Organ preservation in early esophageal cancer
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 16, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maximilien Barret, Jean-Emmanuel Bibault, Romain Coriat Source Type: research

Untangling the two-way relationship between red wine polyphenols and gut microbiota
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 16, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nenad Naumovski, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, Nathan M. D ’Cunha Source Type: research

Abnormal Biliary Mucosa Uncovered in a Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) Patient
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 16, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ravi S. Shah, Thomas Plesec, Amit Bhatt Source Type: research

protein glycosylation as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal and liver diseases
Glycans are sequences of carbohydrates that are added to proteins or lipids to alter their structure and function. Glycans modify proteins required for regulation of immune cells, and alterations have been associated with inflammatory conditions. For example, specific glycans regulate T-cell activation, structures and functions of immunoglobulins, interactions between microbes and immune and epithelial cells, and malignant transformation in the intestine and liver. We review the effects of protein glycosylation in regulation of gastrointestinal and liver functions, and how alterations in glycosylation serve as diagnostic o...
Source: Gastroenterology - October 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xavier Verhelst, Ana M. Dias, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Severine Vermeire, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Nico Callewaert, Salom é S. Pinho Source Type: research

How can individuals and the GI community reduce climate change?
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: John A. Williams, John Y. Kao, M. Bishr Omary Source Type: research

Developing Quality Metrics For Upper Endoscopy
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Prateek Sharma, Sravanthi Parasa, Nicholas Shaheen Source Type: research

FDA Town Hall: New Drug Approvals in Gastrointestinal Disease (2018-2019)
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: M. Scott Harris, Colin W. Howden, Division of Gastroenterology and Inborn Errors Products, Office of New Drugs, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Source Type: research

Controversies Around Measuring Drug Toxicity: FDA and GI Perspectives
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 15, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Colin W. Howden Source Type: research

Time trends in adherence to surveillance intervals and biopsy protocol among patients with barrett ’s esophagus
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sachin Wani, J. Lucas Williams, Srinadh Komanduri, V. Raman Muthusamy, Nicholas J. Shaheen Source Type: research

Identification and validation of microRNA profiles in fecal samples for detection of colorectal cancer
Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) is effective in average-risk population. The most extended strategy in organized programs involves the fecal immunochemical test, which is limited by low sensitivity for detection of advanced adenomas (AAs). We aimed to identify microRNA (miRNA) signatures in fecal samples that identify patients with AAs or CRC and might be used in non-invasive screening. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Saray Duran-Sanchon, Lorena Moreno, Josep M. Aug é, Miquel Serra-Burriel, Míriam Cuatrecasas, Leticia Moreira, Agatha Martín, Anna Serradesanferm, Àngels Pozo, Rosa Costa, Antonio Lacy, Maria Pellisé, Juan José Lozano, Meritxell Gironella, Antoni Ca Source Type: research

Identification of a γc Receptor Antagonist that Prevents Reprogramming of Human Tissue-resident Cytotoxic T Cells by IL15 and IL21
Gamma chain ( γc) cytokines (interleukin 2 [IL2], IL4, IL7, IL9, IL15 and IL21) signal via a common γc receptor. IL2 regulates the immune response, whereas IL21 and IL15 contribute to development of autoimmune disorders, including celiac disease. We investigated whether BNZ-2, a peptide designed to inhibit IL15 and IL21, blocks these cytokines selectively and its effects on intraepithelial cytotoxic T cells. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cezary Ciszewski, Valentina Discepolo, Alain Pacis, Nick Doerr, Olivier Tastet, Toufic Mayassi, Mariantonia Maglio, Asjad Basheer, Laith Q. Al-Mawsawi, Peter Green, Renata Auricchio, Riccardo Troncone, Thomas A. Waldmann, Nazli Azimi, Yutaka Tagaya, Luis Source Type: research

Pathways of Colorectal Carcinogenesis
Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that develops via stepwise accumulation of well-characterized genetic and epigenetic alterations. We review the genetic changes associated with the development of pre-cancerous colorectal adenomas and their progression to tumors, as well as the effects of defective DNA repair, chromosome instability, microsatellite instability, and alterations in the serrated pathway and DNA methylation. We provide insights into the different molecular subgroups of colorectal tumors that develop via each of these different mechanisms and their associations with patient outcomes. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Long H. Nguyen, Ajay Goel, Daniel C. Chung Source Type: research

Therapeutic Targeting of the Colorectal Tumor Stroma
Colorectal tumors have been classified based on histologic factors, genetic factors, and consensus molecular subtypes, which all affect the tumor microenvironment (TME). Elements of the TME serve as therapeutic targets and might be used as prognostic factors. For example, immune checkpoint inhibitors are used to treat tumors with microsatellite instability, and anti-angiogenic agents may be used in combination with other drugs to slow or inhibit tumor growth. We review the features of the colorectal tumor stroma that associate with outcomes of patients and discuss potential therapeutic agents that target these features. (S...
Source: Gastroenterology - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wolf H. Fridman, Ian Miller, Catherine Saut ès-Fridman, Annette T. Byrne Source Type: research

Precision Treatment and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer —Hope or Hype?
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Charles Muller, Matthew Yurgelun, Sonia S. Kupfer Source Type: research

International Perspective on the Burden of Colorectal Cancer and Public Health Effects
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Linda Rabeneck, Han-Mo Chiu, Carlo Senore Source Type: research

Chromosome Engineering of Human Colon-Derived Organoids to Develop a Model of Traditional Serrated Adenoma
Traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) are rare colorectal polyps with unique histologic features. Fusions in R-spondin genes have been found in TSAs, but it is not clear whether these are sufficient for TSA development, due to the lack of a chromosome engineering platform for human tissues. We studied the effects of fusions in R-spondin genes and other genetic alterations found in TSA using CRISPR-Cas9 –mediated chromosome and genetic modification of human colonic organoids. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kenta Kawasaki, Masayuki Fujii, Shinya Sugimoto, Keiko Ishikawa, Mami Matano, Yuki Ohta, Kohta Toshimitsu, Sirirat Takahashi, Naoki Hosoe, Shigeki Sekine, Takanori Kanai, Toshiro Sato Source Type: research

Nucleos(t)ide analog therapy of chronic hepatitis b and liver cancer risk reduction: better nucleotides than nucleosides?
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Pietro Lampertico, Massimo Colombo Source Type: research

Does Colon Polyp Surveillance Improve Patient Outcomes?
Colon polyp surveillance now accounts for 25% of all colonoscopies performed. The evidence that colonoscopy surveillance reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence or mortality is weak. The biology of the baseline lesions and quality of the baseline exam are two primary factors contributing to post-colonoscopy CRC. Prior recommendations for surveillance were based largely on the likelihood that patients with adenomas would develop advanced adenomas, a surrogate for CRC. There is now evidence that baseline colonoscopy findings are strongly associated with the risk of incidence or death from CRC. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 12, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: David Lieberman, Samir Gupta Source Type: research

Durability and effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 12, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jordan Shapiro, Hashem B. El-Serag, Johanna Chan Source Type: research

A Mechanistic Insight Into The Role Of Gut Microbiota In The Pathogenesis Of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 12, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Meha Patel, Alastair J.M. Watson, Simon Rushbrook Source Type: research

Screening for Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies in the US: Which Immigrant Groups Should Be Considered High-Risk?
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 12, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Monika Laszkowska, Aaron Oh, Chin Hur Source Type: research

Oncofetal SALL4 driven tumorigenesis is highly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation, revealing therapeutic opportunities
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Taoyan Liu, Ng Shyh-Chang Source Type: research

Retreatment options for patients who failed DAAs regimens containing NS5A inhibitors: is glecaprevir/pibrentasvir a valid and robust option?
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Marc Bourliere Source Type: research

A dive into the deep heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Stefano Caruso, Jean-Charles Nault Source Type: research

Predominantly Antibiotic-resistant Intestinal Microbiome Persists in Patients With Pouchitis Who Respond to Antibiotic Therapy
Pouchitis that develops in patients with ulcerative colitis after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis is usually treated with antibiotics. Some patients have recurrence of flares, or become antibiotic dependent, and require repeated courses or prolonged periods of antibiotic therapy. We investigated microbial factors associated with response to antibiotic treatment and development of antibiotic dependence in patients with pouchitis. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Vadim Dubinsky, Leah Reshef, Nir Bar, Danielle Keizer, Noam Golan, Keren Rabinowitz, Lihi Godny, Karin Yadgar, Keren Zonensain, Hagit Tulchinsky, Uri Gophna, Iris Dotan Source Type: research

An unusual cause of abnormal weight loss
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Se Woo Park, Won Tae Cho, Eun Shin Source Type: research

HLA-DQA1*05 Carriage Associated With Development of Anti-Drug Antibodies to Infliximab and Adalimumab in Patients With Crohn ’s Disease
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies are the most widely used biologic drugs for treating immune-mediated diseases, but repeated administration can induce the formation of anti-drug antibodies. The ability to identify patients at increased risk for development of anti-drug antibodies would facilitate selection of therapy and use of preventative strategies. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Aleksejs Sazonovs, Nicholas A. Kennedy, Loukas Moutsianas, Graham A. Heap, Daniel L. Rice, Mark Reppell, Claire M. Bewshea, Neil Chanchlani, Gareth J. Walker, Mandy H. Perry, Timothy J. McDonald, Charlie W. Lees, J.R. Fraser Cummings, Miles Parkes, John C Source Type: research

Response to LTE 19-01163
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rimma Goldberg, Graham M. Lord Source Type: research

Proliferation and Differentiation of Gastric Mucous Neck and Chief Cells During Homeostasis and Injury-induced Metaplasia
Adult zymogen-producing (zymogenic) chief cells (ZCs) in the mammalian gastric gland base are believed to arise from descending mucous neck cells, which arise from stem cells. Gastric injury, such as from Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis, can cause metaplasia, characterized by gastric cell expression of markers of wound-healing; these cells are called spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) cells. We investigated differentiation and proliferation patterns of neck cells, ZCs, and SPEM cells in mice. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Joseph Burclaff, Spencer Willet, Jos é B. Sáenz, Jason Mills Source Type: research

Application of Artificial Intelligence to Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Since 2010, substantial progress has been made in artificial intelligence (AI) and its application to medicine. AI is explored in gastroenterology for endoscopic analysis of lesions, in detection of cancer, and to facilitate the analysis of inflammatory lesions or gastrointestinal bleeding during wireless capsule endoscopy. AI is also tested to assess liver fibrosis and to differentiate patients with pancreatic cancer from those with pancreatitis. AI might also be used to establish prognoses of patients or predict their response to treatments, based on multiple factors. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Catherine Le Berre, William J. Sandborn, Sabeur Aridhi, Marie-Dominique Devignes, Laure Fournier, Malika Sma ïl-Tabbone, Silvio Danese, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet Source Type: research

NLRP3 Inflammasome Regulates Development of Systemic Inflammatory Response and Compensatory Anti-inflammatory Response Syndromes in Mice With Acute Pancreatitis
Pancreatitis starts with primarily sterile local inflammation that induces systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) followed by compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). We investigated mechanisms of these processes in mice and human serum. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: M. Sendler, C. van den Brandt, J. Glaubitz, A. Wilden, J. Golchert, F.U. Weiss, G. Homuth, L.L. De Freitas Chama, N. Mishra, U.M. Mahajan, L. Bossaller, U. V ölker, B.M. Bröker, J. Mayerle, M.M. Lerch Source Type: research

Efficacy of Dupilumab in a Phase 2 Randomized Trial of Adults With Active Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergen-mediated inflammatory disease with no approved treatment in the United States. Dupilumab, a VelocImmune-derived human monoclonal antibody against the interleukin 4 (IL4) receptor, inhibits IL4 and IL13 signaling. Dupilumab is effective in treatment of allergic, atopic, and type 2 diseases, so we assessed its efficacy and safety in patients with EoE. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ikuo Hirano, Evan S. Dellon, Jennifer D. Hamilton, Margaret H. Collins, Kathryn Peterson, Mirna Chehade, Alain M. Schoepfer, Ekaterina Safroneeva, Marc E. Rothenberg, Gary W. Falk, Yehudith Assouline-Dayan, Qiong Zhao, Zhen Chen, Brian N. Swanson, Gianluc Source Type: research

An Enigmatic Mass in the Ascending Colon
Question: A 71-year old asymptomatic man with diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage III, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease without inhalation therapy and hyperlipidemia was scheduled for an elective control colonoscopy. He performed screening colonoscopy one year ago due to positive fecal immunochemical test. The control colonoscopy was scheduled because during the first examination small adenoma ( (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Aleksandar Gavri ć, Rok Dežman, Borut Štabuc Tags: Practical Teaching Case Source Type: research

Covering the Cover
A nationwide cohort study examined changes in risk of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatitis C virus eradication among veterans. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Andrew T. Chan, Christopher S. Williams Tags: Covering the Cover Source Type: research

CME Exam 1: Strain-Photoacoustic Imaging as a Potential Tool for Characterizing Intestinal Fibrosis
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Continuing Medical Education (CME)/MOC Activities Source Type: research

CME Exam 2: Not Your Typical Inflammatory Bowel Disease Flare: Diarrhea and Weight Loss Masquerading as Recrudescence of Ulcerative Colitis
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: CME Exam 2: Not Your Typical Inflammatory Bowel Disease Flare: Diarrhea and Weight Loss Masquerading as Recrudescence of Ulcerative Colitis Source Type: research

CME Exam 3: An Enigmatic Mass in the Ascending Colon
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: CME Exam 3: An Enigmatic Mass in the Ascending Colon Source Type: research

CME Exam 4: Clip Closure After Resection of Large Colorectal Lesions With Substantial Risk of Bleeding
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: CME Exam 4: Clip Closure After Resection of Large Colorectal Lesions With Substantial Risk of Bleeding Source Type: research

Reply to GASTRO-D-19-00808
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Uri Ladabaum, Ajitha Mannalithara, Reinier G.S. Meester, Samir Gupta, Robert E. Schoen Source Type: research

Long-term Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Related Death After Adenoma Removal in a Large, Community-based Population
The long-term risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC-related death following adenoma removal are uncertain. Data are needed to inform evidence-based surveillance guidelines, which vary in follow-up recommendations for some polyp types. Using data from a large, community-based integrated health care setting, we examined the risks of CRC and related death by baseline colonoscopy adenoma findings. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jeffrey K. Lee, Christopher D. Jensen, Theodore R. Levin, Chyke A. Doubeni, Ann G. Zauber, Jessica Chubak, Aruna S. Kamineni, Joanne E. Schottinger, Nirupa R. Ghai, Natalia Udaltsova, Wei K. Zhao, Bruce H. Fireman, Charles P. Quesenberry, E. John Orav, Ce Source Type: research

Influence of the Gut Microbiome, Diet, and Environment on Risk of Colorectal Cancer
Researchers have discovered associations between elements of the intestinal microbiome (including specific microbes, signaling pathways, and microbiota-related metabolites) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether changes in the intestinal microbiome contribute to development of sporadic CRC or result from it. Changes in the intestinal microbiome can mediate or modify the effects of environmental factors on risk of CRC. Factors that affect risk of CRC also affect the intestinal microbiome, including overweight and obesity; physical activity; and dietary intake of fiber, whole grains, and red and ...
Source: Gastroenterology - October 3, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mingyang Song, Andrew T. Chan, Jun Sun Source Type: research

Lynch Syndrome: Widening the Net
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 3, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xavier Llor Source Type: research

Hepatitis D Virus Infection Revisited
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 3, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Eloi R. Verrier, Karim Majzoub, Thomas F. Baumert Source Type: research

Crohn ’s Disease Connectome Conundrums: Relevance to the Prevalence and Management of Mood Disorders
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 3, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: David J. Gracie, Alexander C. Ford Source Type: research

Effects of Low-FODMAP Diet on Symptoms, Fecal Microbiome, and Markers of Inflammation in Patients With Quiescent Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Randomized Trial
There is limited evidence that a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) reduces gut symptoms in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed a randomized, controlled trial to investigate the effects of a low-FODMAP diet on persistent gut symptoms, the intestinal microbiome, and circulating markers of inflammation in patients with quiescent IBD. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 2, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Selina R. Cox, James O. Lindsay, S ébastien Fromentin, Andrew J. Stagg, Neil E. McCarthy, Nathalie Galleron, Samar B. Ibraim, Hugo Roume, Florence Levenez, Nicolas Pons, Nicolas Maziers, Miranda C. Lomer, S. Dusko Ehrlich, Peter M. Irving, Kevin Whelan Source Type: research

Mutated CEACAMs Disrupt Transforming Growth Factor beta Signaling and Alter the Intestinal Microbiome to Promote Colorectal Carcinogenesis
We studied interactions among proteins of the carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family, which interact with microbes, and transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway, which is often altered in colorectal cancer cells. We investigated mechanisms by which CEACAM proteins inhibit TGFB signaling and alter the intestinal microbiome to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 1, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Shoujun Gu, Sobia Zaidi, Md. Imtaiyaz Hassan, Taj Mohammad, Tathiane M. Malta, Houtan Noushmehr, Bryan Nguyen, Keith A. Crandall, Jigisha Srivastav, Vincent Obias, Paul Lin, Bao-Ngoc Nguyen, Michael Yao, Ren Yao, Charles Hadley King, Raja Mazumder, Bibhut Source Type: research

Mouse Models of Human Gastric Cancer Subtypes with Stomach-Specific CreERT2-Mediated Pathway Alterations
Patterns of genetic alterations characterize different molecular subtypes of human gastric cancer. We aimed to establish mouse models of these subtypes. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 1, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Therese Seidlitz, Yi-Ting Chen, Heike Uhlemann, Sebastian Sch ölch, Susan Kochall, Sebastian R. Merker, Anna Klimova, Alexander Hennig, Christine Schweitzer, Kristin Pape, Gustavo B. Baretton, Thilo Welsch, Daniela E. Aust, Jürgen Weitz, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Source Type: research

Cover 1
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 1, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 1, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 1, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research