Biosynthesis of the nitrogenase active-site cofactor precursor NifB-co in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Biochemistry]
The radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme NifB occupies a central and essential position in nitrogenase biogenesis. NifB catalyzes the formation of an [8Fe-9S-C] cluster, called NifB-co, which constitutes the core of the active-site cofactors for all 3 nitrogenase types. Here, we produce functional NifB in aerobically cultured Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Combinatorial pathway... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Stefan Buren, Katelin Pratt, Xi Jiang, Yisong Guo, Emilio Jimenez–Vicente, Carlos Echavarri–Erasun, Dennis R. Dean, Ishtiaq Saaem, D. Benȷamin Gordon, Christopher A. Voigt, Luis M. Rubio Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Geometrical reorganization of Dectin-1 and TLR2 on single phagosomes alters their synergistic immune signaling [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Receptors of innate immune cells function synergistically to detect pathogens and elicit appropriate immune responses. Many receptor pairs also appear “colocalized” on the membranes of phagosomes, the intracellular compartments for pathogen ingestion. However, the nature of the seemingly receptor colocalization and the role it plays in immune regulation are unclear,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Wenqian Li, Jun Yan, Yan Yu Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Resolving titin’s lifecycle and the spatial organization of protein turnover in mouse cardiomyocytes [Cell Biology]
Cardiac protein homeostasis, sarcomere assembly, and integration of titin as the sarcomeric backbone are tightly regulated to facilitate adaptation and repair. Very little is known on how the>3-MDa titin protein is synthesized, moved, inserted into sarcomeres, detached, and degraded. Here, we generated a bifluorescently labeled knockin mouse to simultaneously... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Franziska Rudolph, Judith Huttemeister, Katharina da Silva Lopes, Rene Juttner, Lily Yu, Nora Bergmann, Dhana Friedrich, Stephan Preibisch, Eva Wagner, Stephan E. Lehnart, Carol C. Gregorio, Michael Gotthardt Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

A universal transportin protein drives stochastic choice of olfactory neurons via specific nuclear import of a sox-2-activating factor [Developmental Biology]
Stochastic neuronal cell fate choice involving notch-independent mechanisms is a poorly understood biological process. The Caenorhabditis elegans AWC olfactory neuron pair asymmetrically differentiates into the default AWCOFF and induced AWCON subtypes in a stochastic manner. Stochastic choice of the AWCON subtype is established using gap junctions and SLO BK potassium... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Amel Alqadah, Yi-Wen Hsieh, Rui Xiong, Bluma J. Lesch, Chieh Chang, Chiou-Fen Chuang Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Increased Muscleblind levels by chloroquine treatment improve myotonic dystrophy type 1 phenotypes in in vitro and in vivo models [Genetics]
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a life-threatening and chronically debilitating neuromuscular disease caused by the expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the 3′ UTR of the DMPK gene. The mutant RNA forms insoluble structures capable of sequestering RNA binding proteins of the Muscleblind-like (MBNL) family, which ultimately leads... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Ariadna Bargiela, Maria Sabater-Arcis, Jorge Espinosa-Espinosa, Miren Zulaica, Adolfo Lopez de Munain, Ruben Artero Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Interaction of the oncoprotein transcription factor MYC with its chromatin cofactor WDR5 is essential for tumor maintenance [Medical Sciences]
The oncoprotein transcription factor MYC is overexpressed in the majority of cancers. Key to its oncogenic activity is the ability of MYC to regulate gene expression patterns that drive and maintain the malignant state. MYC is also considered a validated anticancer target, but efforts to pharmacologically inhibit MYC have failed.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lance R. Thomas, Clare M. Adams, Jing Wang, April M. Weissmiller, Joy Creighton, Shelly L. Lorey, Qi Liu, Stephen W. Fesik, Christine M. Eischen, William P. Tansey Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Single-molecule imaging of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein dynamics and Gag lattice association exposes determinants responsible for virus incorporation [Microbiology]
The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is sparsely incorporated onto assembling virus particles on the host cell plasma membrane in order for the virus to balance infectivity and evade the immune response. Env becomes trapped in a nascent particle on encounter with the polymeric viral protein Gag, which forms a dense... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Nairi Pezeshkian, Nicholas S. Groves, Schuyler B. van Engelenburg Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

The microbiota regulates murine inflammatory responses to toxin-induced CNS demyelination but has minimal impact on remyelination [Neuroscience]
The microbiota is now recognized as a key influence on the host immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). As such, there has been some progress toward therapies that modulate the microbiota with the aim of limiting immune-mediated demyelination, as occurs in multiple sclerosis. However, remyelination—the regeneration of myelin... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Christopher E. McMurran, Alerie Guzman de la Fuente, Rosana Penalva, Ofra Ben Menachem-Zidon, Yvonne Dombrowski, John Falconer, Ginez A. Gonzalez, Chao Zhao, Fynn N. Krause, Adam M. H. Young, Julian L. Griffin, Clare A. Jones, Claire Hollins, Markus M. He Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Ecological origins of perceptual grouping principles in the auditory system [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Events and objects in the world must be inferred from sensory signals to support behavior. Because sensory measurements are temporally and spatially local, the estimation of an object or event can be viewed as the grouping of these measurements into representations of their common causes. Perceptual grouping is believed to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Wiktor Młynarski, Josh H. McDermott Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

News Feature: Getting the world’s fastest cat to breed with speed [Applied Biological Sciences]
Cheetahs once rarely reproduced in captivity. Today, cubs are born every year in zoos. Breeding programs have turned their luck around—but they aren’t done yet. Cheetahs have a reputation as stubborn breeders. But the study of cats such as Fatir at the Smithsonian’s breeding facility suggests that a better understanding... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Amy McDermott Tags: News Features, Front Matter Source Type: research

Oral ionic liquid for the treatment of diet-induced obesity [Applied Biological Sciences]
In this study, we hypothesize that the choline and geranate (CAGE) ionic liquid can reduce... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Md Nurunnabi, Kelly N. Ibsen, Eden E. L. Tanner, Samir Mitragotri Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Evolutionary regain of lost gene circuit function [Applied Mathematics]
Evolutionary reversibility—the ability to regain a lost function—is an important problem both in evolutionary and synthetic biology, where repairing natural or synthetic systems broken by evolutionary processes may be valuable. Here, we use a synthetic positive-feedback (PF) gene circuit integrated into haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to test if the population... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Mirna Kheir Gouda, Michael Manhart, Gabor Balazsi Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Fresnel drag in space-time-modulated metamaterials [Applied Physical Sciences]
A moving medium drags light along with it as measured by Fizeau and explained by Einstein’s theory of special relativity. Here we show that the same effect can be obtained in a situation where there is no physical motion of the medium. Modulations of both the permittivity and permeability, phased... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Paloma A. Huidobro, Emanuele Galiffi, Sebastien Guenneau, Richard V. Craster, J. B. Pendry Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Mechanisms for bacterial gliding motility on soft substrates [Applied Physical Sciences]
The motility mechanism of certain prokaryotes has long been a mystery, since their motion, known as gliding, involves no external appendages. The physical principles behind gliding still remain poorly understood. Using myxobacteria as an example of such organisms, we identify here the physical principles behind gliding motility and develop a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Joel Tchoufag, Pushpita Ghosh, Connor B. Pogue, Beiyan Nan, Kranthi K. Mandadapu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Fundamentally different global marine nitrogen cycling in response to severe ocean deoxygenation [Biochemistry]
The present-day marine nitrogen (N) cycle is strongly regulated by biology. Deficiencies in the availability of fixed and readily bioavailable nitrogen relative to phosphate (P) in the surface ocean are largely corrected by the activity of diazotrophs. This feedback system, termed the “nitrostat,” is thought to have provided close regulation... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: B. David A. Naafs, Fanny M. Monteiro, Ann Pearson, Meytal B. Higgins, Richard D. Pancost, Andy Ridgwell Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

A structural basis for antibody-mediated neutralization of Nipah virus reveals a site of vulnerability at the fusion glycoprotein apex [Biochemistry]
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes frequent outbreaks of severe neurologic and respiratory disease in humans with high case fatality rates. The 2 glycoproteins displayed on the surface of the virus, NiV-G and NiV-F, mediate host-cell attachment and membrane fusion, respectively, and are targets of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Victoria A. Avanzato, Kasopefoluwa Y. Oguntuyo, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Bernardo Gutierrez, Michael Golden, Sergei L. Kosakovsky Pond, Rhys Pryce, Thomas S. Walter, Jeffrey Seow, Katie J. Doores, Oliver G. Pybus, Vincent J. Munster, Benhur Lee, Thomas A. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Extensive free-energy simulations identify water as the base in nucleotide addition by DNA polymerase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Transphosphorylation of nucleotide triphosphates is the central reaction in DNA replication by DNA polymerase as well as many other biological processes. Despite its importance, the microscopic chemical mechanism of transphosphorylation of nucleotide triphosphates is, in most cases, unknown. Here we use extensive simulations of DNA polymerase η to test mechanistic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Daniel Roston, Darren Demapan, Qiang Cui Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

How the phage T4 injection machinery works including energetics, forces, and dynamic pathway [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
This study contributes a system-level model describing the nonlinear... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Ameneh Maghsoodi, Anupam Chatterjee, Ioan Andricioaei, Noel C. Perkins Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Neogenin-1 distinguishes between myeloid-biased and balanced Hoxb5+ mouse long-term hematopoietic stem cells [Cell Biology]
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) self-renew and generate all blood cells. Recent studies with single cell transplants and lineage tracing suggest that adult HSCs are diverse in their reconstitution and lineage potentials. However, prospective isolation of these subpopulations has remained challenging. Here, we identify Neogenin-1 (NEO1) as a unique surface marker... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Gunsagar S. Gulati, Monika Zukowska, Joseph J. Noh, Allison Zhang, Daniel J. Wesche, Rahul Sinha, Benson M. George, Irving L. Weissman, Krzysztof Szade Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Unexpected quenching effect on new particle formation from the atmospheric reaction of methanol with SO3 [Chemistry]
Despite the high abundance in the atmosphere, alcohols in general and methanol in particular are believed to play a small role in atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) largely due to the weak binding abilities of alcohols with the major nucleation precursors, e.g., sulfuric acid (SA) and dimethylamine (DMA). Herein, we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Ling Liu, Jie Zhong, Hanna Vehkamaki, Theo Kurten, Lin Du, Xiuhui Zhang, Joseph S. Francisco, Xiao Cheng Zeng Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Resolving seasonal rainfall changes in the Middle East during the last interglacial period [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Paleorainfall proxy records from the Middle East have revealed remarkable patterns of variability since the penultimate glacial period (140 ka), but the seasonality of this signal has been unresolvable. Here, seasonal-resolution oxygen isotope data from Soreq Cave speleothems suggest that summer monsoon rainfall periodically reaches as far north as Israel—well... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Ian J. Orland, Feng He, Miryam Bar-Matthews, Guangshan Chen, Avner Ayalon, John E. Kutzbach Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Native habitat mitigates feast-famine conditions faced by honey bees in an agricultural landscape [Ecology]
Intensive agriculture can contribute to pollinator decline, exemplified by alarmingly high annual losses of honey bee colonies in regions dominated by annual crops (e.g., midwestern United States). As more natural or seminatural landscapes are transformed into monocultures, there is growing concern over current and future impacts on pollinators. To forecast... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Adam G. Dolezal, Ashley L. St. Clair, Ge Zhang, Amy L. Toth, Matthew E. O’Neal Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Integration of thermochemical water splitting with CO2 direct air capture [Engineering]
Renewable production of fuels and chemicals from direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 is a highly desired goal. Here, we report the integration of the DAC of CO2 with the thermochemical splitting of water to produce CO2, H2, O2, and electricity. The produced CO2 and H2 can be converted to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Casper Brady, Mark E. Davis, Bingjun Xu Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Mapping micrometer-scale wetting properties of superhydrophobic surfaces [Engineering]
There is a huge interest in developing superrepellent surfaces for antifouling and heat-transfer applications. To characterize the wetting properties of such surfaces, the most common approach is to place a millimetric-sized droplet and measure its contact angles. The adhesion and friction forces can then be inferred indirectly using Furmidge’s relation.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Dan Daniel, Chee Leng Lay, Anqi Sng, Coryl Jing Jun Lee, Darren Chi Jin Neo, Xing Yi Ling, Nikodem Tomczak Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

High-throughput assessment of hemoglobin polymer in single red blood cells from sickle cell patients under controlled oxygen tension [Engineering]
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a variant hemoglobin molecule that polymerizes inside red blood cells (RBCs) in reduced oxygen tension. Treatment development has been slow for this typically severe disease, but there is current optimism for curative gene transfer strategies to induce expression of fetal hemoglobin or other... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Giuseppe Di Caprio, Ethan Schonbrun, Bronner P. Goncalves, Jose M. Valdez, David K. Wood, John M. Higgins Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Artificial turf infill associated with systematic toxicity in an amniote vertebrate [Environmental Sciences]
Artificial athletic turf containing crumb rubber (CR) from shredded tires is a growing environmental and public health concern. However, the associated health risk is unknown due to the lack of toxicity data for higher vertebrates. We evaluated the toxic effects of CR in a developing amniote vertebrate embryo. CR water... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Elvis Genbo Xu, Nicholas Lin, Rachel S. Cheong, Charlotte Ridsdale, Rui Tahara, Trina Y. Du, Dharani Das, Jiping Zhu, Laura Pena Silva, Agil Azimzada, Hans C. E. Larsson, Nathalie Tufenkȷi Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Bottleneck and selection in the germline and maternal age influence transmission of mitochondrial DNA in human pedigrees [Evolution]
Heteroplasmy—the presence of multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes in an individual—can lead to numerous mitochondrial diseases. The presentation of such diseases depends on the frequency of the heteroplasmic variant in tissues, which, in turn, depends on the dynamics of mtDNA transmissions during germline and somatic development. Thus, understanding and predicting... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Arslan A. Zaidi, Peter R. Wilton, Marcia Shu-Wei Su, Ian M. Paul, Barbara Arbeithuber, Kate Anthony, Anton Nekrutenko, Rasmus Nielsen, Kateryna D. Makova Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Adaptational lag to temperature in valley oak (Quercus lobata) can be mitigated by genome-informed assisted gene flow [Evolution]
Climate change over the next century is predicted to cause widespread maladaptation in natural systems. This prediction, as well as many sustainable management and conservation practices, assumes that species are adapted to their current climate. However, this assumption is rarely tested. Using a large-scale common garden experiment combined with genome-wide... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Luke Browne, Jessica W. Wright, Sorel Fitz-Gibbon, Paul F. Gugger, Victoria L. Sork Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Deciphering essential cistromes using genome-wide CRISPR screens [Genetics]
Although millions of transcription factor binding sites, or cistromes, have been identified across the human genome, defining which of these sites is functional in a given condition remains challenging. Using CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screens and gene essentiality or fitness as the readout, we systematically investigated the essentiality of over 10,000 FOXA1... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Teng Fei, Wei Li, Jingyu Peng, Tengfei Xiao, Chen-Hao Chen, Alexander Wu, Jialiang Huang, Chongzhi Zang, X. Shirley Liu, Myles Brown Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Galnt11 regulates kidney function by glycosylating the endocytosis receptor megalin to modulate ligand binding [Genetics]
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects more than 20 million Americans and ∼10% of the population worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of kidney functional decline have identified genes associated with CKD, but the precise mechanisms by which they influence kidney function remained largely unexplored. Here, we examine the role of 1... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: E. Tian, Shengjun Wang, Liping Zhang, Ying Zhang, May C. Malicdan, Yang Mao, Christina Christoffersen, Lawrence A. Tabak, Katrine T. Schjoldager, Kelly G. Ten Hagen Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Photoperiodic and clock regulation of the vitamin A pathway in the brain mediates seasonal responsiveness in the monarch butterfly [Genetics]
Seasonal adaptation to changes in light:dark regimes (i.e., photoperiod) allows organisms living at temperate latitudes to anticipate environmental changes. In nearly all animals studied so far, the circadian system has been implicated in measurement and response to the photoperiod. In insects, genetic evidence further supports the involvement of several clock... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Samantha E. Iiams, Aldrin B. Lugena, Ying Zhang, Ashley N. Hayden, Christine Merlin Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Transcriptomic, epigenetic, and functional analyses implicate neutrophil diversity in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus [Immunology and Inflammation]
Neutrophil dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is characterized by elevated levels of a pathogenic neutrophil subset known as low-density granulocytes (LDGs). The origin and phenotypic, functional, and pathogenic heterogeneity of LDGs remain to be systematically determined. Transcriptomics and epigenetic assessment of lupus LDGs,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Pragnesh Mistry, Shuichiro Nakabo, Liam O’Neil, Rishi R. Goel, Kan Jiang, Carmelo Carmona–Rivera, Sarthak Gupta, Diana W. Chan, Philip M. Carlucci, Xinghao Wang, Faiza Naz, Zerai Manna, Amit Dey, Nehal N. Mehta, Sarfaraz Hasni, Stefania Dell& Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Enterotoxins can support CAR T cells against solid tumors [Immunology and Inflammation]
In this study, we investigate if inducing an interaction between... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Bianca von Scheidt, Minyu Wang, Amanda J. Oliver, Jack D. Chan, Metta K. Jana, Aesha I. Ali, Fiona Clow, John D. Fraser, Kylie M. Quinn, Phillip K. Darcy, Michael H. Kershaw, Clare Y. Slaney Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risks impact human brain N-acetylaspartate in regionally specific patterns [Medical Sciences]
Cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia and hypertension increase the risk for white matter pathology and cognitive decline. We hypothesize that white matter levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a chemical involved in the metabolic pathway for myelin lipid synthesis, could serve as a biomarker that tracks the influence of cardiovascular risk... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Joshua Chiappelli, Laura M. Rowland, S. Andrea Wijtenburg, Hongji Chen, Andrew A. Maudsley, Sulaiman Sheriff, Shuo Chen, Anya Savransky, Wyatt Marshall, Meghann C. Ryan, Heather A. Bruce, Alan R. Shuldiner, Braxton D. Mitchell, Peter Kochunov, L. Elliot H Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Distinct metabolic adaptation of liver circadian pathways to acute and chronic patterns of alcohol intake [Medical Sciences]
Binge drinking and chronic exposure to ethanol contribute to alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs). A potential link between ALDs and circadian disruption has been observed, though how different patterns of alcohol consumption differentially impact hepatic circadian metabolism remains virtually unexplored. Using acute versus chronic ethanol feeding, we reveal differential reprogramming of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jonathan Gaucher, Kenichiro Kinouchi, Nicholas Ceglia, Emilie Montellier, Shahaf Peleg, Carolina Magdalen Greco, Andreas Schmidt, Ignasi Forne, Selma Masri, Pierre Baldi, Axel Imhof, Paolo Sassone-Corsi Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Architecture and modular assembly of Sulfolobus S-layers revealed by electron cryotomography [Microbiology]
Surface protein layers (S-layers) often form the only structural component of the archaeal cell wall and are therefore important for cell survival. S-layers have a plethora of cellular functions including maintenance of cell shape, osmotic, and mechanical stability, the formation of a semipermeable protective barrier around the cell, and cell–cell... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lavinia Gambelli, Benjamin H. Meyer, Mathew McLaren, Kelly Sanders, Tessa E. F. Quax, Vicki A. M. Gold, Sonja-Verena Albers, Bertram Daum Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Adaptive evolution reveals a tradeoff between growth rate and oxidative stress during naphthoquinone-based aerobic respiration [Microbiology]
Evolution fine-tunes biological pathways to achieve a robust cellular physiology. Two and a half billion years ago, rapidly rising levels of oxygen as a byproduct of blooming cyanobacterial photosynthesis resulted in a redox upshift in microbial energetics. The appearance of higher-redox-potential respiratory quinone, ubiquinone (UQ), is believed to be an... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Amitesh Anand, Ke Chen, Laurence Yang, Anand V. Sastry, Connor A. Olson, Saugat Poudel, Yara Seif, Ying Hefner, Patrick V. Phaneuf, Sibei Xu, Richard Szubin, Adam M. Feist, Bernhard O. Palsson Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Human iPSC-derived microglia assume a primary microglia-like state after transplantation into the neonatal mouse brain [Neuroscience]
Microglia are essential for maintenance of normal brain function, with dysregulation contributing to numerous neurological diseases. Protocols have been developed to derive microglia-like cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). However, primary microglia display major differences in morphology and gene expression when grown in culture, including down-regulation of signature... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Devon S. Svoboda, M. Inmaculada Barrasa, Jian Shu, Rosalie Rietjens, Shupei Zhang, Maya Mitalipova, Peter Berube, Dongdong Fu, Leonard D. Shultz, George W. Bell, Rudolf Jaenisch Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Arousal regulates frequency tuning in primary auditory cortex [Neuroscience]
Changes in arousal influence cortical sensory representations, but the synaptic mechanisms underlying arousal-dependent modulation of cortical processing are unclear. Here, we use 2-photon Ca2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of awake mice to show that heightened arousal, as indexed by pupil diameter, broadens frequency-tuned activity of layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Pei-Ann Lin, Samuel K. Asinof, Nicholas J. Edwards, Jeffry S. Isaacson Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

DJ-1 regulates the integrity and function of ER-mitochondria association through interaction with IP3R3-Grp75-VDAC1 [Neuroscience]
Loss-of-function mutations in DJ-1 are associated with autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson’s disease (PD), yet the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that DJ-1 localized to the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) both in vitro and in vivo. In fact, DJ-1 physically interacts with and is an essential component of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yi Liu, Xiaopin Ma, Hisashi Fujioka, Jun Liu, Shengdi Chen, Xiongwei Zhu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Understanding, predicting, and tuning the fragility of vitrimeric polymers [Physics]
Fragility is an empirical property that describes how abruptly a glass-forming material solidifies upon supercooling. The degree of fragility carries important implications for the functionality and processability of a material, as well as for our fundamental understanding of the glass transition. However, the microstructural properties underlying fragility still remain poorly... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Simone Ciarella, Rutger A. Biezemans, Liesbeth M. C. Janssen Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Extreme bradycardia and tachycardia in the world’s largest animal [Physiology]
The biology of the blue whale has long fascinated physiologists because of the animal’s extreme size. Despite high energetic demands from a large body, low mass-specific metabolic rates are likely powered by low heart rates. Diving bradycardia should slow blood oxygen depletion and enhance dive time available for foraging at... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: J. A. Goldbogen, D. E. Cade, J. Calambokidis, M. F. Czapanskiy, J. Fahlbusch, A. S. Friedlaender, W. T. Gough, S. R. Kahane-Rapport, M. S. Savoca, K. V. Ponganis, P. J. Ponganis Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The iron deficiency response in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the phosphorylated transcription factor URI [Plant Biology]
Iron is an essential nutrient for plants, but excess iron is toxic due to its catalytic role in the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Thus, iron uptake is highly regulated and induced only under iron deficiency. The mechanisms of iron uptake in roots are well characterized, but less is known about... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sun A. Kim, Ian S. LaCroix, Scott A. Gerber, Mary Lou Guerinot Tags: Inaugural Articles Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Growth dynamics of the Arabidopsis fruit is mediated by cell expansion [Plant Biology]
Fruit have evolved a sophisticated tissue and cellular architecture to secure plant reproductive success. Postfertilization growth is perhaps the most dramatic event during fruit morphogenesis. Several studies have proposed that fertilized ovules and developing seeds initiate signaling cascades to coordinate and promote the growth of the accompanying fruit tissues. This... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Juan–Jose Ripoll, Mingyuan Zhu, Stephanie Brocke, Cindy T. Hon, Martin F. Yanofsky, Arezki Boudaoud, Adrienne H. K. Roeder Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 stimulates auxin-dependent thermomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana by mediating H2A.Z depletion [Plant Biology]
Many plant species respond to unfavorable high ambient temperatures by adjusting their vegetative body plan to facilitate cooling. This process is known as thermomorphogenesis and is induced by the phytohormone auxin. Here, we demonstrate that the chromatin-modifying enzyme HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9) mediates thermomorphogenesis but does not interfere with hypocotyl... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lennard C. van der Woude, Giorgio Perrella, Basten L. Snoek, Mark van Hoogdalem, Ondřeȷ Novak, Marcel C. van Verk, Heleen N. van Kooten, Lennert E. Zorn, Rolf Tonckens, Joram A. Dongus, Myrthe Praat, Evelien A. Stouten, Marcel C. G. Provenie Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Local demographic changes and US presidential voting, 2012 to 2016 [Political Sciences]
Immigration and demographic change have become highly salient in American politics, partly because of the 2016 campaign of Donald Trump. Previous research indicates that local influxes of immigrants or unfamiliar ethnic groups can generate threatened responses, but has either focused on nonelectoral outcomes or analyzed elections in large geographic units,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Seth J. Hill, Daniel J. Hopkins, Gregory A. Huber Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Status anxiety mediates the positive relationship between income inequality and sexualization [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Income inequality generates and amplifies incentives, particularly incentives for individuals to elevate or maintain their status, with important consequences for the individuals involved and aggregate outcomes for their societies [R. G. Wilkinson, K. E. Pickett, Annu. Rev. Sociol. 35, 493–511 (2009)]. Economically unequal environments intensify men’s competition for status, respect,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Khandis R. Blake, Robert C. Brooks Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Social behavior for autonomous vehicles [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Deployment of autonomous vehicles on public roads promises increased efficiency and safety. It requires understanding the intent of human drivers and adapting to their driving styles. Autonomous vehicles must also behave in safe and predictable ways without requiring explicit communication. We integrate tools from social psychology into autonomous-vehicle decision making... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Wilko Schwarting, Alyssa Pierson, Javier Alonso-Mora, Sertac Karaman, Daniela Rus Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Assessing the sustainability of post-Green Revolution cereals in India [Sustainability Science]
Sustainable food systems aim to provide sufficient and nutritious food, while maximizing climate resilience and minimizing resource demands as well as negative environmental impacts. Historical practices, notably the Green Revolution, prioritized the single objective to maximize production over other nutritional and environmental dimensions. We quantitatively assess outcomes of alternative production... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kyle Frankel Davis, Ashwini Chhatre, Narasimha D. Rao, Deepti Singh, Suparna Ghosh-Jerath, Anvi Mridul, Miguel Poblete-Cazenave, Nabin Pradhan, Ruth DeFries Tags: Sustainability Science Social Sciences Source Type: research

Studies on the role of diet in the management of hidradenitis suppurativa are needed
(Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - December 10, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Helena Clara Eiken, Jesper Gr ønlund Holm, Simon Francis Thomsen Source Type: research