Exploring Gender Differences in the Use of Internal State Language in Mother-Adolescent Reminiscing
AbstractThe use of internal state language (ISL) is socialized in family conversations. In childhood, girls tend to use more emotion words than boys do, and mothers tend to use more emotion words with daughters than with sons. However, research in adolescence has been sparse suggesting that ISL is used equally across both genders. The present cross-sectional study thus examined gender patterns in German adolescents ’ and their mothers’ emotion narratives. A total of 60 mother-adolescent dyads (ages 12, 15 and 18 years; each age group with ten male and ten female adolescents) narrated three autobiographical...
Source: Sex Roles - May 17, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Boys Just Don ’t! Gender Stereotyping and Sanctioning of Counter-Stereotypical Behavior in Preschoolers
AbstractAlthough children start to adopt gender stereotypes by the age of three, there is less evidence about how early they start to sanction other children ’s counter-stereotypical behaviors. The present study explored the two processes in a single design, comparing younger/older preschool boys and girls and using a two-task procedure involving (a) categorization of pictures of masculine/feminine colors, toys, and objects as more suited for boys/girl s or both and (b) descriptions and evaluations of boys/girls playing with gender counter-stereotypic toys. One hundred Serbian children aged 3–4 or 6–7&nbs...
Source: Sex Roles - May 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Effects of a Television Drama-Based Media Literacy Initiative on Taiwanese Adolescents ’ Gender Role Attitudes
AbstractFor the present study, we developed a television (TV) drama-based media literacy program for Taiwanese adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the effects of the program on their media literacy and gender role attitudes. Participants were ninth-graders (aged 14 and 15  years, 50.6% male) from eight classes at one school which were randomly divided into two groups (four classes each). The experimental group (n = 126) received a three-unit media literacy program based on the constructs of the Message Interpretation Process Model and utilizing popular TV idol dramas as the mat...
Source: Sex Roles - May 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Fathers ’ Paternity Leave-Taking and Children’s Perceptions of Father-Child Relationships in the United States
AbstractPaternity leave-taking is believed to benefit children by encouraging father-child bonding after a birth and enabling commitments to fathers ’ engagement. Yet, no known U.S. studies have directly focused on the associations between paternity leave-taking and children’s reports of father-child relationships. Understanding the potential consequences of paternity leave-taking in the United States is particularly important given the lack of a national paid parental leave policy. The present study uses five waves of data on 1319 families, largely socioeconomically disadvantaged, from the Fragile Families and...
Source: Sex Roles - May 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Qualitative Exploration of Religion, Gender Norms, and Sexual Decision-Making within African American Faith-Based Communities
AbstractHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a prominent health and social justice issue, especially for African American communities in the Southern United States. Gender role norms, specifically within faith-based communities in the South, pose challenges to empowering women to make safer sexual health decisions. To explore perceptions of gender norms and sexual health, 42 qualitative interviews were gathered from female members of 16 predominantly African American churches in Atlanta, GA. Constructs from the theory of gender and power and the social ecological model were used to guide coding and analysis. ...
Source: Sex Roles - May 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Black Women and Girls & amp; #MeToo: Rape, Cultural Betrayal, & amp; Healing
AbstractCreated by U.S. Black female activist, Tarana Burke, the #MeToo movement gained popularity in 2017, shedding light on the pervasive sexual harassment and assault of women. Since long before Anita Hill and @RapedAtSpelman, racial trauma has complicated the post-sexual violence landscape for U.S. Black women and girls, which may inhibit their ability to say “me too.” It is within this context of racial trauma that cultural betrayal trauma theory (CBTT) was developed: a new framework for understanding how outcomes of interpersonal trauma, like rape, are impacted by both victim and perpetrator(s) being subj...
Source: Sex Roles - April 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Selfie-Posting and Young Adult Women ’s Restrained Eating: The Role of Commentary on Appearance and Self-Objectification
AbstractConsidering the prevalence of social networking sites (SNSs) and restrained eating among young adult women, the present study aimed to investigate the association between selfie-posting on an SNS (WeChat Moments, the most widely used SNS in China) and self-objectification among Chinese young adult women as well as the mediating effects of commentary on appearance and self-objectification from the perspective of self-perception theory and objectification theory. A sample of 886 female undergraduate students who had an active WeChat Moments account were recruited voluntarily to complete questionnaires on selfie-posti...
Source: Sex Roles - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Supporting Survivors: The Roles of Rape Myths and Feminism in University Resident Assistants ’ Response to Sexual Assault Disclosure Scenarios
AbstractSexual assault is a widespread and deleterious issue on U.S. college campuses. Resident assistants (RAs) in university housing are in a unique position to support students who experience sexual assault. RAs ’ typical job roles, U.S. federal laws (e.g., Title IX), and institutional policies require them to respond to disclosures in particular ways, for instance, by providing emotional support and referring survivors to resources. These responses to disclosures can affect survivors’ well-being—posi tively and negatively—but help providers do not always respond consistently. The current study e...
Source: Sex Roles - April 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Speaking like a Man: Women ’s Pitch as a Cue for Gender Stereotyping
AbstractWomen ’s average voice pitch has decreased in recent years, reducing the gap between men on this vocal dimension. The present study examined whether a woman speaking at a lower pitch would be perceived as less feminine and more masculine than a woman speaking at a higher pitch. Participants (n = 100, 67 female) listened to an audiotape of a woman in which her natural voice was manipulated to represent a pitch of either 220 Hz or 165 Hz. They then rated her on positive and negative facets of masculinity and femininity as well as competence and likeability. In addition, participants&rsqu...
Source: Sex Roles - April 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Psychometric Properties of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) in Spanish Preadolescents
AbstractObjectification theory postulates that the body is constructed as a sexual object and is subject to observation and evaluation in such a way that a person may feel that their body is an object. The purpose of the present study was to adapt and validate the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) to use with Spanish preadolescents. A total sample of 816 students, aged between 10 and 14  years-old, participated in the study. The sample was randomly split into two halves, and the psychometric properties of the OBCS were examined through a series of exploratory and then confirmatory factor analyses. The result...
Source: Sex Roles - April 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Half a Century of Stereotyping Associations Between Gender and Intellectual Ability in Films
The original version of the article unfortunately contained errors. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - April 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Solidarity in STEM: How Gender Composition Affects Women ’s Experience in Work Teams
AbstractThe relationships among the percentage of women in a team and women ’s sense of team identification and collective efficacy as well as team performance was examined. We explored these relationships in a sample of student teams conducting a semester-long social science research project within the context of science and technology-focused university. Findings with 9 5 U.S. college students (43 women) show that women experience higher team identification and collective efficacy as the percent of women teammates increases. Additionally, women’s team identification and collective efficacy mediate the re...
Source: Sex Roles - April 8, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Comparisons in Mother-Child Emotion Talk: A Meta-Analysis
AbstractMother-child emotion talk is one of the main ways through which children learn about emotions. Some previous research studies have suggested that mother-child emotion talk is a gendered process, influencing how girls and boys talk about emotions. Despite inconsistent findings in establishing if mothers use different amounts of emotion talk with their daughters and sons, there is no known meta-analysis of the literature examining gender differences in the frequency of mother-child emotion talk. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis is to explore gender comparisons in the frequency of mother-child emotion talk ...
Source: Sex Roles - April 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Celebrating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Association for Women in Psychology: A Life in Feminist Psychology: A Long and Interesting Journey from Ft. Wayne to Newport (Herstory)
AbstractThe present commentary addresses the radical history of feminist psychology and the Association for Women in Psychology. In it, I explore innovations with roots in feminist psychology that have been adapted and co-opted by mainstream psychology, and I propose some future directions for deconstructing feminist psychology ’s remaining allegiances to the dominant cultures of academic psychology and psychotherapy. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Men ’s Lived Experiences with Breast Cancer: The Double Consciousness of Marginal Men
AbstractThe present study investigated men ’s experiences with their breast cancer diagnosis and post-mastectomy lives. It is based on the sociological tradition of investigating the “marginal man” who lives in two not merely different but incompatible cultures (e.g., the pink ribbon culture of breast cancer and the everyday ideals of masculinity and the male body). Seventeen mature and aging U.S. men who all lived with a breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, including a mastectomy, were interviewed. The principle finding reveals that they saw themselves as men and remain seen by others in terms of their...
Source: Sex Roles - March 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Feminizing Effect of Sexual Violence in Third-Party Perceptions of Male and Female Victims
AbstractVarious scholars have noted that the label “victim” frequently elicits connotations of stereotypical, passive femininity—especially when the crime entails rape or other forms of sexual violence. In three online experimental studies, British respondents were recruited to test whether written information about a sexual assault led observ ers to perceive the victim as more feminine in terms of character traits and facial appearance. Study 1 (n = 139) compared observers’ perceptions of a male victim to a man accused of sexual assault and a control condition. Study 2 (n =&thi...
Source: Sex Roles - March 27, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Infertility-Related Stress and Life Satisfaction among Chinese Infertile Women: A Moderated Mediation Model of Marital Satisfaction and Resilience
AbstractThe present study investigated the effects of infertility on Chinese women ’s life satisfaction. Infertile women (n = 466) who were seeking medical help completed a survey that included the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI), the Dyadic Adjustment Questionnaire (DAS), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and demographic variables. We used a moderated mediation mode l to test our hypotheses, with life satisfaction as the dependent variable, representations about the importance of parenthood as the independent variable, the impact of infertility on life ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Femme Fatale Effect: Attractiveness is a Liability for Businesswomen ’s Perceived Truthfulness, Trust, and Deservingness of Termination
AbstractIn what we label the “femme fatale” effect, we proposed and found support for the notion that attractive businesswomen are judged as being less truthful than less attractive women for reasons rooted in sexual insecurity. In Study 1 (n = 198; U.S. participants), attractiveness predicted less perceived truthfulness for female, but not male, leaders delivering negative organizational news. Next, we revealed limitations of the lack-of-fit explanation; this effect persisted when the attractive woman was in a feminine role in Stud y 2 (n = 155; U.S. participants), in a feminine ind...
Source: Sex Roles - March 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Committed to STEM? Examining Factors that Predict Occupational Commitment among Asian and White Female Students Completing STEM U.S. Postsecondary Programs
AbstractAlthough it is well known that women have relatively high rates of attrition from STEM occupations in the United States, there is limited empirical research on the views and experiences of female STEM degree-earners that may underlie their commitment to their chosen fields. Utilizing survey data from 229 women completing STEM degrees at two U.S. universities, the present study examines how perceptions of occupational affordances and interactions with others in the field predict their occupational STEM commitment. Additionally, the study employs an intersectional lens to consider whether the patterns of association ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Emotional Support Makes the Difference: Work-Family Conflict and Employment Related Guilt Among Employed Mothers
AbstractIn the present study we aimed to investigate the role of social support, particularly emotional support, on work-family conflict (WFC) and employment-related guilt among employed mothers. Achieving an optimal work-family balance is difficult, especially for employed mothers with young children. Previous research has found support to be a key factor in helping to alleviate conflict. However, determining which types of support are most beneficial is an important issue to be investigated. Using path analysis, we examined the effect of three sources of social support —emotional spousal support, emotional supervis...
Source: Sex Roles - March 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Estimating the Prevalence of Gender-Biased Language in Undergraduates ’ Everyday Speech
AbstractResearch has shown that language can be gender-biased; however, little research has investigated the prevalence of this bias in everyday speech. Using recordings sampled from undergraduates ’ daily conversations, we investigated two forms of gender bias: paternalism through use of the infantilizing labelgirl to refer to women and androcentrism through a tendency to use more masculine (e.g.,man, guy) than feminine (e.g.,girl, woman) labels in everyday speech. U.S. participants (n = 175) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), a device that recorded sound samples from their environments ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Bias in Asylum Adjudications: Evidence for Leniency toward Token Women
AbstractGender is one of the most frequently studied variables in the literature on judicial decision-making. We add to this literature by hypothesizing that the impact of applicant gender is conditional on the gender balance in a judge ’s caseload. We expect that female applicants receive more favorable decisions from judges whose caseload skews strongly male. Analyzing over 40,000 rulings by the Austrian Asylum Court between 2008 and 2013, we find support for direct gender effects for applicants and judges (yet no significant interaction between the two). We also show that gender balance in the caseload is a s...
Source: Sex Roles - March 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Desire for Power and Perceptions of Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: The Moderating Roles of Perceived Power and Gender
Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for understanding the connections between power and perceptions of romantic relationships. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Impact of Gendered Stereotypes on Perceptions of Violence: A  Commentary
AbstractThe present commentary explores the impact of gender role stereotypes on perceptions of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence. Two papers published in this issue ofSex Roles explored the influence of gender stereotypes on both IPV (Bates et al.2019) and rape myths (Klement et al.2019). An overarching theme of these papers is how gender stereotypes may influence incorrect beliefs in how we view and approach interventions to these two types of violence. Reflecting on this convergence, we have come together as authors to consider how influential and damaging these stereotypes can be to victims of bo...
Source: Sex Roles - March 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Characteristics of Preschool Gender Enforcers and Peers Who Associate with Them
AbstractChildren who try to exclude others due to their gender can be considered as “gender enforcers.” Using multiple methods (observations, interviews) and informants (children, teachers, teacher aides), we investigated the prevalence of gender enforcement, the characteristics of gender enforcers, and potential associations of exposure to gender enforcers. Participants were 9 8 (Mage = 49.47 months,SD = 11.40; 52% boys) preschoolers from a southwestern city in the United States. Results showed that both girls and boys engage in gender-enforcing behavior. Further, findings sugg...
Source: Sex Roles - March 8, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Social Justice Approach to Measuring Bystander Behavior: Introducing the Critically Conscious Bystander Scale
AbstractResearchers studying bystander behavior in the context of sexual violence are informed by the five-step process of bystander intervention that was described by Latan é and Darley (1969). According to this process an individual must first recognize a situation as problematic prior to intervening. The behaviors that are easily recognized or taught in college programming as problematic are generally indicative of sexual assault and rape; however, behaviors that feed into sexual violence exist on a continuum, allowing for a range of opportunities for intervention. The goal of the current study was to expand the ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Picture Perfect: The Relationship between Selfie Behaviors, Self-Objectification, and Depressive Symptoms
AbstractSocial media use has been linked to depression, although there is evidence that how one uses social media matters. Self-objectification may influence social media-related behaviors, such as taking many pictures before posting and using photo editing. These may be related to negative outcomes, perhaps because they contribute to feeling disingenuous online. These relationships were explored in the context of selfie posting on Instagram among a sample of young U.S. women who completed self-report measures. Mediation analyses were used to determine whether self-objectification, operationalized as body surveillance, pre...
Source: Sex Roles - March 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Situating Oneself in the Intersectional Hierarchy: Racially Diverse, Low-Income Women Discuss Having Little Agency in Vasectomy Decisions
AbstractFew studies are qualitative explorations of intimate partners ’ conversations among racially/ethnically diverse adults about contraception, in particular, sterilization. Sterilization is an interesting case study given its permanency and the fact that it is a possible procedure for both men and women. More research is needed because sterilization decisions c an reveal complex social relationships built on gender, class, race, and power that resonate throughout many parts of societies. The present paper draws on ideas of power/agency as they intersect with gender, race, and class in an analysis of 40 semi-stru...
Source: Sex Roles - March 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Head Coach Changes in Women ’s College Soccer: An Investigation of Women Coaches Through the Lenses of Gender Stereotypes and the Glass Cliff
AbstractWomen are underrepresented in leadership positions in sport, including coaching. In the present study of women ’s college soccer in the United States, the authors examine the relationship between team performance and coaching changes through the lenses of gender stereotypes, role congruity theory, and the glass cliff theory. The authors collected 11 seasons of data (2007–2017) for all teams (n = 695) in five conferences. The results of logistic regression analyses with rare events correction show no significant differences between men and women coaches in terms of being dismissed following...
Source: Sex Roles - February 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Insights into Men ’s Sexual Aggression Toward Women: Dehumanization and Objectification
AbstractSexual aggression is a global, ongoing problem, and it is most often perpetrated by men against women. In a set of studies, we investigated the role of dehumanization and objectification in men ’s sexual aggression-related attitudes and interests toward women in general, as well as toward a specific female target. The first of our studies, with 190 heterosexual British men recruited online, established a correlational link between dehumanization and rape proclivity. Dehumanization was al so related to unfavorable attitudes toward rape victims. Critically, our results largely held when controlling for several ...
Source: Sex Roles - February 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Half a Century of Stereotyping Associations Between Gender and Intellectual Ability in Films
AbstractA particularly longstanding, prevalent, and well-documented stereotype is the belief that men possess higher-level cognitive abilities than women do. This brilliance  = male stereotype has been shown to be endorsed even by children as young as 6-years-old and is believed to be a factor driving the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. Motivated by the fact that cultural products serve as a source for acquiring individual values and behaviors, we study the presence of this stereotype in a large collection of movie transcripts covering half a century of Western-world film history (n =&thin...
Source: Sex Roles - February 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

White Knighting: How Help Reinforces Gender Differences between Men and Women
AbstractIndividuals often prize helping behaviors in the workplace, but these behaviors can potentially be harmful to those who receive help. Two online experiments were conducted to determine whether dependency-oriented help, which consists of solving a problem for the beneficiary (Nadler2002), has negative consequences for female beneficiaries and positive consequences for male helpers (Studies 1 and 2: 100 and 203  U.S. MTurk respondents respectively). I found that observers perceived women who received dependency-oriented help from men as being lower in status (Study 2), competence (Studies 1 and 2), and promotabi...
Source: Sex Roles - February 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Young Adults ’ Conversational Strategies During Negotiation and Self-Disclosure in Same-Gender and Mixed-Gender Friendships
AbstractActor gender and partner gender effects on conversational strategies were investigated among young adult friends during assigned negotiation and self-disclosure tasks. The sample comprised 146 same- or mixed-gender friendship pairs (age range  = 17–23) of U.S. undergraduates from diverse ethnic-racial backgrounds (52% White, 19% Latinx, 17% Asian, 18% other). Pairs of same-gender friends or mixed-gender friends were assigned a negotiation task and a self-disclosure task while their conversations were video-recorded. Dyadic analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling to assess acto...
Source: Sex Roles - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Role of Gender in Worry and Efforts to Cope during Stressful Waiting Periods
AbstractWaiting for personally significant news is a near-universal experience, but people differ in how they cope with these acute moments of uncertainty. The present study examined whether self-identified men and women differ reliably in how they experience and cope with uncertain waiting periods, given societal pressures toward (for men) or against (for women) emotional experiences that may be relevant in these moments. Across 20  U.S. studies in field and laboratory settings (totaln = 4714), we examined gender differences in worry and use of coping strategies during various waiting periods. We then e...
Source: Sex Roles - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Empowerment Sold Separately: Two Experiments Examine the Effects of Ostensibly Empowering Beauty Advertisements on Women ’s Empowerment and Self-Objectification
AbstractEmpowerment-themed advertisements are becoming an attractive marketing strategy for companies due to their popularity among female consumers, but there is no known empirical work examining their effectiveness at increasing women ’s felt empowerment. The explicit narrative of these ostensibly empowering advertisements seems empowering, but the visual messages still resemble traditionally objectifying campaigns, which have been known to lead to objectification in women. This series of two experiments measures the effects of nominally empowering messages on women’s post-exposure feelings of empowerment and...
Source: Sex Roles - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Rise in Support for Gender Egalitarianism in the Netherlands, 1979-2006: The Roles of Educational Expansion, Secularization, and Female Labor Force Participation
AbstractSince the 1960s, public support for gender egalitarianism has risen substantially in many western countries. Although earlier research proposed that structural and cultural developments, such as educational expansion, declining religiosity, and the rise of women ’s employment may explain this upward trend, these theoretical speculations have not yet been thoroughly tested. In the present research, we aim to contribute to the existing literature by empirically analyzing the influence of educational expansion, secularization, and the rise of women’s labor force participation on support for gender egalitar...
Source: Sex Roles - February 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Does Number of Children Moderate the Link between Intimate Partner Violence and Marital Instability among Chinese Female Migrant Workers?
AbstractIntimate partner violence is a serious issue affecting migrant workers in China. The present study investigated the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of Chinese female migrant workers and examined the moderating role of number of children in the link between intimate partner violence and marital instability within the framework of social exchange theory. A total of 805 married female migrant workers responded to the Conflict Tactics Scales, the Marital Quality Scale, and a demographic data form. The results revealed that 37% of these women experienced intimate partner violence during last year. Re...
Source: Sex Roles - February 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Femmephobia: The Role of Anti-Femininity and Gender Policing in LGBTQ+ People ’s Experiences of Discrimination
AbstractSince the 1970s social science researchers have documented the cultural devaluation of femininity and its impact on experiences of discrimination among sexual and gender minorities. Yet, despite the continued and accumulating evidence demonstrating the role of anti-femininity (or femmephobia) in these experiences, little research has specifically examined femininity as an intersecting component of discrimination. Using in-depth interviews with sexual and gender minorities (N = 38), the current study explores the intersecting role of femmephobia in experiences of discrimination. Under the global theme ...
Source: Sex Roles - February 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Presenting Their Gendered Selves? How Women and Men Describe Who They Are, What They Have Done, and Why They Want the Job in Their Written Applications
AbstractOccupational segregation is due, at least in part, to differences in what jobs women and men apply to and how they are evaluated. However, we know little about one mechanism that may relate to employers ’ evaluations and, therefore, to occupational segregation: how applicants present themselves to employers. Theories of gender presentation offer competing predictions of how applicants present themselves to employers and empirical studies have not fully examined the issue. We address this theoreti cal ambiguity and empirical gap by drawing upon 1124 randomly selected applications that U.S. women and men used t...
Source: Sex Roles - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Career Stereotypes and Identities: Implicit Beliefs and Major Choice for College Women and Men in STEM and Female-Dominated Fields
AbstractThe present study examines the gendered nature of implicitly held beliefs related to STEM careers. It tests predictions from balanced identity theory on the relations between implicit STEM gender stereotypes and implicit STEM identity, as well as predictions from the associative-propositional model related to exposure to counter-stereotypical exemplars in a sample of U.S. college-aged heterosexual romantic couples that varied in whether the woman majored in STEM or in female-dominated majors (FDM). Gender-STEM stereotypes and Self-STEM identification, as measured by Implicit Associations Tasks, were examined in 117...
Source: Sex Roles - February 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Does Gender Nonconforming Behavior in Early Childhood Predict Adolescents ’ Depressive Symptoms?
We examined maternal report of GNB at age 4 –5 years-old as a predictor of adolescents’ depressive symptoms at age 16–17 years-old in a longitudinal study of U.S. children from a predominantly low SES (61% received Aid to Families with Dependent Children) and African American (90%) sample. Youth with GNB in early childhood (n = 10) reported more depressive symptoms during adolescence than did their peers without GNB (n = 115), and this relationship remained after controlling for covariates (environmental risk, prenatal exposure, and neonatal medical problems). Our fin...
Source: Sex Roles - February 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Multidimensionality and Complexities of Fathering: A Critical Examination of Afro-Jamaican Fathers ’ Perspectives
AbstractFamily socialization is integral to the development of well-adjusted children, and parenting by two parents provides important resources. For many families, children are socialized in contexts where their biological fathers are physically absent. Unfortunately, these children are regarded as fatherless in the literature and social commentary. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 24 Afro-Jamaican fathers in a context with a high prevalence of single female-headed families, the current study explored fathers ’ perspectives on fathering presence/absence and their involvement. Thematic analysis from a socia...
Source: Sex Roles - January 31, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Crisis of Competence: Benevolent Sexism Affects Evaluations of Women ’s Competence
AbstractPeople higher in benevolent sexism often outwardly endorse gender equality, but support men over women for challenging positions and experiences. Reflecting shifting standards (a tendency to evaluate stereotyped group members against within-category judgment standards), people higher in sexism may evaluate prominent women ’s competence against a lower competency standard for women (who are stereotyped as less competent than men are), and not against a standard for men. Thus prominent women could be perceived as especially competent (versus other women), yet men might still garner ultimate support. Study 1 tes...
Source: Sex Roles - January 31, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

White Men Holding on for Dear Life and Taking It: A Content Analysis of the Gender and Race of the Victims and Killers in The Walking Dead
AbstractThe present content analysis of the first seven seasons of AMC ’s hit zombie thriller,The Walking Dead, revealed that of the 122 characters who were killed, most were White (78.7%) and male (75.4%), and the 87 characters who did the killings were also mostly White (82.6%) and male (60.9%). The show ’s creators, then, have envisioned a post-apocalyptic society that is (mostly) White men killing off (mostly) White men in a sort of White male survivalist fantasy. Current results also revealed that of the female characters who met their death, 33% were lead characters, whereas only 16% of the ma le characte...
Source: Sex Roles - January 31, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Centering Gender in Communication through a Critical Gendered Lens
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Automatic Associations and Conscious Attitudes Predict Different Aspects of Men ’s Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Harassment Proclivities
AbstractIntimate partner violence against women (IPV) and sexual harassment are both widespread. Research on their causes and attitudinal correlates has rarely examined implicit, automatic cognitive associations related to the partner (in IPV aggressors) or to women (in sexual harassment offenders). The aim of the present research was to study these implicit associations in 129 male German students. Participants completed scales of hostile sexism (HS), masculine gender role stress (MGRS), short-term (STMO) and long-term mating orientation (LTMO), and proclivity to both IPV and sexual harassment. Next they performed a prime...
Source: Sex Roles - January 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Toward a More Complete Understanding of Bystander Willingness to Help: What Role Does Critical Consciousness Play?
AbstractSexual assault is a common phenomenon on university campuses with about one in five women victimized while in college. Consequently, bystander intervention programs have been gaining momentum. To improve such programs, research has begun to identify factors that may facilitate or impede individuals ’ willingness to help a potential victim of sexual assault. The current study adds to this literature by: (a) examining potential differences in rape myth acceptance, critical consciousness, and willingness to help based on types of self-reported exposure to sexual assault; (b) exploring the previ ously unexamined ...
Source: Sex Roles - January 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Understanding Processes of Transformative Change: A Qualitative Inquiry into Empowering Sources and Outcomes Identified by Women in Rural Nicaragua
AbstractDespite decades of research on women ’s human rights and empowerment across several academic disciplines, inequities between women and men persist at alarming rates across the globe. The current study employs an in-depth exploration of how programs intended for empowering purposes impact individual women’s lives, focusing on the tr ansformation promoted at multiple ecological levels. More specifically, the present study assesses how women involved in a feminist organization in rural Nicaragua were affected by their participation in the organization. Via analysis of qualitative interviews with 14 women, ...
Source: Sex Roles - January 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Should Have Known Better than to Fraternize with a Black Man”: Structural Racism Intersects Rape Culture to Intensify Attributions of Acquaintance Rape Victim Culpability
AbstractRape culture is characterized by prevalent rape of women by male acquaintances, which is exacerbated in the aftermath by negative social responses including attributions of victim culpability. In prior research, collaborators and I found that, consistent with norm theory, perceiving sociolegal context as unclear and ineffective in expressing that rape of women is a crime (vs. perceiving that law clearly and effectively expresses that rape is a crime) paradoxically intensified negative reactions and culpability attributions toward a woman raped by a male acquaintance. In the current research, I tested the hypothesis...
Source: Sex Roles - January 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Invisible Household Labor and Ramifications for Adjustment: Mothers as Captains of Households
AbstractWe address the issue of invisible labor in the home by examining how the distribution of the mental and emotional labor inherent in managing the household between spouses may be linked with women ’s well-being, including their satisfaction with life, partner satisfaction, feelings of emptiness, and experiencing role overload. In a sample of 393 U.S. married/partnered mothers, mostly of upper-middle class backgrounds with dependent children at home, results showed that a majority of women reported that they alone assumed responsibility for household routines involving organizing schedules for the family a...
Source: Sex Roles - January 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research