Sedation with Propofol for Bronchoscopy in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Transplant Recipients
AbstractIntroductionFlexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) plays an important role in the surveillance of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients after lung transplantation (LTx). With rapid onset and clearance, propofol provides a safe and efficient method for sedation during FFB, yet sedation requirements for CF patients are not well described.ObjectivesDue to pharmacokinetic differences for other classes of drugs in CF patients, this study was performed to examine propofol requirements for sedation during bronchoscopy in lung transplant recipients with CF.MethodsA single-center retrospective cohort study was performed to examine ...
Source: Lung - May 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

EXTRACELLULAR DNA IN PLASMA: from marking to dissecting the cell biology of cardiac transplants
Practitioners of transplantation have always hungered for better ways of detecting rejection. Searching "new marker of transplant rejection" retrieves 850 papers published since 19791, some of which are cited in recent reviews (1-3). That the quest for markers continues suggests no one marker or set of markers yet discovered optimizes management and/or predicts the outcome of transplantation (4). It also suggests a "new marker" reported in these pages is unlikely to end the quest. Why then should this paper from Agbor-Enoh and colleagues (5) concerning use of cell free DNA (cfDNA) as a biomarker of reje...
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 24, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Jeffrey L. Platt, Trey D. Williams, Marilia Cascalho Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Transplant Phenomapping: A Move Towards Personalized Immunosuppression
Immunosuppressive management has improved significantly over the past 50 years that cardiac transplantation has been in practice.1 This advancement has contributed to a steady increase in median survival, which is now 13 years.2 Despite improvements in immunosuppressive regimens, however, the associated side-effect profiles continue to be problematic.1 Transplant cardiologists are tasked with balancing the benefits and risks of immunosuppressive medications in order to decrease mortality and improve quality of life for their patients. (Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 24, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Robert JH Miller, Kiran K Khush Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Impact of the Initiation of Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty Program on Referral of Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension to Surgery
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare but severe complication of acute pulmonary embolism leading to right heart failure and premature mortality. Its cumulative incidence ranges from 0.1 –9.1% within the first 2 years after symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism, although probably underestimated due to the lack of systematic follow-up and screening in clinical routine.1–3 (Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 24, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Myriam Amsallem, Julien Guihaire, Jennifer Arthur Ataam, Lilia Lamrani, David Boulate, Sacha Mussot, Dominique Fabre, Yu Taniguchi, Francois Haddad, Olivier Sitbon, Xavier Jais, Marc Humbert, G érald Simonneau, Olaf Mercier, Philippe Brenot, Elie Fadel Tags: Original Clinical Science Source Type: research

Re-initiation of centrifugal ventricular assist device support following failed attempt at cardiac recovery
Given the palliative nature of cardiac transplantation and organ shortage, the importance of promoting cardiac recovery has long been recognized. However, cardiac recovery in children is rare relative to adults1, which is counter-intuitive considering the probable benefit of youth seen in the adult population2,3. The primary obstacle in ventricular assist device (VAD) explantation for recovery is the inability to predict sustainability of improved cardiac function. Therefore, it is important to have a strategy to re-initiate VAD support as a rescue for failed attempt at explant. (Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 24, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Svetlana B. Shugh, Hari P. Tunuguntla, Aamir Jeewa, Barbara A. Elias, Iki Adachi Tags: Case Anecdotes, Comments and Opinions Source Type: research

Effect of early tracheostomy on clinical outcomes in critically ill lung transplant recipients
ConclusionsEarly tracheostomy following lung transplantation decreased both intensive care and hospital stay, due to improved postoperative recovery, even in patients with poor preoperative conditions. Furthermore, length of hospital stay in patients with early tracheostomy was similar to that of patients without tracheostomy after lung transplantation. (Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - May 23, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

An intact microbiota is required for the gastrointestinal toxicity of the immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is commonly prescribed after transplantation and has important advantages over other immunosuppressive drugs but frequent gastrointestinal (GI) side effects limit its use. The mechanism(s) underlying MMF-related GI toxicity have yet to be elucidated. (Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 23, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Kyle L. Flannigan, Michael R. Taylor, Sheldon K. Pereira, Jimena Rodriguez-Arguello, Andrew W. Moffat, Laurie Alston, Xuemei Wang, Karen K. Poon, Paul L. Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Mahesh Jonnalagadda, Prasanth K. Chelikani, Heather J Galipeau, Ian A. Lewis, Ma Tags: Original Pre-clinical Science Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 22, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

Information for Readers
(Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 22, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 22, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

A case of recipient-derived pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma after bilateral lung transplantation
A 67-year-old, non-Hispanic white male underwent bilateral lung transplantation in 2016 for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The patient had good graft function after transplantation, with a peak forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 2.27 liters. Surveillance bronchoscopy and biopsies done at 1, 3, and 6 months post-transplantation did not show any evidence of acute rejection or infection. He was lost to follow-up until 15 months after transplantation, when he presented with 1 week of dyspnea, cough, and fever. (Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 22, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Julie Ng, Allison Cleary, Hisashi Tsukada, Hilary Goldberg Tags: Case Anecdotes, Comments and Opinions Source Type: research

Spleen-derived classical monocytes mediate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury through IL-1β
Ischemia-reperfusion injury, a form of sterile inflammation, is the leading risk factor for both short-term mortality following pulmonary transplantation and chronic lung allograft dysfunction. While it is well recognized that neutrophils are critical mediators of acute lung injury, processes that guide their entry into pulmonary tissue are not well understood. Here, we found that CCR2+ classical monocytes are necessary and sufficient for mediating extravasation of neutrophils into pulmonary tissue during ischemia-reperfusion injury following hilar clamping or lung transplantation. The classical monocytes were mobilized fr...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - May 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hsi-Min Hsiao, Ramiro Fernandez, Satona Tanaka, Wenjun Li, Jessica H. Spahn, Stephen Chiu, Mahzad Akbarpour, Daniel Ruiz-Perez, Qiang Wu, Cem Turam, Davide Scozzi, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Hannah P. Luehmann, Varun Puri, G.R. Scott Budinger, Alexander S. Krupn Source Type: research

Continuous Erector Spinae Block for Postoperative Analgesia After Thoracotomy in a Lung Transplant Recipient
Post-thoracotomy pain control in lung transplant recipients is suggested to have a direct impact on short- and long-term outcomes, and is thus a very important component of patient care.1 Thoracic epidural analgesia is considered the gold standard for the post-thoracotomy pain; however, multiple challenges specific to the lung transplant recipients, including hypotension combined with the need for restrictive fluid strategy, the potential need for full systemic heparinization, and timing and coordination of the transplant, make it a less than ideal choice. (Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia)
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - May 22, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Marta Kelava, David Anthony, Hesham Elsharkawy Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Outcomes of lung transplantation in adults with bronchiectasis
Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for end-stage non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (BR), though information regarding outcomes of transplantation remains limited. Our results of lung transpl... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - May 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jodie Birch, Syba S. Sunny, Katy L. M. Hester, Gareth Parry, F. Kate Gould, John H. Dark, Stephen C. Clark, Gerard Meachery, James Lordan, Andrew J. Fisher, Paul A. Corris and Anthony De Soyza Tags: Research article Source Type: research

NonTuberculous Mycobacteria infection and lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis: a worldwide survey of clinical practice
In people with cystic fibrosis infection with NonTuberculous Mycobacteria is of increasing prevalence. Mycobacterium abscessus complex is of particular concern and has been associated with adverse clinical outcom... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - May 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Adrien Tissot, Matthew F. Thomas, Paul A. Corris and Malcolm Brodlie Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Suppressed calcineurin ‐dependent gene expression identifies lung allograft recipients at increased risk of infection
American Journal of Transplantation, EarlyView. (Source: American Journal of Transplantation)
Source: American Journal of Transplantation - May 22, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: John R. Greenland , Tiffany Chong , Angelia S. Wang , Emily Martinez , Pavan Shrestha , Jasleen Kukreja , Steven R. Hays , Jeffrey A. Golden , Jonathan P. Singer , Qizhi Tang Source Type: research

Rapidly growing pulmonary ground-glass nodule caused by metastatic melanoma lacking uptake on 18F-FDG PET-CT
The objective of this systematic review was to select articles including chest X-ray or chest CT findings in patients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, or liver). The following search terms were used: “ tuberculosis ” ; “ transplants ” ; “ transplantation ” ; “ mycobacterium ” ; and “ lung ” . The databases used in this review were PubMed and the Brazilian Biblioteca Virtual em Sa úde (Virtual Health Library). We selected articles in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, regardless of the year of publicatio...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - May 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Giant pulmonary artery aneurysm in a patient with schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension
The objective of this systematic review was to select articles including chest X-ray or chest CT findings in patients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, or liver). The following search terms were used: “ tuberculosis ” ; “ transplants ” ; “ transplantation ” ; “ mycobacterium ” ; and “ lung ” . The databases used in this review were PubMed and the Brazilian Biblioteca Virtual em Sa úde (Virtual Health Library). We selected articles in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, regardless of the year of publicatio...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - May 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Knowledge and perceptions of tuberculosis transmission and prevention among physicians and nurses in three Brazilian capitals with high incidence of tuberculosis
The objective of this systematic review was to select articles including chest X-ray or chest CT findings in patients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, or liver). The following search terms were used: “ tuberculosis ” ; “ transplants ” ; “ transplantation ” ; “ mycobacterium ” ; and “ lung ” . The databases used in this review were PubMed and the Brazilian Biblioteca Virtual em Sa úde (Virtual Health Library). We selected articles in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, regardless of the year of publicatio...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - May 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Chest X-ray and chest CT findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation: a systematic review
The objective of this systematic review was to select articles including chest X-ray or chest CT findings in patients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, or liver). The following search terms were used: “ tuberculosis ” ; “ transplants ” ; “ transplantation ” ; “ mycobacterium ” ; and “ lung ” . The databases used in this review were PubMed and the Brazilian Biblioteca Virtual em Sa úde (Virtual Health Library). We selected articles in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, regardless of the year of publicatio...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - May 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Feasibility of Airway Transplantation Using a Bioengineered Stented Aortic Allograft
This case series describes 90-day mortality of patients who required tracheal, bronchial, or carinal reconstruction using stented aortic allografts supported by muscle flaps for treatment of inoperable airway disease including lung cancer, tracheal stenosis, or tracheomalacia. (Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association)
Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association - May 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Reconstruction of the Central Airways: From the Aorta to the Trachea
In this issue ofJAMA, Martinod and colleagues report the results of a prospective, single-institution safety and feasibility trial of airway transplantation to reconstruct long-segment defects of the trachea and central bronchi. Over 6.5 years, 13 of 20 patients with end-stage tracheal lesions or proximal lung tumors requiring a pneumonectomy were enrolled in the study and underwent airway reconstruction with cryopreserved aortic allografts following definitive resection. Custom-made stents to support the allografts were used initially to prevent airway collapse but were removed at a postoperative mean duration of 18 month...
Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association - May 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

miR-199b-5p Regulates Immune-Mediated Allograft Rejection after Lung Transplantation Through the GSK3 β and NF-κB Pathways
In this study, we identified a novel anti-inflammatory effect of miR-199b-5p (miR-199b) through the GSK3 β and NF-κB pathways. THP-1 monocytes treated with LPS showed a significant decrease in miR-199b that is inversely correlated to GSK3β expression and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, the NF-κB-associated inflammatory response was reduced due to the overexpression of miR-199b targeting GSK3β, whi ch was rescued by the inhibition of miR-199b. These results indicated that miR-199b attenuated the inflammatory response at least partly through the GSK3β/NF-κB signaling pathways in mon...
Source: Inflammation - May 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ischemic preconditioning attenuates acute lung injury after partial liver transplantation.
In conclusion, toxic cytokine and HMGB1 released from failing small-for-size grafts leads to pulmonary adhesion molecule expression, leukocyte infiltration and injury. IP prevents DAMP release and toxic cytokine formation in small-for-size grafts, thereby attenuating ALI. PMID: 29755641 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Long ‐term extrapulmonary comorbidities after lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis: Update of specificities
Clinical Transplantation, EarlyView. (Source: Clinical Transplantation)
Source: Clinical Transplantation - May 18, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Sabine Jardel , Quitterie Reynaud , Isabelle Durieu Source Type: research

Multicenter Experience with Durable Biventricular Assist Devices
Severe right ventricular failure necessitating a RVAD complicates 6-11% of LVAD implants. Patient outcomes for those receiving durable continuous-flow VADs in a biventricular configuration (i.e. BiVAD) have been reported in limited case series. (Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - May 18, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Palak Shah, Richard Ha, Ramesh Singh, William Cotts, Eric Adler, Michael Kiernan, Michela Brambatti, Karen Meehan, Sheila Phillips, Sumanth Kidambi, Gregory P Macaluso, Dipanjan Banerjee, Dierdre Mooney, Duc Pham, Victor D. Pretorius Source Type: research

Cystic Fibrosis and Lower-Extremity Edema: A Case of Intraoperative Diagnosis of Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in a Double-Lung Transplant Recipient Using Point-of-Care Ultrasound
DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are relatively common postoperative complications in the surgical patient population. Estimates of the incidence of DVT and/or PE in the lung transplant population vary significantly. A recent Nationwide Inpatient Sample inquiry estimated that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is diagnosed in 6.3% of lung transplant recipients during their index admission for transplantation, with DVT alone diagnosed in 5.4%, or concurrent with PE in 1.1%.1 However, this statistic is based primarily on reported diagnosis codes and may not capture all cases of interest. (Source: Journal of...
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - May 18, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Vladyslav Melnyk, Dennis Phillips, Travis Schisler, Kathirvel Subramaniam Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Inhibition of Ubiquitin-activating Enzyme Protects against Organ Injury after Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion.
Abstract Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs in various clinical settings, such as transplantation, acute mesenteric arterial occlusion, trauma and shock. I/R injury causes severe systemic inflammation, leading to multiple organ dysfunction associated with high mortality. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway has been indicated in the regulation of inflammation, particularly through NF-κB signaling pathway. PYR-41 is a small molecular compound that selectively inhibits ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. A mouse model of intestinal I/R injury by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 45 minutes was perf...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - May 17, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Matsuo S, Chaung A, Liou D, Wang P, Yang WL Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Feasibility and Reliability of Functional Muscle Tests in Lung Transplant Recipients
Conclusions Well-controlled maximum back strength testing is feasible and reliable, and the scores are highly correlated with grip strength in lung transplant recipients shortly before hospital discharge. The Biering-Sørensen test should be limited to patients without dominant weakness and/or fear. Future research should investigate whether grip instead of back extension strength can safely be used for proper exercise prescription. (Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - May 16, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research

Cardiac and pulmonary donor procurement
Purpose of review Within the United States, donor heart and lung procurement varies between institutions and among surgeons within the same institution sometimes. The purpose of this article is to review the history of donor heart and lung procurement, the surgical techniques, and pitfalls. Recent findings The current article covers the important intraoperative evaluation of the donor heart and lungs at the procurement hospital and the surgical pitfalls that can be prevented to ensure good procurement of donor heart and lungs. Summary The current article provides a review of the history of donor procurement. The ar...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - May 15, 2018 Category: Surgery Tags: THORACIC TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Abbas Ardehali Source Type: research

Current challenges and opportunities in the management of antibody-mediated rejection in lung transplantation
Purpose of review There is increasing recognition of the importance of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after lung transplantation. The development of donor-specific antibodies, a key feature of AMR, occurs in approximately 30% of lung transplant recipients and is associated with poor posttransplant outcomes. This review highlights recently developed AMR diagnostic criteria in lung transplantation, potential mechanisms that mediate the development of AMR, and discusses current and emerging treatment strategies for this significant, graft-limiting complication. Recent findings A major advance is the development of con...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - May 15, 2018 Category: Surgery Tags: THORACIC TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Abbas Ardehali Source Type: research

Single vs. bilateral lung transplantation: when and why
Purpose of review Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for several end stage lung diseases. Over the last two decades, the number of lung transplantation performed worldwide has steadily increased but several thousand people still die every year waiting for lung transplantation. However, the optimal procedure for lung transplantation in non-septic lung conditions remains debatable. Recent findings In pulmonary fibrosis and COPD, many recent studies suggest superiority of bilateral lung transplantation over single lung transplantation when long-term survival is evaluated; consequently, bilateral lung transpl...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - May 15, 2018 Category: Surgery Tags: THORACIC TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Abbas Ardehali Source Type: research

Comparison of basiliximab vs antithymocyte globulin for induction in pediatric heart transplant recipients: An analysis of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation database
Pediatric Transplantation,Volume 22, Issue 4, June 2018. (Source: Pediatric Transplantation)
Source: Pediatric Transplantation - May 15, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Ryan J. Butts , Anne I. Dipchand , David Sutcliffe , Maria Bano , Vivian Dimas , Robert Morrow , Bibhuti Das , Richard Kirk Source Type: research

Weaning from prolonged veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after transfer to a specialized center: a retrospective study
This study sought to investigate outcomes of patients transferred to a specialized ECMO center after prolonged ECMO therapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to our medical intensive care unit (ICU) between 01/2013 and 12/2016 who were transferred from an external ICU after>  8 days on vvECMO. 12 patients on ECMO for>  8 days were identified. Prior to transfer, patients underwent ECMO therapy for 18 ± 9.5 days. Total time on ECMO was 60 ± 46.6 days. 11/12 patients could be successfully weaned from ECMO, 7/12 in t...
Source: Journal of Artificial Organs - May 15, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

Human leukocyte antigens antibodies after lung transplantation: Primary results of the HALT study
American Journal of Transplantation, EarlyView. (Source: American Journal of Transplantation)
Source: American Journal of Transplantation - May 15, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Ramsey R. Hachem , Malek Kamoun , Marie M. Budev , Medhat Askar , Vivek N. Ahya , James C. Lee , Deborah J. Levine , Marilyn S. Pollack , Gundeep S. Dhillon , David Weill , Kenneth B. Schechtman , Lorriana E. Le Source Type: research

The homing of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells and the subsequent modulation of macrophage polarization in type 2 diabetic mice.
In this study, we treated T2DM mice with CM-Dil-labelled UC-MSCs. UC-MSC infusion not only exerted anti-diabetic effects but also alleviated dyslipidemia and improved liver function in T2DM mice. To compare UC-MSC migration between T2DM and normal subjects, a collection of normal mice also received UC-MSC transplantation. UC-MSCs homed to the lung, liver and spleen in both normal and T2DM recipients. Specifically, the spleen harbored the largest number of UC-MSCs. Unlike normal mice, a certain number of UC-MSCs also homed to pancreatic islets in T2DM mice, which suggested that UC-MSC homing may be closely related to tissue...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - May 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yin Y, Hao H, Cheng Y, Gao J, Liu J, Xie Z, Zhang Q, Zang L, Han W, Mu Y Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research

Delay and inequalities in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: the case of two Nordic countries
AbstractBackgroundIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive loss of lung function with high mortality within the first 5  years from diagnosis. In 2011–2014, two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been approved worldwide for prevention of IPF progression. National IPF-registries have been established in both Finland and Sweden. Our study explored potential differences in the care of IPF in these two countries.MethodsPatients included consecutively in the Finnish and Swedish IPF-registries from January 1, 2014 through December 31, 2016 were included in the study. Data on demographic...
Source: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine - May 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Frailty phenotypes and mortality after lung transplantation: A prospective cohort study
American Journal of Transplantation, EarlyView. (Source: American Journal of Transplantation)
Source: American Journal of Transplantation - May 14, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Jonathan P. Singer , Joshua M. Diamond , Michaela R. Anderson , Patricia P. Katz , Ken Covinsky , Michelle Oyster , Tatiana Blue , Allison Soong , Laurel Kalman , Pavan Shrestha , Selim M. Arcasoy , John R. Gr Source Type: research

Hirsutella sinensis Inhibits Lewis Lung Cancer via Tumor Microenvironment Effector T Cells in Mice.
Abstract Hirsutella sinensis fungus (HSF) is an artificial substitute of the well-known medicine Cordyceps sinensis with similar beneficial effects in humans. We previously found that HSF can regulate immune function and inhibit tumor growth; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects were still unclear. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of HSF on immune cell subsets in the tumor microenvironment in mice. The results showed that HSF inhibited Lewis lung cancer growth, alleviated abnormalities in routine blood tests, and enhanced tumor-infiltrating T cells, particularly the proportion o...
Source: The American Journal of Chinese Medicine - May 13, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Fu H, Jin L, Shao X, Li Y, Chen F, Shou Z, Tang X, Ji B, Shou Q Tags: Am J Chin Med Source Type: research

Machine perfusion of thoracic organs.
This article summarizes recent knowledge and clinical advances in machine perfusion (MP) of thoracic organs. MP of thoracic organs has gained much attention during the last decade. Clinical studies are investigating the role of MP to preserve, resuscitate, and assess heart and lungs prior to transplantation. Currently, MP of the cardiac allograft is essential in all type DCD heart transplantation while MP of the pulmonary allograft is mandatory in uncontrolled DCD lung transplantation. MP of thoracic organs also offers an exciting platform to further investigate downregulation of the innate and adaptive immunity prior to r...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - May 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research

Non-tuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in Thoracic Transplant Candidates and Recipients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review and discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in thoracic transplantation.Recent FindingsNon-tuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous but are an uncommon cause of disease after solid organ transplantation. The incidence of infection is higher in thoracic transplant recipients than in abdominal transplant recipients, with most cases seen after lung transplantation. It is associated with increased morbidity and, occasionally, mortality. Infection in the pre-transplant setting can occur in lung transplant cand...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - May 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Suicidal ideation in lung transplant recipients: A case series
Clinical Transplantation, EarlyView. (Source: Clinical Transplantation)
Source: Clinical Transplantation - May 12, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Lauren Z. Rynar , Mekhala S. Merchant , Daniel F. Dilling Source Type: research

Biology of teeth and implants: Host factors - pathology, regeneration, and the role of stem cells
Eggert, F.-Michael / Levin, LiranPage 497 - 509In chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis, cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved directly in the lesions within the tissues of the patient. Absence of a periodontal ligament around implants does not prevent a biologic process similar to that of periodontitis from affecting osseointegration. Our first focus is on factors in the biology of individuals that are responsible for the susceptibility of such individuals to chronic periodontitis and to peri-implantitis. Genetic factors are of significant importance in susceptibility to these diseases. Genetic...
Source: Quintessence International - May 11, 2018 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Robot-assisted lobectomy for pulmonary tuberculosis in a case with immunosuppression after kidney transplantation
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - May 11, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yablonskii, Piotr K. Avetisyan, Armen O. Vasilev, Igor V. Kudriashov, Grigorii G. Resnik, Oleg N. Archakova, Ludmila I. Kiruhina, Larisa D. Novickaya, Tatyana A. Ushkov, Alexey D. Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Challenges in Next Generation Sequencing Analysis of Somatic Mutations in Transplant Patients
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018 Source:Cancer Genetics Author(s): Hui Chen, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Keyur P Patel, Mark Routbort, Asif Rashid, Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri, Alexander Lazar, Russell Broaddus, Jawad Manekia, Rajesh R Singh, Anna Yemelyanova Analysis of somatic mutations in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS)-based assays has become part of routine oncology practice as well as clinical trials. The use of paired tumor-normal DNA samples increases confidence of somatic calls. NGS assays that utilize unique patient identifiers (SNP IDs) allow further c...
Source: Cancer Genetics - May 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Low-risk donor lungs optimize the post-lung transplant outcome for high lung allocation score patients
ConclusionLung transplantation can be feasible and provides a survival benefit even for high-LAS patients if lungs from a low-risk donor are transplanted. (Source: Surgery Today)
Source: Surgery Today - May 11, 2018 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

BK Virus: A Cause for Concern in Thoracic Transplantation?
Abstract Human BK polyomavirus (BKV) infection is poorly documented in heart and lung transplant patients. BK viruria and viremia have been estimated to affect 19% and 5% of heart transplant recipients, respectively. Data are limited, especially for lung transplantation, but the proportion of patients progressing from BK viruria to viremia or BKV-related nephropathy (BKVN) appears lower than in kidney transplantation. Nevertheless, a number of cases of BKVN have been reported in heart and lung transplant patients, typically with late diagnosis and generally poor outcomes. Risk factors for BKV infection or BKVN in ...
Source: Annals of Transplantation - May 11, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Barten MJ, Zuckermann A Tags: Ann Transplant Source Type: research

Lung allocation score: the Eurotransplant model versus the revised US model – a cross‐sectional study
Transplant International, EarlyView. (Source: Transplant International)
Source: Transplant International - May 11, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Jacqueline M Smits , George Nossent , Patrick Evrard , Gy örgy Lang , Christiane Knoop , Johanna M. Kwakkel‐van Erp , Frank Langer , Rene Schramm , Ed van de Graaf , Robin Vos , Geert Verleden , Benoit Rondelet , Daniel Hoefer Source Type: research

Current challenges and opportunities in the management of antibody-mediated rejection in lung transplantation.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing recognition of the importance of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after lung transplantation. The development of donor-specific antibodies, a key feature of AMR, occurs in approximately 30% of lung transplant recipients and is associated with poor posttransplant outcomes. This review highlights recently developed AMR diagnostic criteria in lung transplantation, potential mechanisms that mediate the development of AMR, and discusses current and emerging treatment strategies for this significant, graft-limiting complication. RECENT FINDINGS: A major advance is th...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - May 10, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Hulbert AL, Pavlisko EN, Palmer SM Tags: Curr Opin Organ Transplant Source Type: research

Assessing the Benefits of Preoperative Thoracic Epidural Placement for Lung Transplantation
The authors investigated the effect of preoperative thoracic epidural (PreTE) catheter placement versus not placing a preoperative thoracic epidural catheter (NoPreTE) on the duration of postoperative ventilation time, time to become coherent (measured as time to become Confusion Assessment Method-intensive care unit [ICU] negative), opioid consumption, ICU length of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS. (Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia)
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - May 10, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Sean R. McLean, Peter von Homeyer, Aaron Cheng, Michael L. Hall, Michael S. Mulligan, Kevin Cain, Kei Togashi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research