Shift in temporal and spatial expression of Hox gene explains color mimicry in bees [Evolution]
Few insects exhibit the striking color pattern radiation found in bumble bees (Bombus) (1, 2) and some wasps (3, 4). Bumble bees have diversified globally into an unusually wide range of color patterns, many of which converge into high-fidelity Müllerian mimetic complexes across a wide geographic range. Despite extensive documentation... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sydney A. Cameron, James B. Whitfield Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Laser- and cryogenic probe-assisted NMR enables hypersensitive analysis of biomolecules at submicromolar concentration [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Solution-state NMR typically requires 100 μM to 1 mM samples. This limitation prevents applications to mass-limited and aggregation-prone target molecules. Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization was adapted to data collection on low-concentration samples by radiofrequency gating, enabling rapid 1D NMR spectral acquisition on aromatic amino acids and proteins bearing aromatic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yusuke Okuno, Miranda F. Mecha, Hanming Yang, Lingchao Zhu, Charles G. Fry, Silvia Cavagnero Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Stabilization of reactive Co4O4 cubane oxygen-evolution catalysts within porous frameworks [Chemistry]
A major challenge to the implementation of artificial photosynthesis (AP), in which fuels are produced from abundant materials (water and carbon dioxide) in an electrochemical cell through the action of sunlight, is the discovery of active, inexpensive, safe, and stable catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Multimetallic molecular catalysts,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Andy I. Nguyen, Kurt M. Van Allsburg, Maxwell W. Terban, Michal Bajdich, Julia Oktawiec, Jaruwan Amtawong, Micah S. Ziegler, James P. Dombrowski, K. V. Lakshmi, Walter S. Drisdell, Junko Yano, Simon J. L. Billinge, T. Don Tilley Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Implantable multireservoir device with stimulus-responsive membrane for on-demand and pulsatile delivery of growth hormone [Engineering]
Implantable devices for on-demand and pulsatile drug delivery have attracted considerable attention; however, many devices in clinical use are embedded with the electronic units and battery inside, hence making them large and heavy for implantation. Therefore, we propose an implantable device with multiple drug reservoirs capped with a stimulus-responsive membrane... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Seung Ho Lee, Huiyan Piao, Yong Chan Cho, Se-Na Kim, Goeun Choi, Cho Rim Kim, Han Bi Ji, Chun Gwon Park, Cheol Lee, Chong In Shin, Won-Gun Koh, Young Bin Choy, Jin-Ho Choy Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Archaeological evidence that a late 14th-century tsunami devastated the coast of northern Sumatra and redirected history [Environmental Sciences]
Archaeological evidence shows that a predecessor of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami devastated nine distinct communities along a 40-km section of the northern coast of Sumatra in about 1394 CE. Our evidence is the spatial and temporal distribution of tens of thousands of medieval ceramic sherds and over 5,000 carved... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Patrick Daly, Kerry Sieh, Tai Yew Seng, Edmund Edwards McKinnon, Andrew C. Parnell, Ardiansyah , R. Michael Feener, Nazli Ismail, Nizamuddin , Jedrzej Majewski Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

The emergence of the formal category “symmetry” in a new sign language [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Logical properties such as negation, implication, and symmetry, despite the fact that they are foundational and threaded through the vocabulary and syntax of known natural languages, pose a special problem for language learning. Their meanings are much harder to identify and isolate in the child’s everyday interaction with referents in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lila Gleitman, Ann Senghas, Molly Flaherty, Marie Coppola, Susan Goldin-Meadow Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Multifunctional graphene supports for electron cryomicroscopy [Biochemistry]
With recent technological advances, the atomic resolution structure of any purified biomolecular complex can, in principle, be determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM). In practice, the primary barrier to structure determination is the preparation of a frozen specimen suitable for high-resolution imaging. To address this, we present a multifunctional specimen... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Katerina Naydenova, Mathew J. Peet, Christopher J. Russo Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Structural determinants for peptide-bond formation by asparaginyl ligases [Biochemistry]
Asparaginyl endopeptidases (AEPs) are cysteine proteases which break Asx (Asn/Asp)–Xaa bonds in acidic conditions. Despite sharing a conserved overall structure with AEPs, certain plant enzymes such as butelase 1 act as a peptide asparaginyl ligase (PAL) and catalyze Asx–Xaa bond formation in near-neutral conditions. PALs also serve as macrocyclases in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Xinya Hemu, Abbas El Sahili, Side Hu, Kaho Wong, Yu Chen, Yee Hwa Wong, Xiaohong Zhang, Aida Serra, Boon Chong Goh, Dina A. Darwis, Ming Wei Chen, Siu Kwan Sze, Chuan-Fa Liu, Julien Lescar, James P. Tam Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Replisome activity slowdown after exposure to ultraviolet light in Escherichia coli [Biochemistry]
The replisome is a multiprotein machine that is responsible for replicating DNA. During active DNA synthesis, the replisome tightly associates with DNA. In contrast, after DNA damage, the replisome may disassemble, exposing DNA to breaks and threatening cell survival. Using live cell imaging, we studied the effect of UV light... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Nicolas Soubry, Andrea Wang, Rodrigo Reyes-Lamothe Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

SCFFBXO22 targets HDM2 for degradation and modulates breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis [Biochemistry]
Human homolog of mouse double minute 2 (HDM2) is an oncogene frequently overexpressed in cancers with poor prognosis, but mechanisms of controlling its abundance remain elusive. In an unbiased biochemical search, we discovered Skp1-Cullin 1-FBXO22-ROC1 (SCFFBXO22) as the most dominating HDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase from human proteome. The results of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jin Bai, Kenneth Wu, Meng-Han Cao, Yingying Yang, Yu Pan, Hui Liu, Yizhou He, Yoko Itahana, Lan Huang, Jun-Nian Zheng, Zhen-Qiang Pan Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Coupling of COPII vesicle trafficking to nutrient availability by the IRE1{alpha}-XBP1s axis [Cell Biology]
The cytoplasmic coat protein complex-II (COPII) is evolutionarily conserved machinery that is essential for efficient trafficking of protein and lipid cargos. How the COPII machinery is regulated to meet the metabolic demand in response to alterations of the nutritional state remains largely unexplored, however. Here, we show that dynamic changes... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lin Liu, Jie Cai, Huimin Wang, Xijun Liang, Qian Zhou, Chenyun Ding, Yuangang Zhu, Tingting Fu, Qiqi Guo, Zhisheng Xu, Liwei Xiao, Jing Liu, Yujing Yin, Lei Fang, Bin Xue, Yan Wang, Zhuo-Xian Meng, Aibin He, Jian-Liang Li, Yong Liu, Xiao-Wei Chen, Zhenji Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Multipotent fetal-derived Cdx2 cells from placenta regenerate the heart [Cell Biology]
The extremely limited regenerative potential of adult mammalian hearts has prompted the need for novel cell-based therapies that can restore contractile function in heart disease. We have previously shown the regenerative potential of mixed fetal cells that were naturally found migrating to the injured maternal heart. Exploiting this intrinsic mechanism... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sangeetha Vadakke-Madathil, Gina LaRocca, Koen Raedschelders, Jesse Yoon, Sarah J. Parker, Joseph Tripodi, Vesna Najfeld, Jennifer E. Van Eyk, Hina W. Chaudhry Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Quantitative proteomics of MDCK cells identify unrecognized roles of clathrin adaptor AP-1 in polarized distribution of surface proteins [Cell Biology]
The current model of polarized plasma membrane protein sorting in epithelial cells has been largely generated on the basis of experiments characterizing the polarized distribution of a relatively small number of overexpressed model proteins under various experimental conditions. Thus, the possibility exists that alternative roles of various types of sorting... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Paulo S. Caceres, Diego Gravotta, Patrick J. Zager, Noah Dephoure, Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Biological composition and microbial dynamics of sinking particulate organic matter at abyssal depths in the oligotrophic open ocean [Ecology]
Sinking particles are a critical conduit for the export of organic material from surface waters to the deep ocean. Despite their importance in oceanic carbon cycling and export, little is known about the biotic composition, origins, and variability of sinking particles reaching abyssal depths. Here, we analyzed particle-associated nucleic acids... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Dominique Boeuf, Bethanie R. Edwards, John M. Eppley, Sarah K. Hu, Kirsten E. Poff, Anna E. Romano, David A. Caron, David M. Karl, Edward F. DeLong Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

A homeotic shift late in development drives mimetic color variation in a bumble bee [Evolution]
Natural phenotypic radiations, with their high diversity and convergence, are well-suited for informing how genomic changes translate to natural phenotypic variation. New genomic tools enable discovery in such traditionally nonmodel systems. Here, we characterize the genomic basis of color pattern variation in bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus), a group that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Li Tian, Sarthok Rasique Rahman, Briana D. Ezray, Luca Franzini, James P. Strange, Patrick Lhomme, Heather M. Hines Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Predicting disease-causing variant combinations [Genetics]
We present here the Variant Combinations Pathogenicity Predictor (VarCoPP), a machine-learning approach that identifies pathogenic variant combinations in gene pairs (called... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sofia Papadimitriou, Andrea Gazzo, Nassim Versbraegen, Charlotte Nachtegael, Jan Aerts, Yves Moreau, Sonia Van Dooren, Ann Nowe, Guillaume Smits, Tom Lenaerts Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Single-cell RNA sequencing unveils the shared and the distinct cytotoxic hallmarks of human TCRV{delta}1 and TCRV{delta}2 {gamma}{delta} T lymphocytes [Immunology and Inflammation]
γδ T lymphocytes represent ∼1% of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and even more cells in most tissues of vertebrates. Although they have important anticancer functions, most current single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) studies do not identify γδ T lymphocytes because their transcriptomes at the single-cell level are unknown. Here we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Gabriele Pizzolato, Hannah Kaminski, Marie Tosolini, Don–Marc Franchini, Frederic Pont, Frederic Martins, Carine Valle, Delphine Labourdette, Sarah Cadot, Anne Quillet–Mary, Mary Poupot, Camille Laurent, Loic Ysebaert, Serena Meraviglia, Franc Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

The long noncoding RNA Morrbid regulates CD8 T cells in response to viral infection [Immunology and Inflammation]
The transcriptional programs that regulate CD8 T-cell differentiation and function in the context of viral infections or tumor immune surveillance have been extensively studied; yet how long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and the loci that transcribe them contribute to the regulation of CD8 T cells during viral infections remains largely unexplored.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jonathan J. Kotzin, Fany Iseka, Jasmine Wright, Megha G. Basavappa, Megan L. Clark, Mohammed-Alkhatim Ali, Mohamed S. Abdel-Hakeem, Tanner F. Robertson, Walter K. Mowel, Leonel Joannas, Vanessa D. Neal, Sean P. Spencer, Camille M. Syrett, Montserrat C. An Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Caspase-8 promotes c-Rel-dependent inflammatory cytokine expression and resistance against Toxoplasma gondii [Immunology and Inflammation]
Caspase-8 is a key integrator of cell survival and cell death decisions during infection and inflammation. Following engagement of tumor necrosis factor superfamily receptors or certain Toll-like receptors (TLRs), caspase-8 initiates cell-extrinsic apoptosis while inhibiting RIPK3-dependent programmed necrosis. In addition, caspase-8 has an important, albeit less well understood, role in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alexandra A. DeLaney, Corbett T. Berry, David A. Christian, Andrew Hart, Elisabet Bjanes, Meghan A. Wynosky-Dolfi, Xinyuan Li, Bart Tummers, Irina A. Udalova, Youhai H. Chen, Uri Hershberg, Bruce D. Freedman, Christopher A. Hunter, Igor E. Brodsky Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

GABA-stimulated adipose-derived stem cells suppress subcutaneous adipose inflammation in obesity [Immunology and Inflammation]
Accumulating evidence suggests that subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues are differentially associated with metabolic disorders. In obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue is beneficial for metabolic homeostasis because of repressed inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) sensitivity is crucial in determining fat depot-selective adipose... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Injae Hwang, Kyuri Jo, Kyung Cheul Shin, Jong In Kim, Yul Ji, Yoon Jeong Park, Jeu Park, Yong Geun Jeon, Sojeong Ka, Sujin Suk, Hye Lim Noh, Sung Sik Choe, Assim A. Alfadda, Jason K. Kim, Sun Kim, Jae Bum Kim Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Human cGAS catalytic domain has an additional DNA-binding interface that enhances enzymatic activity and liquid-phase condensation [Immunology and Inflammation]
The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)–cGAMP–STING pathway plays a key role in innate immunity, with cGAS sensing both pathogenic and mislocalized DNA in the cytoplasm. Human cGAS (h-cGAS) constitutes an important drug target for control of antiinflammatory responses that can contribute to the onset of autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have established... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Wei Xie, Lodoe Lama, Carolina Adura, Daisuke Tomita, J. Fraser Glickman, Thomas Tuschl, Dinshaw J. Patel Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Conformational plasticity of the intracellular cavity of GPCR-G-protein complexes leads to G-protein promiscuity and selectivity [Medical Sciences]
While the dynamics of the intracellular surface in agonist-stimulated GPCRs is well studied, the impact of GPCR dynamics on G-protein selectivity remains unclear. Here, we combine molecular dynamics simulations with live-cell FRET and secondary messenger measurements, for 21 GPCR−G-protein combinations, to advance a dynamic model of the GPCR−G-protein interface. Our... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Manbir Sandhu, Anja M. Touma, Matthew Dysthe, Fredrik Sadler, Sivaraj Sivaramakrishnan, Nagarajan Vaidehi Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Gene-edited stem cells enable CD33-directed immune therapy for myeloid malignancies [Medical Sciences]
Antigen-directed immunotherapies for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), such as chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-Ts) or antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), are associated with severe toxicities due to the lack of unique targetable antigens that can distinguish leukemic cells from normal myeloid cells or myeloid progenitors. Here, we present an approach to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Florence Borot, Hui Wang, Yan Ma, Toghrul Jafarov, Azra Raza, Abdullah Mahmood Ali, Siddhartha Mukherjee Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Mechanisms by which sialylated milk oligosaccharides impact bone biology in a gnotobiotic mouse model of infant undernutrition [Medical Sciences]
Undernutrition in children is a pressing global health problem, manifested in part by impaired linear growth (stunting). Current nutritional interventions have been largely ineffective in overcoming stunting, emphasizing the need to obtain better understanding of its underlying causes. Treating Bangladeshi children with severe acute malnutrition with therapeutic foods reduced plasma... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Carrie A. Cowardin, Philip P. Ahern, Vanderlene L. Kung, Matthew C. Hibberd, Jiye Cheng, Janaki L. Guruge, Vinaik Sundaresan, Richard D. Head, Daniela Barile, David A. Mills, Michael J. Barratt, Sayeeda Huq, Tahmeed Ahmed, Jeffrey I. Gordon Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Histone deacetylase 4 promotes type I interferon signaling, restricts DNA viruses, and is degraded via vaccinia virus protein C6 [Microbiology]
Interferons (IFNs) represent an important host defense against viruses. Type I IFNs induce JAK-STAT signaling and expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which mediate antiviral activity. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) perform multiple functions in regulating gene expression and some class I HDACs and the class IV HDAC, HDAC11, influence type I IFN... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yongxu Lu, Jennifer H. Stuart, Callum Talbot-Cooper, Shuchi Agrawal-Singh, Brian Huntly, Andrei I. Smid, Joseph S. Snowden, Liane Dupont, Geoffrey L. Smith Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Motor primitives are determined in early development and are then robustly conserved into adulthood [Neuroscience]
Motor patterns in legged vertebrates show modularity in both young and adult animals, comprising motor synergies or primitives. Are such spinal modules observed in young mammals conserved into adulthood or altered? Conceivably, early circuit modules alter radically through experience and descending pathways’ activity. We analyze lumbar motor patterns of intact... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Qi Yang, David Logan, Simon F. Giszter Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

PSD-95 binding dynamically regulates NLGN1 trafficking and function [Neuroscience]
PSD-95 is a scaffolding protein that regulates the synaptic localization of many receptors, channels, and signaling proteins. The NLGN gene family encodes single-pass transmembrane postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules that are important for synapse assembly and function. At excitatory synapses, NLGN1 mediates transsynaptic binding with neurexin, a presynaptic cell adhesion molecule,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jaehoon Jeong, Saurabh Pandey, Yan Li, John D. Badger II, Wei Lu, Katherine W. Roche Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

TIMELESS mutation alters phase responsiveness and causes advanced sleep phase [Neuroscience]
Many components of the circadian molecular clock are conserved from flies to mammals; however, the role of mammalian Timeless remains ambiguous. Here, we report a mutation in the human TIMELESS (hTIM) gene that causes familial advanced sleep phase (FASP). Tim CRISPR mutant mice exhibit FASP with altered photic entrainment but... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Philip Kurien, Pei–Ken Hsu, Jacy Leon, David Wu, Thomas McMahon, Guangsen Shi, Ying Xu, Anna Lipzen, Len A. Pennacchio, Christopher R. Jones, Ying–Hui Fu, Louis J. Ptaček Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Mechanism of CAP1-mediated apical actin polymerization in pollen tubes [Plant Biology]
Srv2p/CAP1 is an essential regulator of actin turnover, but its exact function in regulating actin polymerization, particularly the contribution of its actin nucleotide exchange activity, remains incompletely understood. We found that, although Arabidopsis CAP1 is distributed uniformly in the cytoplasm, its loss of function has differential effects on the actin... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yuxiang Jiang, Ming Chang, Yaxian Lan, Shanjin Huang Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

NAD+-capped RNAs are widespread in the Arabidopsis transcriptome and can probably be translated [Plant Biology]
As the most common RNA cap in eukaryotes, the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap impacts nearly all processes that a messenger RNA undergoes, such as splicing, polyadenylation, nuclear export, translation, and degradation. The metabolite and redox agent, nicotinamide adenine diphosphate (NAD+), can be used as an initiating nucleotide in RNA synthesis to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yuan Wang, Shaofang Li, Yonghui Zhao, Chenjiang You, Brandon Le, Zhizhong Gong, Beixin Mo, Yiji Xia, Xuemei Chen Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Adverse organogenesis and predisposed long-term metabolic syndrome from prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter [Agricultural Sciences]
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) during pregnancy is associated with high risks of birth defects/fatality and adverse long-term postnatal health. However, limited mechanistic data are available to assess the detailed impacts of prenatal PM exposure. Here we evaluate fine PM exposure during pregnancy on prenatal/postnatal organogenesis in offspring and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Guoyao Wu, Jacob Brown, Misti L. Zamora, Alyssa Miller, M. Carey Satterfield, Cynthia J. Meininger, Chelsie B. Steinhauser, Gregory A. Johnson, Robert C. Burghardt, Fuller W. Bazer, Yixin Li, Natalie M. Johnson, Mario J. Molina, Renyi Zhang Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Earliest known Oldowan artifacts at >2.58 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia, highlight early technological diversity [Anthropology]
The manufacture of flaked stone artifacts represents a major milestone in the technology of the human lineage. Although the earliest production of primitive stone tools, predating the genus Homo and emphasizing percussive activities, has been reported at 3.3 million years ago (Ma) from Lomekwi, Kenya, the systematic production of sharp-edged... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: David R. Braun, Vera Aldeias, Will Archer, J Ramon Arrowsmith, Niguss Baraki, Christopher J. Campisano, Alan L. Deino, Erin N. DiMaggio, Guillaume Dupont-Nivet, Blade Engda, David A. Feary, Dominique I. Garello, Zenash Kerfelew, Shannon P. McPherron, Davi Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

My journey from tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitors to targeted immune therapy as strategies to combat cancer [Applied Biological Sciences]
Since the 1980s there has been a drive toward personalized targeted therapy for cancer. “Targeted cancer therapy” originally focused on inhibiting essential tumor survival factors, primarily protein tyrosine kinases. The complexity and rapid mutability of tumors, however, enable them to develop resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), even when these... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alexander Levitzki, Shoshana Klein Tags: Inaugural Articles Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Self-sustaining thermophotonic circuits [Applied Physical Sciences]
Photons represent one of the most important heat carriers. The ability to convert photon heat flow to electricity is therefore of substantial importance for renewable energy applications. However, photon-based systems that convert heat to electricity, including thermophotovoltaic systems where photons are generated from passive thermal emitters, have long been limited... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Bo Zhao, Siddharth Buddhiraju, Parthiban Santhanam, Kaifeng Chen, Shanhui Fan Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Role of Polo-like kinase 1 in the regulation of the action of p31comet in the disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes [Biochemistry]
The Mad2-binding protein p31comet has important roles in the inactivation of the mitotic checkpoint system, which delays anaphase until chromosomes attach correctly to the mitotic spindle. The activation of the checkpoint promotes the assembly of a Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC), which inhibits the action of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C (Anaphase-Promoting... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sharon Kaisari, Pnina Shomer, Tamar Ziv, Danielle Sitry-Shevah, Shirly Miniowitz-Shemtov, Adar Teichner, Avram Hershko Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Cardiac myosin binding protein-C phosphorylation regulates the super-relaxed state of myosin [Biochemistry]
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of cMyBP-C releases myosin heads from the inhibited super-relaxed state (SRX), thereby determining the fraction of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: James W. McNamara, Rohit R. Singh, Sakthivel Sadayappan Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Torque-dependent remodeling of the bacterial flagellar motor [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Multisubunit protein complexes are ubiquitous in biology and perform a plethora of essential functions. Most of the scientific literature treats such assemblies as static: their function is assumed to be independent of their manner of assembly, and their structure is assumed to remain intact until they are degraded. Recent observations... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Navish Wadhwa, Rob Phillips, Howard C. Berg Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Adjustment in tumbling rates improves bacterial chemotaxis on obstacle-laden terrains [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The mechanisms of bacterial chemotaxis have been extensively studied for several decades, but how the physical environment influences the collective migration of bacterial cells remains less understood. Previous models of bacterial chemotaxis have suggested that the movement of migrating bacteria across obstacle-laden terrains may be slower compared with terrains without... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sabrina Rashid, Zhicheng Long, Shashank Singh, Maryam Kohram, Harsh Vashistha, Saket Navlakha, Hanna Salman, Zoltan N. Oltvai, Ziv Bar–Joseph Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A neural network protocol for electronic excitations of N-methylacetamide [Chemistry]
UV absorption is widely used for characterizing proteins structures. The mapping of UV spectra to atomic structure of proteins relies on expensive theoretical simulations, circumventing the heavy computational cost which involves repeated quantum-mechanical simulations of excited-state properties of many fluctuating protein geometries, which has been a long-time challenge. Here we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sheng Ye, Wei Hu, Xin Li, Jinxiao Zhang, Kai Zhong, Guozhen Zhang, Yi Luo, Shaul Mukamel, Jun Jiang Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Direct high-resolution mapping of electrocatalytic activity of semi-two-dimensional catalysts with single-edge sensitivity [Chemistry]
The catalytic activity of low-dimensional electrocatalysts is highly dependent on their local atomic structures, particularly those less-coordinated sites found at edges and corners; therefore, a direct probe of the electrocatalytic current at specified local sites with true nanoscopic resolution has become critically important. Despite the growing availability of operando imaging... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Tong Sun, Dengchao Wang, Michael V. Mirkin, Hao Cheng, Jin-Cheng Zheng, Ryan M. Richards, Feng Lin, Huolin L. Xin Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Using attribution to decode binding mechanism in neural network models for chemistry [Chemistry]
Deep neural networks have achieved state-of-the-art accuracy at classifying molecules with respect to whether they bind to specific protein targets. A key breakthrough would occur if these models could reveal the fragment pharmacophores that are causally involved in binding. Extracting chemical details of binding from the networks could enable scientific... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kevin McCloskey, Ankur Taly, Federico Monti, Michael P. Brenner, Lucy J. Colwell Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Fate plasticity and reprogramming in genetically distinct populations of Danio leucophores [Developmental Biology]
Understanding genetic and cellular bases of adult form remains a fundamental goal at the intersection of developmental and evolutionary biology. The skin pigment cells of vertebrates, derived from embryonic neural crest, are a useful system for elucidating mechanisms of fate specification, pattern formation, and how particular phenotypes impact organismal behavior... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Victor M. Lewis, Lauren M. Saunders, Tracy A. Larson, Emily J. Bain, Samantha L. Sturiale, Dvir Gur, Sarwat Chowdhury, Jessica D. Flynn, Michael C. Allen, Dimitri D. Deheyn, Jennifer C. Lee, Julian A. Simon, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, David W. Raible, Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Decadal trends in the ocean carbon sink [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Measurements show large decadal variability in the rate of CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere that is not driven by CO2 emissions. The decade of the 1990s experienced enhanced carbon accumulation in the atmosphere relative to emissions, while in the 2000s, the atmospheric growth rate slowed, even though emissions grew rapidly.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Tim DeVries, Corinne Le Quere, Oliver Andrews, Sarah Berthet, Judith Hauck, Tatiana Ilyina, Peter Landschutzer, Andrew Lenton, Ivan D. Lima, Michael Nowicki, Jorg Schwinger, Roland Seferian Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Low-gradient, single-threaded rivers prior to greening of the continents [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The Silurian-age rise of land plants is hypothesized to have caused a global revolution in the mechanics of rivers. In the absence of vegetation-controlled bank stabilization effects, pre-Silurian rivers are thought to be characterized by shallow, multithreaded flows, and steep river gradients. This hypothesis, however, is at odds with the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Vamsi Ganti, Alexander C. Whittaker, Michael P. Lamb, Woodward W. Fischer Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Multiphase reactivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is driven by phase separation and diffusion limitations [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a key polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) often associated with soot particles coated by organic compounds, is a known carcinogen and mutagen. When mixed with organics, the kinetics and mechanisms of chemical transformations of BaP by ozone in indoor and outdoor environments are still not fully elucidated. Using direct... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shouming Zhou, Brian C. H. Hwang, Pascale S. J. Lakey, Andreas Zuend, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Manabu Shiraiwa Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Role of sociality in the response of killer whales to an additive mortality event [Ecology]
In highly social top predators, group living is an ecological strategy that enhances individual fitness, primarily through increased foraging success. Additive mortality events across multiple social groups in populations may affect the social structure, and therefore the fitness, of surviving individuals. This hypothesis was examined in a killer whale (Orcinus... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Marine Busson, Matthieu Authier, Christophe Barbraud, Paul Tixier, Ryan R. Reisinger, Anais Janc, Christophe Guinet Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Reverse engineering field-derived vertical distribution profiles to infer larval swimming behaviors [Ecology]
Biophysical models are well-used tools for predicting the dispersal of marine larvae. Larval behavior has been shown to influence dispersal, but how to incorporate behavior effectively within dispersal models remains a challenge. Mechanisms of behavior are often derived from laboratory-based studies and therefore, may not reflect behavior in situ. Here,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: M. K. James, J. A. Polton, A. R. Brereton, K. L. Howell, W. A. M. Nimmo-Smith, A. M. Knights Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Opinion: The proposed change to the definition of “waters of the United States” flouts sound science [Environmental Sciences]
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Army Corps of Engineers (hereafter, “the agencies”) have issued a proposed rule (1) that would remove Clean Water Act (CWA) protections from more than half of wetlands and one-fifth of streams in the United States (2). This move sharply contrasts with reports indicating... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: S. Mažeika P. Sullivan, Mark C. Rains, Amanda D. Rodewald Tags: Opinions, Front Matter, Sustainability Science Source Type: research

Mechanistic evidence for tracking the seasonality of photosynthesis with solar-induced fluorescence [Environmental Sciences]
Northern hemisphere evergreen forests assimilate a significant fraction of global atmospheric CO2 but monitoring large-scale changes in gross primary production (GPP) in these systems is challenging. Recent advances in remote sensing allow the detection of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) emission from vegetation, which has been empirically linked to GPP at... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Troy S. Magney, David R. Bowling, Barry A. Logan, Katȷa Grossmann, Jochen Stutz, Peter D. Blanken, Sean P. Burns, Rui Cheng, Maria A. Garcia, Philipp K hler, Sophia Lopez, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Brett Raczka, David Schimel, Christian Frankenberg Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Historical and genomic data reveal the influencing factors on global transmission velocity of plague during the Third Pandemic [Environmental Sciences]
Quantitative knowledge about which natural and anthropogenic factors influence the global spread of plague remains sparse. We estimated the worldwide spreading velocity of plague during the Third Pandemic, using more than 200 years of extensive human plague case records and genomic data, and analyzed the association of spatiotemporal environmental factors... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lei Xu, Leif C. Stige, Herwig Leirs, Simon Neerinckx, Kenneth L. Gage, Ruifu Yang, Qiyong Liu, Barbara Bramanti, Katharine R. Dean, Hui Tang, Zhe Sun, Nils Chr. Stenseth, Zhibin Zhang Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research