Fentanyl, How Bad Is It?
How Bad Is Fentanyl? Fentanyl is an extremely dangerous synthetic opioid. Unlike some other opioids that occur naturally, it is man-made for the purpose of helping aid people suffering from extreme pain. It can be administered for recovery after surgery, during cancer treatments or for recovery after a painful injury. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classifies fentanyl as a Schedule II controlled substance. This means that it is legal for medical use, however, it has an extremely high potential for abuse and addiction. Understanding Fentanyl Significantly stronger than morphine or oxycodone, Fentanyl can be fatal after even just one use. Due to its potency, even just a small amount can cause respiratory failure and lead to death. It can be administered through patches, lozenges, injection or as a nasal spray. It is one of the strongest painkillers available, and patients must be screened in order to obtain a prescription. It is usually prescribed to patients who already have an opioid tolerance and have outgrown the doses of other opioids. Fentanyl is also sold on the black market, and is especially dangerous when mixed with other drugs. Drug dealers add it to certain drugs in order to increase its potency, however, these combinations can cause overdose and death. This is especially true when it is used alongside heroin. When someone uses fentanyl for the first time recreationally, they have a much higher risk of overdose because they do not have an opioid tolerance...
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2020Source: Journal of the American College of RadiologyAuthor(s): Ruth C. Carlos, Katy Lowry, Gelareh Sadigh
Conclusions: The data suggest that there is not a meaningful association between crouch gait and knee pain. Having patella alta was associated with pain. Further studies that use validated pain questionnaires are needed to understand the multifactorial etiology of knee pain within ambulatory individuals with CP. Level of Evidence: Level III—case-control study.
Background: Insertion of an intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pump can provide significant benefits in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). However, there are little data describing the risk of complications. Specifically, there is a lack of data describing the incidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and risk factors following ITB placement. The purpose of our study was to describe risk factors for developing CSF leak in pediatric patients with CP treated with ITB and to report the treatment and outcome of CSF leaks. Methods: Following institutional review board approval, 720 ITB procedures in 341 children with CP were ...
Conclusion: There are several risk factors for subsequent contralateral SCFE. On the basis of the available data, younger patients with a high PSA of the unaffected hip would most likely benefit from prophylactic fixation of the unaffected hip. Level of Evidence: Level II.
The objective of this study was to identify depression using the Mental Component Score (MCS-12) of the Short Form-12 (SF-12) survey and to correlate with patient outcomes. Summary of Background Data. The impact of preexisting depressive symptoms on health-care related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes following lumbar spine fusion is not well understood. Methods. Patients undergoing lumbar fusion between one to three levels at a single center, academic hospital were retrospectively identified. Patients under the age of 18 years and those undergoing surgery for infection, trauma, tumor, or revision, and less than 1-ye...
Conclusion. The spontaneous incidence rate of vertebral body infection among OVF patients was 0.7%; however, the occurrence of this complication led to serious events. Clinicians should pay attention to the possibility of bacillemia in elderly or immunocompromised OVF patients. Level of Evidence: 4
Conclusion. The proposed nomogram obtained more precision prognostic prediction for patients with initially-diagnosed primary spinal and pelvic tumors. Level of Evidence: 3
Study Design.. A meta-analysis. Objective.. The goal of this study was to accurately evaluate the risk ratio (RR) of recurrence in chordoma patients with wide margin after removing the tumors using surgery, compared with inadequate margin (intralesional or marginal). Summary of Background Data.. As a rare malignant bone cancer, the more effective treatment for sacral chordoma is still surgical resection. However, there is no convincing evidence and risk ratio about sacral chordoma patients would be benefit from which kind of surgical margin. Methods.. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and...
Conclusion. Although intent-to-treat analysis failed to show significant differences in patients treated surgically, results of the as-treated analysis determined statically greater improvements in those patients with spondylolisthesis who were treated surgically as compared to those treated nonoperatively. Level of Evidence: 2
Conclusion. Ten years after its inception, SPORT has made strides in standardization and optimization of treatment for spinal pathologies. SPORT has provided clinicians with insight about outcomes of surgical and nonoperative treatment of IDH. Results showed significantly greater improvements in patients treated surgically. Level of Evidence: 3
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