Paradoxical Associations of Masculine Ideology and Casual Sex Among Heterosexual Male Geosocial Networking App Users in China
AbstractMomo, the most popular geosocial networking app in China, is used as a common platform to seek casual sex. The present study, which is based on the social constructionist view of gender, examines how the endorsement of masculinity among heterosexual male Momo users is associated with the number of casual sex partners they meet on the app. The study also explores the mediating role of the sex motive for using Momo. Analyses of survey data from 125 heterosexual male Momo users showed that the endorsement of masculinity had an indirect positive relationship with the number of sex partners mediated by the sex motive; a...
Source: Sex Roles - January 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Laboring to Make Sex “Safe”: Sexual Vigilance in Young U.S. College Women
AbstractDefinitions of “safe sex” often focus on the use of condoms and contraception, but largely ignore other dimensions of safety, such as efforts to feel emotionally or physically safe. These gaps in the definition of the term safety demand greater attention to how being safe and feeling safe are interpreted by in dividuals who live and engage in sexual lives marked by social and political inequality. In the current study, we draw on interviews with 17 young women ages 18–28 from a U.S. urban university to examine efforts they used to protect themselves in sexual relationships. When having sex with me...
Source: Sex Roles - January 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Transnormativity and Transgender Identity Development: A Master Narrative Approach
This study involved a series of 4 qualitative focus groups (n = 15 participants), conducted in the United States, to identify master and alternative narratives guiding transgender identity development and explore the mechanisms by which transgender individuals navigate and negotiate with these narrative constraints. Results suggest that (a) transnormativi ty is best conceptualized as a hegemonic alternative narrative that resists the master narrative of cisnormativity, which asserts that cisgender identities are “normal” or “standard”; (b) the components of transnormativity go beyond t...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Perceived Men ’s Feminization and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: Heterosexual Men’s Reactions to the Decline of the Anti-Femininity Norm of Masculinity
AbstractOne of the central dimensions of traditional masculinity is men ’s renunciation of the feminine (i.e., the anti-femininity norm), and men’s endorsement of this norm constitutes one of the strongest predictors of negative attitudes toward homosexuality. However, egalitarian societies are undergoing a significant change: Gendered roles, stereotypes, and norms are evolving. Accordingly, many believe that men are becoming more feminine than before, and this change might have consequential effects. Across two studies conducted in Western countries, we investigated heterosexual men’s reaction to the per...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Paternity Leave-Taking and Father Involvement among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged U.S. Fathers
AbstractIn the present study, we examine the associations between the amount of time that U.S. employed fathers took off from work after the birth of a child (i.e., paternity leave-taking) and trajectories of how frequently fathers engage with their children and take responsibility for them. To do so, we analyze longitudinal data on 2109 fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a data set that contains information from disproportionately socioeconomically disadvantaged families from large urban areas. The results indicate that, 1 year after birth, paternity leave-taking and lengths of leave are positive...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Moving from Rural to Urban China: How Urbanization Affects Women ’s Housework
AbstractThe present study explores within-gender differences in domestic labor by studying housework variations across five different groups of women in contemporary China. We defined five groups of women according to their urbanization status in general andhukou (i.e., household registration) in particular. (a) Rural natives are women with rural hukou who have stayed in rural areas, (b) rural migrants are women with rural hukou who have migrated to an urban area but have not obtained an urban hukou, (c) policy-based converters are women with rural origins who have converted to being urban residents due to policy privilege...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Qualitative Multiple Case Study of the Division of Labor across the Transition to Parenthood in South-Brazilian Families
AbstractFamily roles tend to become more traditional across the transition to parenthood, which may affect satisfaction with the division of labor and the well-being and relationships of new parents. We employed a qualitative, longitudinal, multiple case study to investigate the division of labor across the transition to parenthood in South-Brazilian families with different childcare arrangements (i.e., maternal care, nanny care, and daycare center). Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews conducted with 12 first-time mothers and fathers (six families) at 6, 12, and 18  months postpartum. ...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Power of Sisterhood: The Moderating Role of Womanism in the Discrimination-Distress Link among Women of Color in the United States
AbstractSexism and racism play an important role in the psychological well-being of Women of Color (WOC). It is important to understand how protective factors, such as womanism (an outgrowth of Black feminist thought focused on the intersectional concerns of WOC), might disrupt the link between discrimination and psychological distress. With a sample of 204  U.S. heterosexual WOC, we examined (a) the links between perceived lifetime and recent sexist events and psychological distress and (b) the potential moderating role in these relations of womanism (an intersectional feminist perspective). Further, we conducted exp...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Body Surveillance on Instagram: Examining the Role of Selfie Feedback Investment in Young Adult Women ’s Body Image Concerns
AbstractSelfies are self-taken self-portrait photographs captured with mobile phones, and they are among the most common forms of self-expression on the photo-based social network Instagram. Selfies display their subject ’s face or body to social media followers and friends, making them particularly appearance-oriented images. As with other social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, Instagram posts garner feedback in the form of“likes ” and comments from online audiences. When applied to selfies, such feedback can be interpreted as aggregated evaluations of their subject’s physical appearance. We...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Objectification in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: Examining Relationship Satisfaction of Female Objectification Recipients and Male Objectifying Perpetrators
AbstractSexual objectification is one of most the common manifestations of discrimination against women in Western societies; however, few studies have examined objectification in the context of romantic relationships. The primary aim of the present research was to bring the study of objectification phenomena into the setting of heterosexual romantic relationships. The present set of studies examined the relation between sexual objectification and relationship satisfaction for both the sexual objectification recipient (Study 1) and the sexual objectification perpetrator (Study 2). The results of the first study with 206 U....
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Men Pursuing an Undergraduate Psychology Degree: What ’s Masculinity Got to Do with It?
AbstractUsing discursive psychology as its theoretical and methodological framework, the present study explored male Canadian undergraduate students ’ accounts of their reasons for studying psychology, their experiences of being male undergraduate psychology students, and their anticipated future careers. Ten men (19–29 years-old) who were at least in their second year of study in the psychology major program were interviewed. Contrary to s urvey research concluding that men who make gender-atypical vocational choices conform less to masculine norms than do men who make typical academic and career choices,...
Source: Sex Roles - January 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Typicality of Faces Affects Children ’s Categorization and Judgments of Women More than of Men
AbstractMost infants display more perceptual knowledge of female than male faces, which is related to their predominant experience with women. If disparities in social experience persist beyond infancy, children should have a better developed sense of what typifies female than male faces. Gender typicality of faces should therefore more often impact their cognitive decisions for female than male targets. To test this possibility, we assessed U.S. 5- to 9-year-olds ’ (n = 81) responses when making similarity judgments, spontaneous gender references, and typicality decisions for female and male targets wh...
Source: Sex Roles - January 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Housework Allocation, Negotiation Strategies, and Relationship Satisfaction in Cohabiting Emerging Adult Heterosexual Couples
AbstractThe purpose of the current study was twofold; first, to examine the association between equity and equality by comparing heterosexual romantic partners ’ distribution of time as a function of their perceptions of equity and second, to investigate the antecedents of the housework negotiation process, its dyadic nature, and its influence on relationship satisfaction. Data from 204 newly cohabiting Canadian heterosexual couples indicated that men an d women perceived inequity to self and equity to self, respectively, when the distribution of time was equal at home, yet men spent more time on paid work or academi...
Source: Sex Roles - January 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Children ’s Entertainment Media: Teaching Kids to be Accepting of Others and Themselves
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Objectification and System Justification Impact Rape Avoidance Behaviors
The correlation table (Table 1) erroneously listed theN as 160;n for correlations (using pairwise deletion) ranged between 279 and 293 and is now included in the table. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Feminism and Couple Finance: Power as a Mediator Between Financial Processes and Relationship Outcomes
AbstractFeminism is rarely used as a theoretical framework for couple finance research. The purposes of the present paper are (a) to discuss couple finance research in the context of feminism to encourage more frequent and explicit use of feminism in couple finance research, (b) to present a gender and couple finances model, and (c) to test this model with longitudinal dyadic data. Using actor-partner interdependence models (APIM) and data from 327  U.S. mixed-gender couples, relational power was explored as a potential mediator between four couple financial processes (earners of money, access to money, management of ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Homosexuality as Haram : Relations among Gender, Contact, Religiosity, and Sexual Prejudice in Muslim Individuals
AbstractMost research on sexual prejudice has focused on Western and Christian samples. Using the framework of social identity theory, we investigated the relations among gender, contact, religiosity, and sexual prejudice in a sample of 166 heterosexual Muslim individuals (70.7% from Saudi Arabia) residing in the United States. Consistent with prior research, men reported higher levels of prejudice than women did, especially toward gay men. Higher levels of religiosity predicted higher levels of sexual prejudice for both men and women, but the association was stronger for women. Additionally, more frequent and positive con...
Source: Sex Roles - November 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Man Talk: Exploring Sexual Communication Between Fathers and Sons in a Minority South African Community
AbstractMuch of what is known about father-child sexual communication is based on studies conducted in North America and more research into under-represented groups is needed. Our exploratory study therefore investigated sexual communication within father-son dyads belonging to a minority group in South Africa. We used a qualitative research design, and a total of 30 in-depth individual interviews were conducted with the members of 15 father-young adult son dyads. Thematic analysis of the data indicated that although both fathers and sons believed that fathers have an important role to play in the sex education of sons, th...
Source: Sex Roles - November 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

RETRACTED ARTICLE: An Ethnography of Breastaurant Masculinity: Themes of Objectification, Sexual Conquest, Male Control, and Masculine Toughness in a Sexually Objectifying Restaurant
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - November 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Difference of Chinese High School Students ’ Math Anxiety: The Effects of Self-Esteem, Test Anxiety and General Anxiety
AbstractThe present study aimed to explore gender differences in, and the effects of, self-esteem on math anxiety. A total of 751 (450 young women) junior and senior high school students (12 –18 years-old) from China were recruited and requested to report their math anxiety, self-esteem, control beliefs, test anxiety, and general anxiety. Results revealed that young women showed a higher level of math anxiety compared with young men; no gender difference was found in math performance . Further, the pathway from self-esteem to math anxiety was different for young men and young women. For young men, apart from a d...
Source: Sex Roles - November 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Are Women More Likely than Men Are to Care Excessively about Maintaining Positive Social Relationships? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Gender Difference in Sociotropy
AbstractSociotropy is defined as the tendency to overemphasize maintaining positive social relationships (Beck1983). Although the stereotype that women care more about interpersonal relationships than men do is well-documented (Cross and Madson1997), the literature provides mixed support as to whether women are more sociotropic than men are. This is important to establish because sociotropy consistently correlates positively with depression (Robins et al.1994) and thus a gender difference in sociotropy could contribute to the well-documented gender difference in depression (Girgus and Nolen-Hoeksema2006). The present meta-...
Source: Sex Roles - November 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Evidence for an Association between Men ’s Spontaneous Objectifying Gazing Behavior and their Endorsement of Objectifying Attitudes toward Women
AbstractDespite growing scientific interest in the sexually objectifying male gaze, the relation between men ’s gazing behavior and their sexually objectifying attitudes has not yet been examined. The present study addressed this gap in the literature. Sixty-one heterosexual Israeli men viewed photographs of female targets while their spontaneous eye movements were monitored to detect the amount of time they spent looking at the target’s sexual body parts versus face. They also completed a self-report measure of Men’s Objectification of Women. Consistent with feminist theorizing about the objectifying gaz...
Source: Sex Roles - November 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prejudice against Women Leaders: Insights from an Indirect Questioning Approach
AbstractTo avoid social disapproval in studies on prejudice against women leaders, participants might provide socially desirable rather than truthful responses. Using the Crosswise Model, an indirect questioning technique that can be applied to control for socially desirable responding, we investigated the prevalence of prejudice against women leaders in a German university community sample of 1529 participants. Prevalence estimates that were based on an indirect question that guaranteed confidentiality of responses were higher than estimates that were based on a direct question. Prejudice against women leaders was thus sh...
Source: Sex Roles - November 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Chased by the Past: The Relation Between Childhood Maltreatment and Fear of Childbirth
AbstractAlthough childbirth is a normative physiological experience, it may be challenging for some women and especially for those who were exposed to childhood maltreatment. The aim of the study was to examine a model underlying the development of fear of childbirth among pregnant women who were exposed to childhood maltreatment. Given that abusive acts are often directed at and experienced through the victim ’s mind and body, we proposed a dual-path model, suggesting that these relations are mediated by both self-objectification and a serial mediation of disrupted body boundaries and body shame. A sample of 470 Isr...
Source: Sex Roles - November 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

How Societal Changes Have Influenced German Children ’s Gender Representations as Expressed in Human Figure Drawings in 1977 and 2015
AbstractWe investigated German first graders ’ gender representations in human figure drawings done in 1977 and 2015. We hypothesized that increasing gender-status equality in society as well as growing gender differentiation in childcare and marketing are reflected in depictions of the human figure. Drawings were collected from a total of 3 76 children between 5 years 10 months and 8 years of age. Overall, the results are in accordance with the hypotheses: In contrast to 1977, the proportion of male and female figures was more balanced in 2015. In 2015, more girls drew a figure of their own gender and...
Source: Sex Roles - October 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Pursuing Medicina [Medicine]: Latina Physicians and Parental Messages on Gendered Career Choices
AbstractPrior research underscores that college-educated Latinas are hyper-segregated into highly feminized occupations and that Latino parents socialize their daughters to seek out these careers. Despite this trend, a small and growing number of Latinas are steadily entering prestigious non-traditional careers in medicine. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 20 Latina physicians of various generational backgrounds in California, I examine how Latina doctors explain the role parental messages played in their occupational trajectories. I document the fluid and often contradicting gendered expectations Latina physicians rece...
Source: Sex Roles - October 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acknowledgements
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - October 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Do Women in the Newsroom Make a Difference? Coverage Sentiment toward Women and Men as a Function of Newsroom Composition
AbstractPositive or negative media coverage may have important consequences for individuals ’ lives and ability to succeed. One potential factor that may affect the tone of coverage, in particular for women, is the gender of newsroom managers. Some scholars have suggested that women in key editorial and managerial roles should have a positive effect on the overall coverage of issues in t he news, and specifically on the coverage of women. We used fixed effects regression to analyze panel data on the coverage sentiment of 212 U.S. newspapers from various cities and states between 2004 and 2009 to examine the effe...
Source: Sex Roles - October 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Body Surveillance Predicts Men ’s and Women’s Perceived Loneliness: A Serial Mediation Model
AbstractPrevious research on self-objectification mainly focuses on its influences on intrapersonal psychological distress whereas our study examined whether self-objectification would influence interpersonal distress (i.e., loneliness) and its corresponding mechanisms in a sample of American women and men recruited with MTurk. Participants ’ self-objectification was indexed by their level of body surveillance, and we proposed that body surveillance would increase women’s and men’s tendency to experience shame about their body and decrease their general self-esteem, which would in turn predict their level...
Source: Sex Roles - October 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Does Traditional Stereotyping of Career as Male Affect College Women ’s, but Not College Men’s, Career Decision Self-Efficacy and Ultimately Their Career Adaptability?
AbstractIn South Korea, strong beliefs about traditional gender roles in accordance with Confucian and patriarchic atmosphere still strongly influence daily life and the career development process. Cultural and contextual factors impact the development of gender role socialization, which influences an individual ’s career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and adaptability to manage the challenging career decision-making process. In our study, we recruited 291 South Korean undergraduate students (138 women, 153 men) and investigated how an implicit gender-career stereotyping impacts career adaptability via CDS E and wheth...
Source: Sex Roles - October 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Female Questionnaire of Trait Self-Objectification: Initial Development and Validation in China
AbstractThe present research involved the initial development and validation of the 17-item Female Questionnaire of Trait Self-Objectification (FQSO), which measures Chinese women ’s trait self-objectification. In Study 1 (n = 663), an exploratory factor analysis identified two dimensions underpinning the FQSO: Physical Appearance and Physical Competence. In Study 2 (n = 421), results from a confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the two-factor model of the FQSO was superior to a one-factor model. Further, in Study 3 (n = 421), the validity of all FQSO dimensions was sup...
Source: Sex Roles - October 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When Seeing Is Not Believing: An Examination of the Mechanisms Accounting for the Protective Effect of Media Literacy on Body Image
AbstractThe present study aimed to explore the moderating role of three dimensions of media literacy on the relationship between media exposure and body dissatisfaction, mediated by thin-ideal internalization and appearance comparison among early female adolescents. A sample of 284 Australian female adolescents in single-sex schools (Mage = 13.15 years, range 11–16) reported on their media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, and three dimensions of media literacy: realism scepticism (scepticism regarding the extent to which media images portray reality...
Source: Sex Roles - October 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Reducing a Male Bias in Language? Establishing the Efficiency of Three Different Gender-Fair Language Strategies
AbstractDifferent strategies of gender-fair language have been applied to reduce a male bias, which means the implicit belief that a word describing an undefined person describes a man. This male bias might be caused by the words themselves in terms of generic masculine or masculine forms or by androcentrism (the conflation of men with humanity). In two experiments, we tested how different gender-fair strategies used as labels of an unknown social target (an applicant in a recruitment situation) could eliminate the male bias. The three types of gender-fair strategies tested were: (a) paired forms (he/she), (b) traditional ...
Source: Sex Roles - October 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Comrades in the Struggle? Feminist Women Prefer Male Allies Who Offer Autonomy- not Dependency-Oriented Help
AbstractFeminist women view feminist men who take a backseat and offer partial help (i.e., autonomy-oriented support) as better allies than those who attempt to solve the problem themselves and who impose their will on the movement (i.e., dependency-oriented support). We support this idea in two experiments (ns  = 96; 270) conducted in the United States. Further, we show that this preference is limited to women who are most motivated to challenge gender inequality, that is, those who strongly identify with feminists (Study 2). Our findings are important because although men are more willing to challeng e gend...
Source: Sex Roles - October 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Internalised White Ideal, Skin Tone Surveillance, and Hair Surveillance Predict Skin and Hair Dissatisfaction and Skin Bleaching among African American and Indian Women
AbstractWomen of Colour are subject to unique pressures regarding their appearance due to racialised beauty standards and the pre-eminence of White features (e.g., skin tone and hair texture). Through associated self-objectification, Women of Colour can face negative outcomes, including negative thoughts and feelings about body features, and can engage in potentially dangerous behaviours like skin bleaching. The present research investigated the connection between internalisation of White beauty standards and Women of Colour ’s dissatisfaction with their skin and hair as well as their use of cosmetic products to atte...
Source: Sex Roles - October 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Healing the Heart: A Qualitative Study of Challenges and Motivations to Cardiac Rehabilitation Attendance and Completion among Women and Men
AbstractHeart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Given that cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) participation is the best secondary prevention of cardiac mortality, it is important to understand the challenges and motivations people experience while taking part in rehabilitation. The present qualitative study explored the treatment experiences of 20 women and 20 men at urban and rural rehabilitation clinics in Minnesota. Participants were equally divided based on the number of CR session completed (less than or equal to 18 vs. more than 18). The study ’s primary aim was to articulate similarit...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What Threatens, Defines: Tracing the Symbolic Boundaries of Contemporary Masculinity
AbstractA robust literature ties emasculation to a range of compensatory behaviors. The present study shifts focus away from the effects of masculinity threat toward an understanding of young adult men ’s experiences of emasculation in their own words. Drawing on 42 in-depth interviews with undergraduate men attending a selective U.S. university, we examine the behaviors, situations, and narratives—both experienced and hypothetical—that privileged young men perceive as threatening. We use th ese data not only to contribute to the empirical literature on masculinity threat, but also as a novel approach for...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When Job Ads Turn You Down: How Requirements in Job Ads May Stop Instead of Attract Highly Qualified Women
AbstractQualification-based targeted recruitment strategies aim to increase the number of qualified applicants from certain social groups, such as women. Typically, such strategies assume that individuals are more likely to apply for a job when they possess the requirements needed for that job. However, how job seekers react to requirements in job ads is not often considered and is explored in the present study. In two experimental studies with Belgian university students we investigated whether person requirements about which women have negative meta-stereotypes (like the trait of emotionality) and the way such requiremen...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Stroppy Bitches Who Just Need to Learn How to Settle”? Young Single Women and Norms of Femininity and Heterosexuality
AbstractThe (older) single woman has evoked numerous negative sociocultural stereotypes in recent (Western) history, with “being single” a fraught position for (heterosexual) women. Have shifts toward gendered equality changed this stereotype? We interviewed 21 young heterosexual women in Aotearoa (New Zealand) about their experiences of being single. We focused on young adulthood (ages 25–35), a time when having children might be a particularly salient concern. Women’s experiences of being single were inextricable from their wider experiences of heterosexuality and pressures to enact a “desir...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

More Property, Better Sex? The Relationship Between Property Ownership and Sexual Satisfaction Among Married Vietnamese Women
AbstractSince the first sexuality research in Vietnam was conducted in the late 1980s, scholarship on this field has proliferated and the topic is now less of a taboo in public discourse. Nevertheless, little is known about the area of sexual satisfaction as well as factors determining a satisfying sexual life for Vietnamese women. Using data from 2783 married women collected from a national survey, we explore the relationships among their sexual satisfaction, socio-demographic factors, and sexual experiences with a focus on their association with ownership of property. Results demonstrated that income, ethnicity, living r...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Cultural Divide and Changing Beliefs about Gender in the United States, 1974 –2010
AbstractThe present paper examines claims of a growing cultural divide in the United States. We analyze social change in beliefs about gender over a period of 36  years (from 1974 to 2010) in the United States using data from the nationally representative General Social Survey (GSS). We find evidence of growing gender egalitarianism until the mid-1990s, with a reversal between 1996 and 2000, and a decline in state differences in beliefs about gender over ti me in our decomposition analysis and multilevel models. Although we find significant differences in gender beliefs among states in the 1970s based on their voting ...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Linking Job Work Hours to Women ’s Physical Health: The Role of Perceived Unfairness and Household Work Hours
AbstractAlthough the relationship between job work hours and women ’s physical health has been examined, limited empirical research examines the family demand conditions that explain this relationship. Given the challenge of integrating work and family demands, we examine the boundary conditions under which job hours relate to women’s physical health by integra ting the influences of household work hours, perceived unfairness of division of household labor, and traditional gender ideology. Using a large, multi-national archival dataset, our results show that women working long job hours are more likely to repor...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Beauty Is in the Eye of the Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation of the Effects of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, and Competence on the Objectifying Gaze in Men
AbstractDespite literature revealing the adverse consequences of objectifying gazes for women, little work has empirically examined origins of objectifying gazes by perceivers. Integrating alcohol myopia and objectification theories, we examined the effects of alcohol as well as perceived female attractiveness, warmth, and competence on objectifying gazes. Specifically, male undergraduates (n = 49) from a large U.S. Midwestern university were administered either an alcoholic or placebo beverage. After consumption, participants were asked to focus on the appearance or personality (counterbalanced) of pictured ...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Beliefs about Sexual Assault in India and Britain are Explained by Attitudes Toward Women and Hostile Sexism
AbstractAs many as one in five women worldwide will be sexually assaulted over the course of her lifetime (United Nations2008), yet myths that downplay the prevalence and severity of sexual assault are still widely accepted. Are myths about sexual assault (rape myths) more likely to be accepted in cultures that endorse more traditional gender roles and attitudes toward women? To explore the relationships among rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward women, and hostile and benevolent sexism, data were collected from 112 Indian and 117 British adults, samples from two cultures differing widely in their gender role traditional...
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Filtered Out, but Not by Skill: The Gender Gap in Pursing Mathematics at a High-Stakes Exam
AbstractThe present paper concerns the gender gap in pursuing mathematics at high stakes matriculation exams in Poland. Results of the optional Extended Exam in Mathematics (EEM) serve as the main criterion in entering tertiary education in majority of technical and engineering majors and, therefore, the exam works as an important filter for future career paths. We investigate whether the wide, gross difference between men and women in the propensity to take EEM can be mostly explained by an underlying skill difference, school effects, or other non-cognitive factors. We also test a skill immunization hypothesis which predi...
Source: Sex Roles - September 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acquiescing to the Script: A Panel Study of College Students ’ Sexual Media Habits, Endorsement of Heteronormative Scripts, and Their Hesitance Toward Resisting Unwanted Hookups
AbstractThe present study set out to better understand how sexual entertainment media may be related to college students ’ heteronormative beliefs about sexuality and how these beliefs may be related to college students’ hesitance toward resisting unwanted hookups. In a 2-month two-panel survey, cross-lagged models found 292 U.S. college women’s sexual media habits were related to higher endorsement of heterono rmative scripts, and their endorsement of heteronormative scripts were related to a hesitance toward resisting unwanted hookups. In addition, a half longitudinal mediation model found college ...
Source: Sex Roles - September 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Filtered Out, but Not by Skill: The Gender Gap in Pursing Mathematics at a High-Stakes Exam
AbstractThe present paper concerns the gender gap in pursuing mathematics at high stakes matriculation exams in Poland. Results of the optional Extended Exam in Mathematics (EEM) serve as the main criterion in entering tertiary education in majority of technical and engineering majors and, therefore, the exam works as an important filter for future career paths. We investigate whether the wide, gross difference between men and women in the propensity to take EEM can be mostly explained by an underlying skill difference, school effects, or other non-cognitive factors. We also test a skill immunization hypothesis which predi...
Source: Sex Roles - September 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acquiescing to the Script: A Panel Study of College Students ’ Sexual Media Habits, Endorsement of Heteronormative Scripts, and Their Hesitance Toward Resisting Unwanted Hookups
AbstractThe present study set out to better understand how sexual entertainment media may be related to college students ’ heteronormative beliefs about sexuality and how these beliefs may be related to college students’ hesitance toward resisting unwanted hookups. In a 2-month two-panel survey, cross-lagged models found 292 U.S. college women’s sexual media habits were related to higher endorsement of heterono rmative scripts, and their endorsement of heteronormative scripts were related to a hesitance toward resisting unwanted hookups. In addition, a half longitudinal mediation model found college ...
Source: Sex Roles - September 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

How Does Traditional Masculinity Relate to Men and Women ’s Problematic Pornography Viewing?
AbstractProblematic pornography viewing (PPV) is a growing concern. Based on a masculine gender role strain framework, individuals endorsing traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) may be especially drawn to pornography. However, relatively few studies have explored how TMI is related to PPV. Furthermore, no known studies have explored how these connections differ in men and women. To address these gaps, we conducted a large survey of 310 men and 469 women in the United States assessing multiple PPV and TMI dimensions. A bifactor structural equation model was used to regress PPV domains onto global and specific TMI factors....
Source: Sex Roles - September 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research