Masculine and Feminine Traits on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, 1993 –2012: a Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis
AbstractThe Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) is one of Sandra Bem ’s most notable contributions to feminist psychology, measuring an individual’s identification with traditionally masculine and feminine qualities. In a cross-temporal meta-analysis of U.S. college students’ scores on the BSRI (34 samples,N = 8,027), we examined changes in ratings on the Bem masculinity (M) and femininity (F) scales since the early 1990s. Additional analyses used data collected in a previous meta-analysis (Twenge1997) to document changes since the BSRI ’s inception in 1974. Our results reveal that women&rsq...
Source: Sex Roles - May 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Having and Doing Gender: Young Adults ’ Expression of Gender when Resolving Conflicts with Friends and Romantic Partners
AbstractA communal orientation focusing on others is consistent with stereotypes of women ’s social roles and personality traits, whereas an agentic orientation focusing more exclusively on oneself is consistent with men’s roles and traits. Using survey methods, we drew from Sandra Bem’s ideas to investigate whether gender differences in endorsement of communal and agentic conflict -management strategies varied depending on the peer relationship context. When gender differences were found, we investigated whether they were accounted for by masculine and feminine personality traits. College students (N&nbs...
Source: Sex Roles - May 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sandra Bem ’s Gender Schema Theory After 34 Years: A Review of its Reach and Impact
AbstractOne of Sandra Bem ’s important contributions was the development of gender schema theory (GST; Bem1981a). Through an analysis of journal articles referencing GST, we explored the breadth of the theory ’s reach and the ways in which its use has changed over time. More specifically, we analyzed how often GST reached journals outside psychology as well as journals and research populations outside the United States, even though Bem was a U.S. psychologist whose empirical work was primarily with U.S . populations. We also assessed the range of research topics that have used a GST framework. We found that 34&...
Source: Sex Roles - May 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sexy vs. Sporty: The Effects of Viewing Media Images of Athletes on Self-Objectification in College Students
AbstractThe goal of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research on the impact of media images of athletes on women and men. We used an experimental design to investigate the effects of viewing sexualized or performance images of athletes on viewers ’ self-objectification and physicality, as well as to explore moderators of these relationships. Participants (227 women, 193 men U.S. undergraduates) viewed either performance images or sexualized images of the same athletes, and then they completed measures of self-objectification, engagement wi th professional athletes, and self-reported participation i...
Source: Sex Roles - April 29, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Development and Validation of the Female Muscularity Scale
AbstractSocially promoted physical appearance ideals for women place increasing importance on muscularity, resulting in growing muscularity concerns among traditional college-age women. To date, however, instruments for assessing the type of muscularity concerns reported by women are lacking. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop such a scale and examine its psychometric properties among a sample of young women. Findings from an exploratory factor analysis (n = 235) and a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 130) revealed a two-factor structure, including a five-item Attitudes subscale (&al...
Source: Sex Roles - April 28, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sandra Bem: Revolutionary and Generative Feminist Psychologist
AbstractThis introduction toThe Past, Present, and Future of Masculinity, Femininity and Gender: Honoring Feminist Scholar Sandra L. Bem (1944 –2014), Part 1 briefly highlights Sandra Bem ’s career and provides an overview of each paper included in the first of two special issues. In doing so, we highlight how Sandra Bem’s works changed the way scholars understood gender and how much of Bem’s work continues to influence current day scholarship on gender. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - April 27, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Women ’s Introduction to Alternative Sexual Behaviors through Erotica and Its Association with Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction
AbstractWomen ’s interests in bondage, discipline, dominance/submission, and sadism/masochism (BDSM) behaviors are one of the most poorly understood research topics, even though erotica novels—typically read by women—are increasingly including these activities. The present study explored potential links bet ween women’s engagement in BDSM behaviors, consumption of erotica literature, relationship communication and satisfaction, and overall well-being using a multi-study approach. Results from three exploratory studies using multiple methodologies revealed a positive association between erotica, BDSM...
Source: Sex Roles - April 24, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Playing Princess: Preschool Girls ’ Interpretations of Gender Stereotypes in Disney Princess Media
AbstractThrough their 11 official princesses, Disney circulates powerful and consistent messages regarding gender norms and roles. Inspired by the princesses ’ ubiquity in the lives of young girls, we examined how preschool girls interpreted gender-role stereotypes in Disney Princess media both through their pretend play behaviors and their discussions of the princesses. Participants included 31 3- to 5-year-old girls who represented an array of racial /ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds and who came from four classes at two preschools in rural New England. Data collected from a variety of methods, including preten...
Source: Sex Roles - April 22, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Restoring Threatened Masculinity: The Appeal of Sexist and Anti-Gay Humor
AbstractWe propose that men scoring higher in precarious manhood beliefs (PMB) express amusement with sexist and anti-gay humor (but not other forms of humor) in response to masculinity threat in order to reaffirm their masculinity. Accordingly, Experiment 1 (166 heterosexual men in the United States recruited throughAmazon.com’s Mechanical Turk) supported the hypothesis that men higher in PMB express greater amusement with sexist and anti-gay jokes after experiencing a threat to their masculinity but not in the absence of masculinity threat. Also, the significant positive relationship between PMB and amusement follo...
Source: Sex Roles - April 20, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Revising the Body Esteem Scale with a U.S. College Student Sample: Evaluation, Validation, and Uses for the BES-R
AbstractThe Body Esteem Scale (BES; Franzoi and Shields1984) has been a primary research tool for over 30  years, yet its factor structure has not been fully assessed since its creation, so a two-study design examined whether the BES needed revision. In Study 1, a series of principal components analyses (PCAs) was conducted using the BES responses of 798 undergraduate students, with results indicating that changes were necessary to improve the scale’s accuracy. In Study 2, 1237 undergraduate students evaluated each BES item, along with a select set of new body items, while also rating each item’s importanc...
Source: Sex Roles - April 18, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Teaching Acceptance of Gender Creativity and Transgression
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - April 11, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Do Gender Differences in Perceived Prototypical Computer Scientists and Engineers Contribute to Gender Gaps in Computer Science and Engineering?
We examined whether women might view the intellectual characteristics of prototypical individuals in CS&E in more stereotype-consistent ways than men might and, consequently, show less interest in CS&E. We asked 269  U.S. college students (187, 69.5% women) to describe the prototypical computer scientist (Study 1) or engineer (Study 2) through open-ended descriptions as well as through a set of trait ratings. Participants also rated themselves on the same set of traits and rated their similarity to the prototy pe. Finally, participants in both studies were asked to describe their likelihood of pursuing future ...
Source: Sex Roles - April 7, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

From Orgasms to Spanking: A Content Analysis of the Agentic and Objectifying Sexual Scripts in Feminist, for Women, and Mainstream Pornography
AbstractHistorically, pro- versus anti-pornography debates have been positioned around the concepts of sexual objectification versus sexual agency —arguing that pornography, especially Mainstream content, results in objectification of women versus arguing that pornography, especially Feminist pornography or erotica, depicts and can lead to female sexual empowerment. To date, however, no one has examined the content of Mainstream compared to Feminist pornography. The present content analysis of 300 pornographic scenes compares categories of internet pornography aimed at women (including Feminist and For Women) to Main...
Source: Sex Roles - April 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Still a Hetero-Gendered World: A Content Analysis of Gender Stereotypes and Romantic Ideals in Chinese Boy Love Stories
AbstractBoy ’s Love (BL) stories are a fictional fantasy textual story that describes a romantic relationship between men. Previous qualitative studies claimed that BL stories have depicted androgynous characters and egalitarian love relationships. The current study undertook a quantitative content analysis o f 87 randomly sampled popular Chinese BL stories. Our coding system for coding both the masculinity and femininity of each main character in the selected BL stories was developed based on several previous studies. Gay male characters in BL stories were depicted as either similar to traditional mascu line men (i....
Source: Sex Roles - April 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Heterosexual Men ’s Sexual Desire: Supported by, or Deviating from, Traditional Masculinity Norms and Sexual Scripts?
AbstractSexual script theory and masculinity theory suggest that men should demonstrate high levels of desire in order to abide by social norms and expectations. The current study explored the degree to which men ’s descriptions of their sexual desire supported or deviated from these theories’ propositions. Thirty men between the ages of 30 and 65 (Mage = 42.83) in heterosexual long-term relationships (Mduration = 13 years, 4 months, range = 2 years, 11 months – 39 years, 4 months) were interviewed about their experience of sexual desire. Grounde...
Source: Sex Roles - March 28, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Assessment of Conflicts Associated with a Traditional Masculine Gender Role in Spanish College Men and Women
AbstractThe purpose of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Gender Role Conflict Scale – Short Form (GRCS-SF; Wester et al.2012) in a sample of men. In addition, we extend the gender conflict paradigm by evaluating two samples of women with the same instrument. In Study 1, we investigated the internal structure of the instrument in a sample of 281 Spanish undergraduate women using exploratory factor analysis, finding support to the original factor structure. In Study 2, we analyzed its psychometric properties in a college sample of 184 men and 255 women using ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 28, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Media Use and Men ’s Risk Behaviors: Examining the Role of Masculinity Ideology
AbstractAlthough research indicates significant associations between exposure to certain types of media and men ’s participation in high-risk behaviors, less is known about the potential mediating role of masculinity ideology, which is also linked to risk behaviors. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between multiple forms of media, masculinity ideology, and partic ipation in high-risk behaviors among a sample of 449 undergraduate men from a U.S. Midwestern university. Survey results indicated that overall television use, sports television, and movie viewing were significant...
Source: Sex Roles - March 27, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Teaching About the Margins at the Intersections
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 27, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Intersectionality at Work: South Asian Muslim Women ’s Experiences of Employment and Leadership in the United Kingdom
AbstractDrawing on qualitative interviews with 20 South Asian heritage, Muslim, female leaders, managers, and supervisors in the United Kingdom, we examine the multi-layered issues and challenges they face in pursuit of employment and leadership positions. The paper offers an intersectional perspective taking into account interconnected and overlapping factors (gender, ethnicity, religion, and family status) that affect not only the issues and challenges these women face in the labour market but also the individual agency and strategies they use to overcome any obstacles in the way of their employment and career. The resul...
Source: Sex Roles - March 25, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Further Reflections on Sandra Lipsitz Bem ’s Impact
AbstractOver 20 years since her last published new work, Sandra Lipsitz Bem ’s ideas continue to inspire and influence many contemporary researchers—as reflected in the many excellent papers appearing in the two special issues ofSex Roles. In my review, I highlight how Sandra Bem was repeatedly at the vanguard of the intellectual zeitgeist that shaped the psychology of gender over the last four decades. Notably,  Bem was at the forefront of second-wave feminist psychology in the 1970s. In this regard, she challenged androcentric ways of thinking about gender and sexuality. Moreover, she helped to expand ou...
Source: Sex Roles - March 25, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Healthcare Justice for Women with Disabilities: The Need for Integrative Primary Care Services and Education for Medical Providers
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 25, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Does Parenthood Change Attitudes to Fathering? Evidence from Australia and Britain
AbstractA wealth of research has established that the transition to parenthood can shift men ’s and women’s attitudes to motherhood. We add to this knowledge base by examining how attitudes to fatherhood change across the transition to parenthood. This is important within a historical period in which definitions of what it means to be a good father are changing to emphasise hands-on inv olvement in childcare, yet there has been little institutional change to support this. Our empirical analyses rely on long-running, panel data from Britain and Australia, and fixed-effect panel regression models. We find that at...
Source: Sex Roles - March 23, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Young Women ’s Reflections of Viewing a Sexual Image for the First Time
We examined 445 young women ’s written reflections on seeing a sexual image for the first time. Most of the women reported that this experience occurred when they were in elementary school, and at home with friends, family, or alone. We found four themes of reactions to seeing the image for the first time: unwanted, intrigue d, ambivalent, and neutral. Implications for comprehensive sex education include the need for teachers, parents, and other trusted adults to provide accurate and age-appropriate knowledge and opportunities for discussion about sexuality. Limitations and future directions are also discussed. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 21, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

No Rest for the Stigmatized: A Model of Organizational Health and Workplace Sexism (OHWS)
AbstractEmployee sick attendance at work —presenteeism—poses a significant threat to both employee health and organizational productivity. However, despite the wealth of literature examining organizational predictors of presenteeism, little research has investigated the impact of stigmatized status on employee work attendance when sick . We argue that gender discrimination in the workplace promotes negative job perceptions and poorer health, ultimately contributing to increased rates of presenteeism among female employees. In two studies assessing U.S. women’s perceptions of workplace sexism, job security...
Source: Sex Roles - March 21, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Unequal Care, Unequal Work: Toward a more Comprehensive Understanding of Gender Inequality in Post-Reform Urban China
AbstractOver the last four decades, as China has transitioned from a socialist centralized economy to a productivity-and-efficiency-oriented market economy, so too have the country ’s public and private spheres become increasingly differentiated. Although others attribute changing gender inequality to the market transition, we draw from Chinese feminist critical analyses and propose a theoretical framework regarding how the two-sphere separation in contemporary China, embedd ed in how gender equality was organized in the socialist time, has been driven by the state and is further justified by changing gender ideologi...
Source: Sex Roles - March 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

“Watch out, Sweetie”: The Impact of Gender and Offence Type on Parents’ Altruistic Fear of Crime
AbstractAltruistic fear of crime, that is, the fear that another person will become a victim of crime, is frequent and relevant, especially among parents for their children, but it has received much less attention than personal fear in the social sciences literature. We aim to analyze this fear in relation to a parent ’s gender, family gender composition (having sons only, daughters only or a mixed composition with both sons and daughters), and feared type of crime, with a sample of 290 parents from the Basque Country (north of Spain). A mixed-design ANCOVA showed no differences between mothers’ and fathers&rsq...
Source: Sex Roles - March 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

A Social Dominance Theory Perspective on Attitudes Toward Girl Child Marriages in Turkey: The Legitimizing Role of Ambivalent Sexism
AbstractThe girl child marriage practice (a forced marriage involving a young woman under age 18) is a serious problem in Turkey as it is in many developing countries. It is important to investigate the reasons behind individuals ’ support for girl child marriages. The aim of the present study is to examine attitudes toward girl child marriages in Turkey within the perspective of social dominance theory (Sidanius and Pratto1999). Namely, we investigate the relationship between social dominance orientation and attitudes toward girl child marriages. We also examine the mediating role of ambivalent sexism (both hostile ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 15, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Adolescents ’ Involvement in Cyber Bullying and Perceptions of School: The Importance of Perceived Peer Acceptance for Female Adolescents
AbstractYoung people are spending increasing amounts of time using digital technology and, as such, are at great risk of being involved in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim. Despite cyber bullying typically occurring outside the school environment, the impact of being involved in cyber bullying is likely to spill over to school. Fully 285 11- to 15-year-olds (125 male and 160 female,Mage = 12.19 years,SD = 1.03) completed measures of cyber bullying involvement, self-esteem, trust, perceived peer acceptance, and perceptions of the value of learning and the importance of school. For ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 15, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Treating Objects like Women: The Impact of Terror Management and Objectification on the Perception of Women ’s Faces
AbstractThere is a modern trend whereby women ’s beauty and attractiveness tends towards the artificial, which appears to be an extreme manifestation of objectification culture. Research suggests that sexual objectification has the ability to alter the way we perceive women. Objectification occurs, in part, because women’s bodies pose a uni que existential threat, and objectifying women is believed to mitigate concerns about mortality because it transforms women into something inanimate and thus less mortal. We therefore hypothesized that priming death concerns should impact object-person recognition of women. ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Countries with Greater Gender Equality Have More Positive Attitudes and Laws Concerning Lesbians and Gay Men
We present data that considers these relationships at the cross-national level of analysis, using country-level measures of gender equality (the Gender Global Gap Index), aggregate measures of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in a country, and a newly constructed measure of the progressiveness of sexual orientation laws. We show for the first time to our knowledge that countries that have the greatest gender equality also have (a) the most positive aggregate attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and (b) the strongest legislative protections for lesbians and gay men. These results hold even when controlling for plausib...
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Personality across Sexual Identity and Gender in a National Probability Sample in New Zealand
AbstractPreliminary evidence in online and convenience samples has shown small but significant personality differences across sexual identity and gender over a number of personality traits. The idea that gender intersects with sexual identity to affect personality has been formalized into two hypotheses: the gender inversion hypothesis (that lesbians and heterosexual men, as well as gay men and heterosexual women, have indistinguishable mean scores on personality traits) and the gender shift hypothesis (that gay men ’s and lesbians’ personality scores fall somewhere between those of heterosexual women and men)....
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

New Academic Scientists Want Work-Family Balance: Are Universities Keeping up?
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 10, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

“If There’s One Benefit, You’re not Going to Get Pregnant”: the Sexual Mis education of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals
This study situates non-heterosexual individuals at the center of the sex education discussion. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 10 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults between the ages of 19–25, this study explores what these indivi duals learn when it comes to sex education in school and in the home. The findings show that LGB young adults experience sex education, whether at home, school, or through their own searching, that is heterosexually centered, revolves around sex as being dangerous, and is often lacking the most basi c health and behavior information. Findings from my study ind...
Source: Sex Roles - March 9, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Face-ism from an International Perspective: Gendered Self-Presentation in Online Dating Sites Across Seven Countries
AbstractThe present study analyzed whether the face-ism phenomenon, which argues that the media visually depict men with more facial prominence compared to women (whereas women are shown with greater body prominence), exists for self-selected photographs worldwide. Based on a content analysis of a sample of 6286 profile photos drawn from online dating sites in seven countries (Austria, Denmark, Hungary, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States) in 2013, we did not find any overall gender differences in facial prominence. However, further analysis showed gender differences in facial prominence for certain age group...
Source: Sex Roles - March 9, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Stereotypes and the Coordination of Mnemonic Work within Heterosexual Couples: Romantic Partners Manage their Daily To-Dos
AbstractCouples appear to help each other remember outstanding tasks ( “to-dos”) by issuing reminders. We examine if women and men differ in the frequency with which they offer this form of mnemonic assistance. Five studies measure how heterosexual couples coordinate mnemonic work in romantic relationships. The first two studies demonstrate that men are assumed to do less of this form of mnemonic work (Study 1) and experience less societal pressure to do so than women do (Study 2). The next three studies suggest that men tend to do less of this mnemonic work than women do and that, when men do mnemonically help...
Source: Sex Roles - March 6, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Returning to Matter
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 6, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Moving Beyond the Binary in Psychological Assessment: Consideration of Gender and Sexuality
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 6, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Doing Gender Online: New Mothers ’ Psychological Characteristics, Facebook Use, and Depressive Symptoms
AbstractOnline social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to “do motherhood.” Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers’ experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood. Using survey data from a sample of 127 new mothers with...
Source: Sex Roles - February 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Roles of Fathers ’ Involvement and Coparenting in Relationship Quality among Cohabiting and Married Parents
AbstractRelationship quality often declines following the birth of child, likely reflecting in part the shift towards role traditionalization that occurs through gender specialization. The current study used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, an urban birth cohort in 2000 consisting of structured interviews of mothers and fathers who were followed over 5  years (n = 1275), to examine whether low levels of fathers’ involvement and coparenting, two indicators of role traditionalization, were linked to negative trajectories of mothers’ and fathers’ rela...
Source: Sex Roles - February 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

A Listening Guide Analysis of Lesbian and Bisexual Young Women of Color ’s Experiences of Sexual Objectification
AbstractIn the present study, I utilize objectification theory and compulsory heterosexuality as theoretical lenses to investigate lesbian and bisexual young Women of Color ’s sexual objectification experiences. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Black and Latina 16–19 year-old young women who identified as lesbian or bisexual. Using the Listening Guide method of narrative analysis, two voices pertaining to young women’s objectificatio n experiences were identified: a Voice of Surveillance and a Voice of Self-Surveillance. Findings suggest that young women experienced sexua...
Source: Sex Roles - February 7, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Engendering Culture: The Relationship of Gender Identity and Pressure for Gender Conformity with Adolescents ’ Interests in the Arts and Literature
AbstractResearch indicates that women are more interested in highbrow culture (i.e., the arts —art, music, and theatre—and literature) than men are. Current explanations for women’s higher involvement in highbrow cultural activities primarily focus on adults; overemphasize class-, work- and cultural capital-related explanations; and do not uncover the identity-related and interactional mechanisms behind the gendering of taste during socialization. In the present paper we use gender identity theory and a “doing gender” perspective to understand cultural taste differences between male and female...
Source: Sex Roles - February 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Oh the Places We ’ll Go! Where will Sandra Bem’s Work Lead Us Next?
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 30, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Exploring College Men ’s and Women’s Attitudes about Women’s Sexuality and Pleasure via their Perceptions of Female Novelty Party Attendees
AbstractWomen ’s sexual desire, agency, and activity have long been stigmatized. In contemporary times, however, adult novelty parties, or gatherings where women can learn about and purchase sex toys or other sensual aids in a group setting, are widespread. The current pervasiveness of novelty parties may be in dicative of greater acceptance of women’s sexuality in contemporary Western society. The goal of the present study is to determine whether young people are more accepting of women’s sexuality and desire via their evaluations of women who attend novelty parties relative to more traditional kitche n ...
Source: Sex Roles - January 28, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Links among Familial Gender Ideology, Media Portrayal of Women, Dating, and Sexual Behaviors in African American, and Mexican American Adolescent Young Women: A Qualitative Study
AbstractUtilizing grounded theory methodology and drawing from sexual script theory as a research lens, we examined familial gender ideologies, media portrayals of Black and Latina women, dating attitudes, and sexual behaviors among 33 low-income early adolescent (aged 11 –14) African American and Mexican American young women. Themes revealed divergent experiences for African American and Mexican American young women. In particular, African American participants reported egalitarian familial gender ideologies and sexual objectification of Black women, as well as mo re open and positive attitudes toward dating and sex...
Source: Sex Roles - January 26, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Structure of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Reevaluated 20  Years later
AbstractThe Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) is a prominent measure of key constructs in the body image literature. Despite the impact and popularity of the OBCS, however, investigations of its factor structure have been limited. To our knowledge, the present study is the first since the instrument ’s development 20 years ago to provide a detailed evaluation of the replicability of the factor structure of OBCS data in a sample of U.S. college women, the population for which the measure was originally developed and is used most frequently. Specifically, we used confirmatory factor analyses t o evaluate...
Source: Sex Roles - January 23, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Roles of Child Gender and Parental Knowledge of Child Development in Parent-Child Interactive Play
AbstractIn our study, we aimed to analyse the effect of child gender on parental and child interactive play behaviour, as well as to determine relations between parental general knowledge of child development and parental play behaviour in two developmental periods, namely toddlerhood and early childhood. The sample included 99 children (50 toddlers 1 –3 years-old; 49 preschoolers 3–5 years-old) and their parents. Parent–child interactive play with a standard set of toys was observed and assessed in the home setting. We found that parental and child play behaviours were closely related in both a...
Source: Sex Roles - January 21, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Separate is Never Equal: The Repackaging of Single-Sex Education
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 21, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

An Intersectional Analysis of the Workplace Experiences of African American Female Athletic Directors
AbstractUsing intersectionality theory as a lens, the present study investigated the organizational experiences of African American women athletic directors. We use data collected from face-to-face interviews with ten African American women athletic directors of NCAA Division I, II, and III U.S. intercollegiate athletic departments. Findings of our investigation reveal that the intersection of their race and gender identities, in conjunction with societal and occupational stereotypes, resulted in many of them working in environments where they faced constant challenges to their identity and authority in response to social ...
Source: Sex Roles - January 18, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sport = Male … But Not All Sports: Investigating the Gender Stereotypes of Sport Activities at the Explicit and Implicit Levels
AbstractThe main objectives of the present studies were to update the explicit gender stereotypes linked to sport activities and examine whether they are associated with gender, age, personal practice, and general feminization rates of participation (Study 1,N = 690), as well as to investigate the potential effects of implicit gender sport stereotypes on the categorization of gendered names (Study 2,N = 53) and on perceptions of feminine, neutral, and masculine silhouettes (Study 3,N = 42). Study 1 indicated that explicit gender stereotypes are still attached to sport activities, w...
Source: Sex Roles - January 15, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Discrepancy Between How Women See Themselves and Feminists Predicts Identification with Feminism
AbstractMany women who accept the basic tenets of feminist ideology are reluctant to call themselves feminists, which is problematic because feminist self-identification is related to a variety of positive outcomes. The present research tests the idea that discrepancies between women ’s self-view and feminist-view on the dimensions of competence and warmth are related to identification with feminism. This supposition is guided by the idea that a full understanding of why women have difficulty embracing feminism must take into account not only their view of feminists, but also whether women see themselves as different...
Source: Sex Roles - January 14, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research