Laminar specific fMRI reveals directed interactions in distributed networks during language processing [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Interactions between top-down and bottom-up information streams are integral to brain function but challenging to measure noninvasively. Laminar resolution, functional MRI (lfMRI) is sensitive to depth-dependent properties of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response, which can be potentially related to top-down and bottom-up signal contributions. In this work, we used... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Daniel Sharoh, Tim van Mourik, Lauren J. Bains, Katrien Segaert, Kirsten Weber, Peter Hagoort, David G. Norris Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Great apes use self-experience to anticipate an agent’s action in a false-belief test [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Human social life depends on theory of mind, the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others. A signature of theory of mind, false belief understanding, requires representing others’ views of the world, even when they conflict with one’s own. After decades of research, it remains controversial whether any... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Fumihiro Kano, Christopher Krupenye, Satoshi Hirata, Masaki Tomonaga, Josep Call Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Local alliances and rivalries shape near-repeat terror activity of al-Qaeda, ISIS, and insurgents [Political Sciences]
We study the spatiotemporal correlation of terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), and local insurgents, in six geographical areas identified via k-means clustering applied to the Global Terrorism Database. All surveyed organizations exhibit near-repeat activity whereby a prior attack increases the likelihood of a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yao–Li Chuang, Noam Ben–Asher, Maria R. D’Orsogna Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Noncanonical auxin signaling regulates cell division pattern during lateral root development [Plant Biology]
In both plants and animals, multiple cellular processes must be orchestrated to ensure proper organogenesis. The cell division patterns control the shape of growing organs, yet how they are precisely determined and coordinated is poorly understood. In plants, the distribution of the phytohormone auxin is tightly linked to organogenesis, including... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Rongfeng Huang, Rui Zheng, Jun He, Zimin Zhou, Jiacheng Wang, Yan Xiong, Tongda Xu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Salicylic acid-mediated plasmodesmal closure via Remorin-dependent lipid organization [Plant Biology]
Plasmodesmata (PD) are plant-specific membrane-lined channels that create cytoplasmic and membrane continuities between adjacent cells, thereby facilitating cell–cell communication and virus movement. Plant cells have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate PD plasticity in response to numerous environmental stimuli. In particular, during defense against plant pathogens, the defense hormone, salicylic acid... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Dingquan Huang, Yanbiao Sun, Zhiming Ma, Meiyu Ke, Yong Cui, Zichen Chen, Chaofan Chen, Changyang Ji, Tuan Minh Tran, Liang Yang, Sin Man Lam, Yanhong Han, Guanghou Shu, Jiři Friml, Yansong Miao, Liwen Jiang, Xu Chen Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Light-inducible expression of translation factor EF-Tu during acclimation to strong light enhances the repair of photosystem II [Plant Biology]
In photosynthetic organisms, the repair of photosystem II (PSII) is enhanced after acclimation to strong light, with the resultant mitigation of photoinhibition of PSII. We previously reported that oxidation of translation elongation factor EF-Tu, which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome, depresses the repair of PSII in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Haruhiko Jimbo, Taichi Izuhara, Yukako Hihara, Toru Hisabori, Yoshitaka Nishiyama Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

GWAS with principal component analysis identifies a gene comprehensively controlling rice architecture [Plant Biology]
In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) on 8 typical traits related to plant architecture revealed that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kenji Yano, Yoichi Morinaka, Fanmiao Wang, Peng Huang, Sayaka Takehara, Takaaki Hirai, Aya Ito, Eriko Koketsu, Mayuko Kawamura, Kunihiko Kotake, Shinya Yoshida, Masaki Endo, Gen Tamiya, Hidemi Kitano, Miyako Ueguchi-Tanaka, Ko Hirano, Makoto Matsuoka Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mining for protein S-sulfenylation in Arabidopsis uncovers redox-sensitive sites [Plant Biology]
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important messenger molecule for diverse cellular processes. H2O2 oxidizes proteinaceous cysteinyl thiols to sulfenic acid, also known as S-sulfenylation, thereby affecting the protein conformation and functionality. Although many proteins have been identified as S-sulfenylation targets in plants, site-specific mapping and quantification remain largely unexplored. By... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jingȷing Huang, Patrick Willems, Bo Wei, Caiping Tian, Renan B. Ferreira, Nandita Bodra, Santiago Agustin Martinez Gache, Khadiȷa Wahni, Keke Liu, Didier Vertommen, Kris Gevaert, Kate S. Carroll, Marc Van Montagu, Jing Yang, Frank Van Breuse Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Intrinsically undamped plasmon modes in narrow electron bands [Physics]
Surface plasmons in 2-dimensional electron systems with narrow Bloch bands feature an interesting regime in which Landau damping (dissipation via electron–hole pair excitation) is completely quenched. This surprising behavior is made possible by strong coupling in narrow-band systems characterized by large values of the “fine structure” constant α=e2/ℏκvF. Dissipation quenching... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Cyprian Lewandowski, Leonid Levitov Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Dynamics of wrinkling in ultrathin elastic sheets [Physics]
The wrinkling of thin elastic objects provides a means of generating regular patterning at small scales in applications ranging from photovoltaics to microfluidic devices. Static wrinkle patterns are known to be governed by an energetic balance between the object’s bending stiffness and an effective substrate stiffness, which may originate from... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Finn Box, Doireann O’Kiely, Ousmane Kodio, Maxime Inizan, Alfonso A. Castreȷon–Pita, Dominic Vella Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Amyloid-beta impairs TOM1-mediated IL-1R1 signaling [Neuroscience]
Defects in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)–mediated cellular responses contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To decipher the mechanism associated with its pathogenesis, we investigated the molecular events associated with the termination of IL-1β inflammatory responses by focusing on the role played by the target of Myb1 (TOM1), a negative regulator of the interleukin-1β... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alessandra Cadete Martini, Angela Gomez-Arboledas, Stefania Forner, Carlos J. Rodriguez-Ortiz, Amanda McQuade, Emma Danhash, Jimmy Phan, Dominic Javonillo, Jordan-Vu Ha, Melanie Tram, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Celia da Cunha, Rahasson R. Ager, Jose C. Davil Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

N-terminal alternative splicing of GluN1 regulates the maturation of excitatory synapses and seizure susceptibility [Neuroscience]
The majority of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in the brain are composed of 2 GluN1 and 2 GluN2 subunits. The inclusion or exclusion of 1 N-terminal and 2 C-terminal domains of GluN1 results in 8 splicing variants that exhibit distinct temporal and spatial patterns of expression and functional properties. However, previous... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hong Liu, Hao Wang, Matthew Peterson, Wen Zhang, Guoqiang Hou, Zhong-wei Zhang Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Gray Matter Age Prediction as a Biomarker for Risk of Dementia [Neuroscience]
The gap between predicted brain age using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chronological age may serve as a biomarker for early-stage neurodegeneration. However, owing to the lack of large longitudinal studies, it has been challenging to validate this link. We aimed to investigate the utility of such a gap as... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Johnny Wang, Maria J. Knol, Aleksei Tiulpin, Florian Dubost, Marleen de Bruijne, Meike W. Vernooij, Hieab H. H. Adams, M. Arfan Ikram, Wiro J. Niessen, Gennady V. Roshchupkin Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Genetic ablation of purine salvage in Cryptosporidium parvum reveals nucleotide uptake from the host cell [Microbiology]
The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium is a leading global cause of severe diarrheal disease and an important contributor to early-childhood mortality. Waterborne outbreaks occur frequently, even in countries with advanced water treatment capabilities, and there is currently no fully effective treatment. Nucleotide pathways are attractive targets for antimicrobial development, and several... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Mattie C. Pawlowic, Mastanbabu Somepalli, Adam Sateriale, Gillian T. Herbert, Alexis R. Gibson, Gregory D. Cuny, Lizbeth Hedstrom, Boris Striepen Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The cbb3-type cytochrome oxidase assembly factor CcoG is a widely distributed cupric reductase [Microbiology]
Copper (Cu)-containing proteins execute essential functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but their biogenesis is challenged by high Cu toxicity and the preferential presence of Cu(II) under aerobic conditions, while Cu(I) is the preferred substrate for Cu chaperones and Cu-transport proteins. These proteins form a coordinated network that prevents Cu... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Dorian Marckmann, Petru-Iulian Trasnea, Johannes Schimpf, Christine Winterstein, Andreea Andrei, Stefan Schmollinger, Crysten E. Blaby-Haas, Thorsten Friedrich, Fevzi Daldal, Hans-Georg Koch Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Genetic dissection of active forgetting in labile and consolidated memories in Drosophila [Neuroscience]
Different memory components are forgotten through distinct molecular mechanisms. In Drosophila, the activation of 2 Rho GTPases (Rac1 and Cdc42), respectively, underlies the forgetting of an early labile memory (anesthesia-sensitive memory, ASM) and a form of consolidated memory (anesthesia-resistant memory, ARM). Here, we dissected the molecular mechanisms that tie Rac1... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yang Gao, Yichun Shuai, Xuchen Zhang, Yuwei Peng, Lianzhang Wang, Jing He, Yi Zhong, Qian Li Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

IL-2 receptors preassemble and signal in the ER/Golgi causing resistance to antiproliferative anti-IL-2R{alpha} therapies [Immunology and Inflammation]
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15 play pivotal roles in T cell activation, apoptosis, and survival, and are implicated in leukemias and autoimmune diseases. Their heterotrimeric receptors share their β- and γc-chains, but have distinct α-chains. Anti–IL-2Rα (daclizumab) therapy targeting cell surface-expressed receptor subunits to inhibit T cell proliferation has only brought... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Julianna Volko, Adam Kenesei, Meili Zhang, Peter Varnai, Gabor Mocsar, Michael N. Petrus, Karoly Jambrovics, Zoltan Balaȷthy, Gabriele Muller, Andrea Bodnar, Katalin Toth, Thomas A. Waldmann, Gyorgy Vamosi Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

On the feasibility of saltational evolution [Evolution]
Is evolution always gradual or can it make leaps? We examine a mathematical model of an evolutionary process on a fitness landscape and obtain analytic solutions for the probability of multimutation leaps, that is, several mutations occurring simultaneously, within a single generation in 1 genome, and being fixed all together... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Mikhail I. Katsnelson, Yuri I. Wolf, Eugene V. Koonin Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Multiple modes of convergent adaptation in the spread of glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus [Evolution]
The selection pressure exerted by herbicides has led to the repeated evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds. The evolution of herbicide resistance on contemporary timescales in turn provides an outstanding opportunity to investigate key questions about the genetics of adaptation, in particular the relative importance of adaptation from new mutations,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Julia M. Kreiner, Darci Ann Giacomini, Felix Bemm, Bridgit Waithaka, Julian Regalado, Christa Lanz, Julia Hildebrandt, Peter H. Sikkema, Patrick J. Tranel, Detlef Weigel, John R. Stinchcombe, Stephen I. Wright Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Cowpox virus encodes a protein that binds B7.1 and B7.2 and subverts T cell costimulation [Immunology and Inflammation]
Costimulation is required for optimal T cell activation, yet it is unclear whether poxviruses dedicatedly subvert costimulation during infection. Here, we report that the secreted M2 protein encoded by cowpox virus (CPXV) specifically interacts with human and murine B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86). We also show that M2 competes with... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Xiaoli Wang, Sytse J. Piersma, Jabari I. Elliott, John M. Errico, Maria D. Gainey, Liping Yang, Christopher A. Nelson, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Daved H. Fremont Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Multibioinspired slippery surfaces with wettable bump arrays for droplets pumping [Engineering]
Droplet manipulation is playing an important role in various fields, including scientific research, industrial production, and daily life. Here, inspired by the microstructures and functions of Namib desert beetles, Nepenthes pitcher plants, and emergent aquatic plants, we present a multibioinspired slippery surface for droplet manipulation by employing combined strategies of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Xiaoxuan Zhang, Lingyu Sun, Yu Wang, Feika Bian, Yuetong Wang, Yuanjin Zhao Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Core Concept: Blockchain offers applications well beyond Bitcoin but faces its own limitations [Environmental Sciences]
In 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto introduced the world to Bitcoin, a volatile digital currency that’s untethered to any specific institution or country (1). (Satoshi Nakamoto was quickly revealed to be a pseudonym; the true identity of the inventor or inventors remains unknown.) In the years that followed, the value of Bitcoin... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Stephen Ornes Tags: Core Concepts, Front Matter Source Type: research

Rapid increase in Asian bottles in the South Atlantic Ocean indicates major debris inputs from ships [Environmental Sciences]
Most plastic debris floating at sea is thought to come from land-based sources, but there is little direct evidence to support this assumption. Since 1984, stranded debris has been recorded along the west coast of Inaccessible Island, a remote, uninhabited island in the central South Atlantic Ocean that has a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Peter G. Ryan, Ben J. Dilley, Robert A. Ronconi, Maelle Connan Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Shape-shifting structured lattices via multimaterial 4D printing [Engineering]
Shape-morphing structured materials have the ability to transform a range of applications. However, their design and fabrication remain challenging due to the difficulty of controlling the underlying metric tensor in space and time. Here, we exploit a combination of multiple materials, geometry, and 4-dimensional (4D) printing to create structured heterogeneous... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: J. William Boley, Wim M. van Rees, Charles Lissandrello, Mark N. Horenstein, Ryan L. Truby, Arda Kotikian, Jennifer A. Lewis, L. Mahadevan Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Declining CO2 price paths [Economic Sciences]
Pricing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions involves making trade-offs between consumption today and unknown damages in the (distant) future. While decision making under risk and uncertainty is the forte of financial economics, important insights from pricing financial assets do not typically inform standard climate–economy models. Here, we introduce EZ-Climate, a simple recursive... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kent D. Daniel, Robert B. Litterman, Gernot Wagner Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Paternal knockout of Slc38a4/SNAT4 causes placental hypoplasia associated with intrauterine growth restriction in mice [Developmental Biology]
In this study, we focused on system A amino acid transporters Slc38a1/SNAT1, Slc38a2/SNAT2, and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shogo Matoba, Shoko Nakamuta, Kento Miura, Michiko Hirose, Hirosuke Shiura, Takashi Kohda, Nobuaki Nakamuta, Atsuo Ogura Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

{beta}-Catenin is required for radial cell patterning and identity in the developing mouse cochlea [Developmental Biology]
Development of multicellular organs requires the coordination of cell differentiation and patterning. Critical for sound detection, the mammalian organ of Corti contains functional units arranged tonotopically along the cochlear turns. Each unit consists of sensory hair cells intercalated by nonsensory supporting cells, both specified and radially patterned with exquisite precision... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lina Jansson, Michael Ebeid, Jessica W. Shen, Tara E. Mokhtari, Lee A. Quiruz, David M. Ornitz, Sung-Ho Huh, Alan G. Cheng Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The conflict between adaptation and dispersal for maintaining biodiversity in changing environments [Ecology]
Dispersal and adaptation both allow species to persist in changing environments. Yet, we have limited understanding of how these processes interact to affect species persistence, especially in diverse communities where biotic interactions greatly complicate responses to environmental change. Here we use a stochastic metacommunity model to demonstrate how dispersal and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Patrick L. Thompson, Emanuel A. Fronhofer Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A triple drug combination targeting components of the nutrient-sensing network maximizes longevity [Developmental Biology]
Increasing life expectancy is causing the prevalence of age-related diseases to rise, and there is an urgent need for new strategies to improve health at older ages. Reduced activity of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) nutrient-sensing signaling network can extend lifespan and improve health... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jorge Ivan Castillo–Quan, Luke S. Tain, Kerri J. Kinghorn, Li Li, Sebastian Gronke, Yvonne Hinze, T. Keith Blackwell, Ivana Bȷedov, Linda Partridge Tags: Brief Reports Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Intact carbonic acid is a viable protonating agent for biological bases [Chemistry]
Carbonic acid H2CO3 (CA) is a key constituent of the universal CA/bicarbonate/CO2 buffer maintaining the pH of both blood and the oceans. Here we demonstrate the ability of intact CA to quantitatively protonate bases with biologically-relevant pKas and argue that CA has a previously unappreciated function as a major source... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Daniel Aminov, Dina Pines, Philip M. Kiefer, Snehasis Daschakraborty, James T. Hynes, Ehud Pines Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Waterproof molecular monolayers stabilize 2D materials [Chemistry]
Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have rich and unique functional properties, but many are susceptible to corrosion under ambient conditions. Here we show that linear alkylamines n-CmH2m+1NH2, with m = 4 through 11, are highly effective in protecting the optoelectronic properties of these materials, such as black phosphorus (BP) and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Cong Su, Zongyou Yin, Qing–Bo Yan, Zegao Wang, Hongtao Lin, Lei Sun, Wenshuo Xu, Tetsuya Yamada, Xiang Ji, Nobuyuki Zettsu, Katsuya Teshima, Jamie H. Warner, Mircea Dincă, Jueȷun Hu, Mingdong Dong, Gang Su, Jing Kong, Ju Li Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

The binuclear cluster of [FeFe] hydrogenase is formed with sulfur donated by cysteine of an [Fe(Cys)(CO)2(CN)] organometallic precursor [Chemistry]
The enzyme [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA1) contains a unique 6-iron cofactor, the H-cluster, that has unusual ligands to an Fe–Fe binuclear subcluster: CN−, CO, and an azadithiolate (adt) ligand that provides 2 S bridges between the 2 Fe atoms. In cells, the H-cluster is assembled by a collection of 3 maturases: HydE... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Guodong Rao, Scott A. Pattenaude, Katherine Alwan, Ninian J. Blackburn, R. David Britt, Thomas B. Rauchfuss Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Theory and simulations for RNA folding in mixtures of monovalent and divalent cations [Chemistry]
RNA molecules cannot fold in the absence of counterions. Experiments are typically performed in the presence of monovalent and divalent cations. How to treat the impact of a solution containing a mixture of both ion types on RNA folding has remained a challenging problem for decades. By exploiting the large... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hung T. Nguyen, Naoto Hori, D. Thirumalai Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Cryopreservation of avian species Pure heritage breed broiler chicken reconstituted from frozen genetic material surrounded by brown layer offspring. Image courtesy of Norman Russell (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom). The high lipid content of some avian eggs renders it challenging to preserve genetic material from rare or endangered species... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Tags: In This Issue This Week in PNAS Source Type: research

On the multibin logarithmic score used in the FluSight competitions [Biological Sciences]
The FluSight challenges (1) represent an outstanding collaborative effort and have “pioneered infectious disease forecasting in a formal way” (ref. 2, p. 2803). However, I wish to initiate a discussion about the employed evaluation measure. The competitions feature discrete or discretized targets related to the US influenza season. E.g., for... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Johannes Bracher Tags: Letters, Front Matter-Letters-Set Free Source Type: research

Reply to Bracher: Scoring probabilistic forecasts to maximize public health interpretability [Biological Sciences]
Evaluating probabilistic forecasts in the context of a real-time public health surveillance system is a complicated business. We agree with Bracher’s (1) observations that the scores established by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and used to evaluate our forecasts of seasonal influenza in the United States... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Nicholas G. Reich, Dave Osthus, Evan L. Ray, Teresa K. Yamana, Matthew Biggerstaff, Michael A. Johansson, Roni Rosenfeld, Jeffrey Shaman Tags: Letters, Front Matter-Letters-Set Free Source Type: research

Reward prediction tells us less than expected about musical pleasure [Biological Sciences]
Gold et al. (1) report a reinforcement-learning experiment where reward prediction errors (RPEs) were elicited by the consonance or dissonance of musical stimuli. They link these RPEs to activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and to behavioral indices of learning. They conclude that music can function as a reward, that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Remi de Fleurian, Peter M. C. Harrison, Marcus T. Pearce, David R. Quiroga–Martinez Tags: Letters, Front Matter-Letters-Set Free Source Type: research

Reply to de Fleurian et al.: Toward a fuller understanding of reward prediction errors and their role in musical pleasure [Biological Sciences]
We are pleased that our manuscript on the neural processes underlying musical pleasure and reward (1) has elicited commentary from de Fleurian et al. (2). Their first comment regards the distinction between reward prediction errors (RPEs), which concern predicted values like rewards/punishments, and sensory prediction errors, which concern predicted events... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Benjamin P. Gold, Ernest Mas-Herrero, Alain Dagher, Robert J. Zatorre Tags: Letters, Front Matter-Letters-Set Free Source Type: research

Messenger RNA therapy as an option for treating metabolic disorders [Medical Sciences]
The use of messenger RNA (mRNA) therapy by systemic delivery to treat metabolic disorders has long been hampered by poor stability, immunogenicity, inefficient delivery, and hepatic toxicity. In contrast, other molecular therapies such as viral gene and enzyme replacement therapy (Fig. 1) have been effectively employed to successfully treat rare... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Randy J. Chandler Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Forgetting memories through distinct actin remodeling mechanisms [Neuroscience]
After an event takes place, we may memorize different aspects of the experience, such as visual details or the general context. Empirically, these memory components appear to fade away at different rates, suggesting different cellular and/or molecular mechanisms underlying such memory decay. Drosophila, a pioneering animal model for discovering genetic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kuan-Lin Feng, Ann-Shyn Chiang Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Wildfire prevention through prophylactic treatment of high-risk landscapes using viscoelastic retardant fluids [Applied Physical Sciences]
Polyphosphate fire retardants are a critical tactical resource for fighting fires in the wildland and in the wildland–urban interface. Yet, application of these retardants is limited to emergency suppression strategies because current formulations cannot retain fire retardants on target vegetation for extended periods of time through environmental exposure and weathering.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Anthony C. Yu, Hector Lopez Hernandez, Andrew H. Kim, Lyndsay M. Stapleton, Ruben J. Brand, Eric T. Mellor, Cameron P. Bauer, Gregory D. McCurdy, Albert J. Wolff III, Doreen Chan, Craig S. Criddle, Jesse D. Acosta, Eric A. Appel Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

A general constitutive model for dense, fine-particle suspensions validated in many geometries [Applied Physical Sciences]
Fine-particle suspensions (such as cornstarch mixed with water) exhibit dramatic changes in viscosity when sheared, producing fascinating behaviors that captivate children and rheologists alike. Examination of these mixtures in simple flow geometries suggests intergranular repulsion and its influence on the frictional nature of granular contacts is central to this effect—for... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Aaron S. Baumgarten, Ken Kamrin Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Reviving rare chicken breeds using genetically engineered sterility in surrogate host birds [Agricultural Sciences]
In macrolecithal species, cryopreservation of the oocyte and zygote is not possible due to the large size and quantity of lipid deposited within the egg. For birds, this signifies that cryopreserving and regenerating a species from frozen cellular material are currently technically unfeasible. Diploid primordial germ cells (PGCs) are a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Mark E. Woodcock, Almas A. Gheyas, Andrew S. Mason, Sunil Nandi, Lorna Taylor, Adrian Sherman, Jacqueline Smith, Dave W. Burt, Rachel Hawken, Michael J. McGrew Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Xanthomonas translucens commandeers the host rate-limiting step in ABA biosynthesis for disease susceptibility [Agricultural Sciences]
Plants are vulnerable to disease through pathogen manipulation of phytohormone levels, which otherwise regulate development, abiotic, and biotic responses. Here, we show that the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa elevates expression of the host gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (TaNCED-5BS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Zhao Peng, Ying Hu, Junli Zhang, Jose C. Huguet-Tapia, Anna K. Block, Sunghun Park, Suraj Sapkota, Zhaohui Liu, Sanzhen Liu, Frank F. White Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Francisella novicida Cas9 interrogates genomic DNA with very high specificity and can be used for mammalian genome editing [Applied Biological Sciences]
Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used to make precise heritable changes in the DNA of organisms. Although the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) and its engineered variants have been efficiently harnessed for numerous gene-editing applications across different platforms, concerns remain regarding their putative off-targeting at multiple... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sundaram Acharya, Arpit Mishra, Deepanjan Paul, Asgar Hussain Ansari, Mohd. Azhar, Manoj Kumar, Riya Rauthan, Namrata Sharma, Meghali Aich, Dipanjali Sinha, Saumya Sharma, Shivani Jain, Arjun Ray, Suman Jain, Sivaprakash Ramalingam, Souvik Maiti, Debojyot Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Rationally engineered Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 nucleases with high genome-wide specificity [Biochemistry]
RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 proteins have been widely used for genome editing, but their off-target activities limit broad application. The minimal Cas9 ortholog from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) is commonly used for in vivo genome editing; however, no variant conferring high genome-wide specificity is available. Here, we report rationally engineered SaCas9 variants with... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yuanyan Tan, Athena H. Y. Chu, Siyu Bao, Duc Anh Hoang, Firaol Tamiru Kebede, Wenjun Xiong, Mingfang Ji, Jiahai Shi, Zongli Zheng Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

A CTG repeat-selective chemical screen identifies microtubule inhibitors as selective modulators of toxic CUG RNA levels [Biochemistry]
A CTG repeat expansion in the DMPK gene is the causative mutation of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Transcription of the expanded CTG repeat produces toxic gain-of-function CUG RNA, leading to disease symptoms. A screening platform that targets production or stability of the toxic CUG RNA in a selective manner... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kaalak Reddy, Jana R. Jenquin, Ona L. McConnell, John D. Cleary, Jared I. Richardson, Belinda S. Pinto, Maja C. Haerle, Elizabeth Delgado, Lori Planco, Masayuki Nakamori, Eric T. Wang, J. Andrew Berglund Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Mapping low-affinity/high-specificity peptide-protein interactions using ligand-footprinting mass spectrometry [Biochemistry]
Short linear peptide motifs that are intracellular ligands of folded proteins are a modular, incompletely understood molecular interaction language in signaling systems. Such motifs, which frequently occur in intrinsically disordered protein regions, often bind partner proteins with modest affinity and are difficult to study with conventional structural biology methods. We... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Benjamin W. Parker, Edward J. Goncz, David T. Krist, Alexander V. Statsyuk, Alexey I. Nesvizhskii, Eric L. Weiss Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Overcoming insecticide resistance through computational inhibitor design [Biochemistry]
Insecticides allow control of agricultural pests and disease vectors and are vital for global food security and health. The evolution of resistance to insecticides, such as organophosphates (OPs), is a serious and growing concern. OP resistance often involves sequestration or hydrolysis of OPs by carboxylesterases. Inhibiting carboxylesterases could, therefore, restore... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Galen J. Correy, Daniel Zaidman, Alon Harmelin, Silvia Carvalho, Peter D. Mabbitt, Viviane Calaora, Peter J. James, Andrew C. Kotze, Colin J. Jackson, Nir London Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Capsid expansion of bacteriophage T5 revealed by high resolution cryoelectron microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The large (90-nm) icosahedral capsid of bacteriophage T5 is composed of 775 copies of the major capsid protein (mcp) together with portal, protease, and decoration proteins. Its assembly is a regulated process that involves several intermediates, including a thick-walled round precursor prohead that expands as the viral DNA is packaged... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alexis Huet, Robert L. Duda, Pascale Boulanger, James F. Conway Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research