to drug efficacy. Environmental water fluctuations, however, impact the corresponding thermodynamics and kinetics and thereby challenge theoretical descriptions. Here, we devise a holistic, implicit-solvent, multimethod approach to predict the (un)binding kinetics for a generic ligand–pocket model. We use the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shenggao Zhou, R. Gregor Weiss, Li–Tien Cheng, Joachim Dzubiella, J. Andrew McCammon, Bo Li Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Rare dental trait provides morphological evidence of archaic introgression in Asian fossil record [Anthropology]
The recently described Denisovan hemimandible from Xiahe, China [F. Chen et al., (2019) Nature 569, 409–412], possesses an unusual dental feature: a 3-rooted lower second molar. A survey of the clinical and bioarchaeological literature demonstrates that the 3-rooted lower molar is rare (less than 3.5% occurrence) in non-Asian Homo sapiens.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shara E. Bailey, Jean–Jacques Hublin, Susan C. Anton Tags: Brief Reports Social Sciences Source Type: research

The plastidial pentose phosphate pathway is essential for postglobular embryo development in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
We examined the role of the plastidial oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Vasilios M. E. Andriotis, Alison M. Smith Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

A SWI/SNF subunit regulates chromosomal dissociation of structural maintenance complex 5 during DNA repair in plant cells [Plant Biology]
DNA damage decreases genome stability and alters genetic information in all organisms. Conserved protein complexes have been evolved for DNA repair in eukaryotes, such as the structural maintenance complex 5/6 (SMC5/6), a chromosomal ATPase involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Several factors have been identified for recruitment of SMC5/6... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jieming Jiang, Ning Mao, Huan Hu, Jiahang Tang, Danlu Han, Song Liu, Qian Wu, Yiyang Liu, Changlian Peng, Jianbin Lai, Chengwei Yang Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of vulvar cancer: A review
Vulvar malignancies represent a serious gynecologic health concern, especially given the increasing incidence over the past several decades. Squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma are common subtypes, although other neoplasms such as basal cell carcinoma and Paget ’s disease of the vulva may be seen. Many vulvar cancers are initially misdiagnosed as inflammatory conditions, delaying diagnosis and worsening prognosis. It is essential that dermatologists are familiar with characteristic findings for each malignancy in order to ensure appropriate diagnosis and management. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrea Tan, Amy K. Bieber, Jennifer A. Stein, Miriam K. Pomeranz Source Type: research

How we judge data
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Dirk M. Elston Source Type: research

Research Letter: Assessing Patient Outcomes After Digit Sparing En Bloc Surgery of Nail Apparatus Melanoma In Situ Using Two Validated Surveys
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Thomas J. Knackstedt, Julia O. Baltz, Erin N. Wilmer, Nathaniel J. Jellinek Source Type: research

Case reports and anecdotal evidence
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Dirk Elston, Brett Sloan Source Type: research

Availability bias and artificial intelligence
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Dirk M. Elston Source Type: research

Memory bias
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Dirk M. Elston Source Type: research

Prognostic Implications of Co-Occurring Dermatologic and Gastrointestinal Toxicity from Immune Checkpoint Inhibition Therapy for Advanced Malignancies: A Retrospective Cohort Study
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Gabriel E. Molina, Ian M. Allen, Michael S. Hughes, Leyre Zubiri, Hang Lee, Meghan J. Mooradian, Kerry L. Reynolds, Michael Dougan, Steven T. Chen Source Type: research

Evaluation of the utility of localized adjuvant radiation for node-negative primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with clear histologic margins
Though NCCN recommends consideration of localized adjuvant radiation following clear-margin surgery for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) with large caliber ( ≥0.1mm) nerve invasion (LCNI) and other high-risk features, only a single small study has compared surgery plus adjuvant radiation (S+ART) to surgical monotherapy (SM) for CSCC. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Emily Stamell Ruiz, Shlomo A. Koyfman, Syril Keena T. Que, Jason Kass, Chrysalyne D. Schmults Source Type: research

Hair transplant in frontal fibrosing alopecia: A multicenter review of 51 patients
To the Editor: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a primary lymphocytic scarring alopecia characterized by a progressive and bilateral recession of the frontotemporal hairline.1,2 The usefulness of hair transplant (HT) is controversial in these patients.3,4 The aim of this study was to describe the outcome of HT in a multicenter series of patients in whom FFA had been diagnosed. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Sergio Va ñó-Galván, Emilio Villodres, Ramón Pigem, M.R. Navarro-Belmonte, Manuel Asín-Llorca, Teresa Meyer-González, Rita Rodrigues-Barata, Óscar M. Moreno-Arrones, David Saceda-Corralo, Pierre Bouhanna, Alejandro Camps Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Moving Through the Trauma: Dance/Movement Therapy as a Somatic-Based Intervention for Addressing Trauma and Stress Among Syrian Refugee Children
Traumatic experiences are common in youth, with some reporting that 20% of youth have experienced trauma.1 Some populations have a higher exposure. Over 50% of refugee youth with exposure to civilian war trauma and forced migration experience high anxiety; up to 30% screen positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).2,3 Trauma exposure during critical developmental periods can have detrimental social, educational, and physical consequences. Current evidence-based therapeutics have primarily been researched in adults; child anxiety disorders are undertreated and under researched. (Source: Journal of the American Acade...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - July 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lana Ruvolo Grasser, Heba Al-Saghir, Cassandra Wanna, Jenna Spinei, Arash Javanbakht Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Visualization analysis of graphene and its composites for heavy metal wastewater applications.
Abstract In order to explore the research trends and hotspots related to the treatment of heavy metals in wastewater by graphene and its composites, this study collected information on 511 publications from the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) and conducted a quantitative and visual analysis. The article on the adsorption of heavy metals in wastewater by graphene and its composites first appeared in 2006 and continued to grow since 2011. It broke through 100 articles for the first time in 2016 and the overall trend is on the rise. The 511 articles were published in 185 journals, of which RSC Advances is the ...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - July 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Li B, Chen Z, Li Y, Yang W, Wang W Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Assessing patient outcomes after digit-sparing en bloc surgery of nail apparatus melanoma in situ using two validated surveys
To the Editor: En bloc resection of the entire nail unit has been advocated as a conservative, function-preserving alternative to amputation in the management of nail apparatus melanoma in situ (NAMis) and early invasive disease.1 We sought to quantify patient quality of life (QOL) after en bloc resection of NAMis using the universal pain scale and 2 validated surveys: the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)2 and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH).3 The DLQI, scored from no effect on QOL (0 points) to extremely large effect on QOL (30 points), was chosen given its wide applicability and familiarity amo...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - July 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Thomas J. Knackstedt, Julia O. Baltz, Erin N. Wilmer, Nathaniel J. Jellinek Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Irreversible Pulpitis - A Source of Antibiotic Over-Prescription?
The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which current research and evidence around irreversible pulpitis has been translated into dental practice and the gaps in dentists' knowledge. An on-line clinical vignette format survey questionnaire about treatment of irreversible pulpitis was distributed to the members of the Academy of Operative Dentistry and Academy of General Dentistry (US based international dental bodies). Their responses were recorded and evaluated. A total of 403 dentists participated in the survey. Over a third (39.3%) indicated they would prescribe antibiotics for symptomatic irreversibl...
Source: Braz Dent J - July 22, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Agnihotry A, Gill KS, Stevenson Iii RG, Fedorowicz Z, Kumar V, Sprakel J, Cohen S, Thompson W Tags: Braz Dent J Source Type: research

A retrospective analysis of real-world outcomes of elderly Chinese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have a worse prognosis than younger patients, and the optimal treatment strategy for this group remains controversial. We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of elderly patients (>60 years) and to assess the impact of clinical and molecular factors on outcome in this age group. METHODS: From April 2006 to December 2012, a total of 349 elderly patients with DLBCL from the National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College...
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - July 22, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Liu P, Han Y, Jiang SY, He XH, Qin Y, Gui L, Zhou SY, Zhou LQ, Yang JL, Yang S, Wen TY, Shi YK Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research