Gender Stereotypes and Attitudes Towards Information and Communication Technology Professionals in a Sample of Spanish Secondary Students
This study examined Spanish young people’s gender-stereotyped beliefs and attitudes about people working in the field of information and communications technology (ICT). For this purpose, their positive, negative, and neutral perceptions of the associated characteristics of these workers were also analyzed. Likewise, the use of masculine, feminine, or neutral expressions to describe these professionals was explored. The existence of gender differences in these aspects was also investigated. 900 students from Catalonia (51 % girls) enrolled in the last course of junior secondary education (mean of age=15 yea...
Source: Sex Roles - October 18, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Ambivalent Sexism and the Sexual Double Standard
Abstract The sexual double standard is the notion that women are evaluated negatively and men positively for engaging in similar sexual behaviors. Because traditional, gender-based stereotypes are reflected in the attitudes that people hold towards men and women, it is likely that sexism plays a part in the manifestation of the double standard. The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between sexism (prejudice against individuals based on their gender) and the sexual double standard. There are two types of sexism: hostile (negative prejudice) and benevolent (positive prejudice). We hypothes...
Source: Sex Roles - October 13, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

An Objective look at Early Sexualization and the Media
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - October 13, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Interest in Celebrities’ Post-baby Bodies and Korean Women’s Body Image Disturbance After Childbirth
Abstract Based on social comparison theory, this study explores how interest in celebrities’ post-baby bodies relates to body image disturbance after childbirth in South Korean women. Previous studies have shown that the media have glamorized celebrities who quickly lose their baby weight. Given the established relationship between thin media images and body image disturbance, the present study investigates whether this relationship, which has been studied mainly in female undergraduates and adolescents in Western countries, might apply to postpartum Korean women. An online survey questionnaire was completed...
Source: Sex Roles - October 2, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Reasoning About Single-Sex Schooling for Girls Among Students, Parents, and Teachers
We examined reasoning about all-girls schools among school stakeholders (i.e., individuals affected by single-sex schools, including students, parents, and teachers) in the Southwestern United States. Specifically, middle school students attending all-girls (n = 398) and coeducational (n = 191) schools, mothers of middle school students attending all-girls (n = 217) and coeducational (n = 64) schools, and teachers employed at all-girls (n = 18) and coeducational (n = 97) middle schools rated the veracity of multiple rationales for girls-onl...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sociable, Mentally Disturbed Women and Angry, Rejected Men: Cultural Scripts for the Suicidal Behavior of Women and Men in the Austrian Print Media
Abstract This paper analyzed gender-specific reporting differences in Austrian newspapers on suicidal behavior related to portrayals of and language about suicidal motives in order to shed light on cultural scripts that may both reflect and shape gender stereotypes in a country where conservative gender-role models dominate. A total of 126 Austrian print-media reports on female suicidal behavior were compared to 381 reports on male suicidal behavior. The linguistic text analysis program LIWC was used to compare the use of language indicative of emotions, assess text complexity and detect indicators of social proc...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Belly Dance as an Embodying Activity?: A Test of the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image
Abstract The study aimed to test Menzel and Levine’s (2011) embodiment theory of positive body image in the context of belly dance. Participants were 213 women from Adelaide, South Australia. They comprised 112 belly dancers recruited from two belly dance schools, and a sample of 101 college women who had never participated in belly dance. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, and enjoyment of sexualization. It was found that belly dancers scored higher on positive body image and lower on body dissatisfaction and self-objectificatio...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Media Influence on Drive for Thinness and Drive for Muscularity
Abstract The present study investigated relationships between media influence (exposure, self-comparison to media ideals and internalization of media messages, societal pressure to have the perfect body, using media as a source of information about how to achieve a certain body ideal) and drive for thinness and drive for muscularity in 311 male and female undergraduates at a university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. We hypothesized that drive for thinness and drive for muscularity in both women and men would relate to body comparison/internalization, societal pressure, use of media for informa...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Male Role Norm Endorsement and Sexism Predict Heterosexual College Men’s Attitudes Toward Casual Sex, Intoxicated Sexual Contact, and Casual Sex
This study examined whether gender roles, particularly male role beliefs and sexism, may underlie self-reported attitudes toward and participation in casual sex and intoxication prior to sexual contact in a sample of heterosexual undergraduate men from the United States. We utilized online survey methods to examine whether men’s (N = 223 from a large mid-Atlantic University) endorsement of traditional masculinity (power and status, toughness, and anti-femininity) and sexist attitudes regarding women’s roles (hostile, benevolent) were related to engagement in casual sex (i.e., number of one-time-on...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sexual Assault Portrayals in Hindi Cinema
Abstract The Indian film industry has been criticized for perpetuating an environment for sexual violence, but little research has analyzed whether Hindi films provide a script for engaging in sexual assault that may perpetuate such violence. In this article, we employed script and sexual scripts theory to determine if there is a recurring sexual assault script in recent Hindi films that describes the pre-conditions, actions and outcomes of sexual assault. Our analysis of 24 Hindi films from the years 2000–2012 confirms the general presence of a sexual assault script. Pre-conditions for assault involve unma...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Does Educating Girls Really Change the World?
Abstract Directed by Richard Robbins and released in 2013, Girl Rising is a documentary-style film that takesviewers on a journey to nine countries, introducing a local girl in each context whose story underscores themyriad challenges facing girls in developing countries around the world. Interspersed between the girls’stories are statistics that offer viewers a macro-level picture of girls’ status in places like Haiti, Ethiopia, India,and Peru. The upshot of the film is that increasing girls’ access to education has the potential to spark broadbasedeconomic, political, and social change in the ...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Illuminating Boys, Teachers and Their Working Relationships
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

A Conceptual and Empirical Evaluation of the Stalking Literature
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Examining Men’s Status Shield and Status Bonus: How Gender Frames the Emotional Labor and Job Satisfaction of Nurses
Abstract (Hochschild 1983) coined the term status shield to theorize men’s status-based protection from the emotional abuses of working in a service job and hence their diminished need to manage emotions as compared to women. Extending this concept, the current study examines how gender operates not merely to shield men from emotional labor on the job but to also shape the relationship between emotional labor and job satisfaction. Using survey data collected from 730 registered nurses (667 women and 63 men) at a large Midwestern hospital system in the U.S., we show that in addition to engaging in less emotio...
Source: Sex Roles - September 30, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Are You Man Enough to be a Nurse? The Impact of Ambivalent Sexism and Role Congruity on Perceptions of Men and Women in Nursing Advertisements
Abstract Framed by role congruity and ambivalent sexism, the current study is designed to investigate perceptions of male and female nurses. Specifically, 167 Canadian undergraduates from Southern Ontario viewed a potential nursing recruitment advertisement (female nurse, male nurse, or masculinity emphasized male nurse), reported their perceptions of the nurse in the advertisement, and rated the appropriateness of nursing as a career for men and women. MANOVAs revealed that participants viewed the male nurses more negatively (less competent and more deviant) in the masculinity emphasized condition than the male n...
Source: Sex Roles - September 28, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Telling the Stories of Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Muslims
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 28, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Feminist Queer Crip Theory: A Critical View of the Future
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 19, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Differences in the Perception of Honour Killing in Individualist Versus Collectivistic Cultures: Comparison Between Italy and Turkey
Abstract Gender differences in the perception of honour killing were investigated in two countries, both traditionally considered honour cultures but with differing degrees of individualism and collectivism: Italy and Turkey. Ninety-six Turkish undergraduate students attending Istanbul University (40 % males, mean age = 21.2 years) and 68 Italian undergraduate students attending Turin University (34 % males, mean age = 24.6 years) filled in a questionnaire which assessed the perception of three honour killing scenarios (scenario 1: alleged adultery, scenario 2: adult...
Source: Sex Roles - September 16, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Effect of Social Network Site Use on Appearance Investment and Desire for Cosmetic Surgery Among Adolescent Boys and Girls
Abstract Although adolescents frequently use social network sites, little is known about whether the highly visual and self-presentation-centered character of such sites affects body-related outcomes such as investment in appearance and appearance-changing strategies. Due to gender differences in appearance pressures and appearance ideals, these effects of social network sites on body-related outcomes may differ between boys and girls. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the relationships between social network site use, appearance investment, and desire for cosmetic surgery among adolescents...
Source: Sex Roles - September 12, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

“Why me?”: Low-Income Women’s Poverty Attributions, Mental Health, and Social Class Perceptions
Abstract Although much is known about broad societal attitudes toward poverty, less is known about how women perceive their own poverty. We sought to examine the types of self attributions low-income women make about their poverty, as well as the association of self poverty attributions to women’s mental health and upward mobility beliefs. Using close-ended questions in a community sample of 66 low-income mothers from the Midwestern United States, we found these women were most likely to attribute their poverty to issues related to having children, their romantic relationships, and structural/government blam...
Source: Sex Roles - September 12, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Agency and the Feminist Project in Indonesia
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - August 30, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research