Joking for Gender Equality: Subversive Humor Against Sexism Motivates Collective Action in Men and Women with Weaker Feminist Identity
AbstractSubversive humor has historically been considered a way of protesting, raising awareness, and seeking change. However, to date, no known empirical research has explored the consequences of exposure to humor that criticizes, confronts, and questions sexism (i.e., subversive humor against sexism or feminist humor). In the present research, we conducted two experiments to analyze the impact of exposure to subversive humor against sexism (vs. neutral humor) on the degree of involvement in collective action for gender equality, taking into account the feminist identity of participants. The results of Study 1 (n =...
Source: Sex Roles - May 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Is a Reasonable Woman Different from a Reasonable Person? Gender Differences in Perceived Sexual Harassment
We examined whether perceived sexual harassment would vary depending on observers’ gender, on gender of the harasser and of the victim, and on whether and what type of sexual harassment definition was provided to observers. In doing so, we attempted to update and clarify inconsistent results from prior studies. Results from 413 young adult U.S. MTurk participants responding to an online survey revealed fairly large effects for participants’ gender, such that women perceived a wider range of situations as sexual har assment than did men. In addition, the dyad of a man harassing a woman was construed as more...
Source: Sex Roles - April 30, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Seeing What ’s Possible: Videos are more Effective than Written Portrayals for Enhancing the Relatability of Scientists and Promoting Black Female Students’ Interest in STEM
AbstractAlthough interactions with Black female scientists can alter beliefs about STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) and encourage Black female students ’ interest in these fields, this strategy may overburden the few Black women working in STEM. To address this issue, we explored whether a brief video presentation of a Black female computer scientist would be an effective intervention compared to an identical written transcript. We found that par ticipants from the general U.S. population (Experiments 1,n = 201, and 2,n = 745) and Black women U.S. students (Experiment 3...
Source: Sex Roles - April 29, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Wonderful but Weak”: Children’s Ambivalent Attitudes Toward Women
AbstractAccording to ambivalent sexism theory, prejudice toward women has two forms: hostile (i.e., antipathy toward women) and benevolent (i.e., patronizing and paternalistic attitudes toward women). We investigated whether 5- to 11-year-old children ’s gender attitudes exhibit this bipartite, ambivalent structure. Consistent with this possibility, latent variable modeling on a new developmentally appropriate instrument revealed that children’s (n = 237) hostile and benevolent attitudes were two distinct but positively associated factors. Using this instrument, we then explored age and U.S. regio...
Source: Sex Roles - April 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Sum Is Greater than its Parts: Intersectionality and Measurement Validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in Latinx Undergraduates in the United States
AbstractPrevious research has demonstrated disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders for men and ethnic minorities. The current study sought to investigate differences in eating pathology and measurement validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) at the intersection of gender and ethnicity in a nonclinical sample of undergraduates. A total sample of 1173 undergraduates (177 Latino men, 133 non-Latino White men, 554 Latina women, 309 non-Latina White women) completed the EDE-Q as part of a larger study on eating habits. A series of ANOVAs indicated a similar pattern of effects for...
Source: Sex Roles - April 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexualized and Athletic: Viewers ’ Attitudes toward Sexualized Performance Images of Female Athletes
AbstractUsing an experimental methodology, the present study investigated college students ’ attitudes toward media images of female athletes. We are particularly focused on how viewers perceive media images of female athletes that have both an appearance and athleticism focus, such as those found in ESPN’sThe Body Issue. An aim of our study was to assess viewers ’ attitudes toward these images that are not purely objectified, thereby contributing to the objectification literature and providing empirical data relevant to theorizing on the social impact of these images. U.S. college students (n =&th...
Source: Sex Roles - April 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When Gender Stereotypes Get Male Adolescents into Trouble: A Longitudinal Study on Gender Conformity Pressure as a Predictor of School Misconduct
We examined the role of felt pressure to conform to gender stereotypes in predicting school misconduct among male and female adolescents. Data were provided by a three-wave panel study encompassing more than 4200 Flemish e arly adolescents (ages 12–14). Three-level growth curve models showed that male adolescents misbehaved more in school than female adolescents did. Male adolescents also demonstrated a steeper increase in school misconduct than female adolescents. Furthermore, greater felt gender conformity pressur e predicted an increase in school misconduct in male adolescents but not in female adolescents. We con...
Source: Sex Roles - April 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Seeing the World in Pink and Blue: Developing and Exploring a New Measure of Essentialistic Thinking about Gender
AbstractEssentialism, or the belief that certain categories have fundamental, intrinsic, and stable essences, pervasively influences social judgments. Among the many groupings that describe people, gender is the most essentialized category yet relatively little is known about individual differences in gender essentialism. To explore this construct in Study 1 with 2996  U.S. participants, we developed a new measure, named the Gender Essentialism Measure (GEM), that offers two advantages over prior measures: (a) we used Item Response Theory to optimize the measure’s psychometrics and (b) we adopted a multidimensio...
Source: Sex Roles - April 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Bias in Student Evaluations of Teaching: Students ’ Self-Affirmation Reduces the Bias by Lowering Evaluations of Male Professors
AbstractStudents evaluate male professors higher than female professors. In a study that we presented to participants as a test of a new form for student evaluations of teaching (SETs), we examined if self-affirmation (contemplating elements that positively contribute to one ’s self-image) reduced the gender bias. Belgian students (n = 568), who were randomly assigned to self-affirm (through either a value-affirmation task or self-superiority priming) or not, read a vignette prompting them to imagine that they had received a good or a bad grade from a male or a female professor. They evaluated the cours...
Source: Sex Roles - April 13, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Objectification Theory among Black Women in the United States: The Role of Protective Factors
AbstractRecent studies find that Black women experience rates of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction comparable to those of White women. Abundant research suggests that objectification theory could help explain the development and maintenance of eating disorder (ED) symptoms among diverse women. However, research on the applicability of objectification theory to ED symptoms in Black women is equivocal. Specifically, some have suggested that body surveillance might operate differently for Black women. Thus, the current study examined ethnic-racial identity (ERI) commitment and body appreciation as moderators of the me...
Source: Sex Roles - April 13, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Importance of Perceived Body-Inclusiveness among Physically Active Women in Larger Bodies
AbstractDespite the many benefits of physical activity, women participate less frequently than men do, and this is particularly the case among women in larger bodies. The purpose of the present study was to examine one factor that might influence this pattern: the presence of perceived body-inclusive physical activity spaces. The authors collected data from 253  U.S. women, all of whom were active in some form of physical activity over the past year. Results show that as perceived body-inclusiveness increased, so too did women’s identification with the physical activity. Further analyses showed the relationship ...
Source: Sex Roles - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“We Stand up for Each Other!” An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Collective Action among U.S. College Women
AbstractIn 2018, more women than ever have run for and been elected to public office in the United States. Moreover, there has been an increase in women ’s collective actions aimed at improving the welfare of women. In this social and political context, we examined the motivational mechanisms of collective action among college women in response to gender inequality and discrimination. Little work has addressed how collective action among college w omen emerges in the context of their lives. Based on data from 20 interviews with U.S. college women and using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), we developed ...
Source: Sex Roles - April 1, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Heteronormativity, Disgust Sensitivity, and Hostile Attitudes toward Gay Men: Potential Mechanisms to Maintain Social Hierarchies
AbstractWithin a social hierarchy based on sexual orientation, heteronormative ideology serves as a social force that maintains dominant group members ’ status (e.g., heterosexual men). Disgust may be an emotional reaction to gay men’s violation of heteronormativity (i.e., same-sex sexual behavior) and motivate hostile attitudes toward gay men to promote interpersonal and intergroup boundaries. Based on this theoretical framework, we hypothesi zed that sexual disgust—compared to pathogen or moral disgust—would be most strongly associated with antigay hostility and would statistically mediate its rel...
Source: Sex Roles - March 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“You Can Catch More Flies with Honey than Vinegar”: Objectification Valence Interacts with Women’s Enjoyment of Sexualization to Influence Social Perceptions
AbstractAlthough objectification is a common experience for women (Fredrickson& Roberts,1997), little is understood about how women perceive sources of objectifying commentary and behaviors. The current work provides a novel integration of objectification and consistency theories to understand how valence of sexual objectification and women ’s feelings about sexual attention interact to predict perceptions of objectifying sources. In two online vignette studies with 121 and 110 U.S. women recruited through MTurk, female participants were asked to recall an experience of complimentary or critical objectificat...
Source: Sex Roles - March 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexual Identification in the United States at the Intersections of Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Immigration, and Education
AbstractSexual identification is shaped by social processes that vary across multiple axes of marginalization and social position —including gender, race/ethnicity, immigration status, and education. However, to date quantitative findings on sexual identity formation have been inconsistent and most existing studies do not use intersectional frameworks. Drawing on intersectional theory and using an innovative multilevel metho d for measuring intersectional effects, we address this gap in our understanding of sexual identification by examining how the likelihood to adopt an exclusively heterosexual sexual identity vari...
Source: Sex Roles - March 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Recruiting (Dis)Advantage: Men ’s Versus Women’s Evaluations of Gender-Based Targeted Recruitment
AbstractOrganizations use targeted recruitment to attract applicants with specific demographic characteristics to diversify the workforce. Research reports mixed findings regarding the extent to which beneficiaries (i.e., those specifically targeted) are attracted to organizations. We explore this inconsistency by investigating how U.S. college men and women (in Studies 1a,n = 239, and 1b,n = 223) and working adults (in Study 2,n = 128) respond to recruitment materials targeted toward members of the traditionally underrepresented gender—a police department that recruits women...
Source: Sex Roles - March 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Adolescents ’ Body Shame and Social Networking Sites: The Mediating Effect of Body Image Control in Photos
AbstractAdolescents ’ social networking site (SNS) use has dramatically grown in the past few years and has increasingly become focused on pictures and visual self-presentation. Attention directed toward online physical appearance appears to trigger some body-related behaviors (e.g., body image monitoring) which pote ntially are related to self-objectification and problematic SNS use. Indeed, the use of social media platforms (including the active creation of content and peer interactions) provides a highly accessible medium for socializing with self-objectification. The present study evaluated the previously un expl...
Source: Sex Roles - March 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Cheers to Equality! Both Hostile and Benevolent Sexism Predict Increases in College Women ’s Alcohol Consumption
AbstractBased on research suggesting that alcohol consumption can be used as a means of coping with negative affect (Cooper et al.1995), the current study examines sexism as a factor in college women ’s alcohol consumption. Despite being more prevalent than hostile sexism, benevolent sexism is often viewed as less sexist (Oswald et al.2018) and having a less aversive impact on women (Bosson et al.2010). To increase understanding of the negative effects of both hostile and benevolent sexism, the current study experimentally manipulated sexism during a lab session and measured 176  U.S. college women’s actua...
Source: Sex Roles - March 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Examination of Daily Experiences of Sexism and Reactivity among Women in U.S. Male-Dominated Academic Majors Using Experience Sampling Methodology
This study utilized experience sampling methodology, which involves participants reporting current experiences multiple times per day, to better understand the unique daily experiences of sexism and reac tivity among women in MDMs compared to both men in MDMs and women in gender-neutral majors (GNMs). For 2 weeks, four times a day, 120 U.S. college students (40 women in MDMs, 40 men in MDMs, 40 women in GNMs) were signaled to report sexist events that occurred in the last hour, current attitudes t oward fit with their major, and academic motivation. Although a majority experienced at least one sexist event during...
Source: Sex Roles - March 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Investigating the Relation between Gender Typicality and Pressure to Conform to Gender Norms
AbstractPrevious research suggested that gender typicality and pressure to conform to gender norms were unrelated; however, this may have been due to how gender typicality was assessed (i.e., by only comparing the self to one ’s own gender collective). In the present study, we used a dual identity approach (comparing oneself to both gender collectives: to own-gender and other-gender individuals) to create typologies of gender typicality to examine how similarity to own and other gender collectives might differentially associate with pressure to conform to gender norms. The potentially unique influence of pressure sou...
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Associations between Physical Self-Concept and Anticipated Guilt and Shame: The Moderating Role of Gender
AbstractBody-related emotions have been identified as important predictors of mental and physical health. Evaluations of the physical self are inextricably linked with body-related emotions. However, little research has addressed how physical self-concept is associated with anticipated emotions and how associations may differ between men and women. The current study examined associations between physical self-concept and anticipated guilt and shame and examined gender as a moderator of these associations. The sample consisted of 353 Canadian undergraduate students (55% female;Mage = 21.94. range =&thin...
Source: Sex Roles - March 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Warning: Hegemonic Masculinity May Not Matter as Much as You Think for Confidant Patterns among Older Men
AbstractPrevious scholarship shows that cisgender women are more likely to have confidants than cisgender men and that the latter are more likely to have confidants outside the family and keep spheres (e.g., friends versus family) separate. Growing evidence shows these confidant patterns shift in older age. A common though untested explanation for these patterns is that gender ideologies preconfigure how people seek confidants. We address the lack of direct tests by analyzing a cohort of 5487  U.S. older women and men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey, which administered the Hegemonic Masculinity for Older Men Sc...
Source: Sex Roles - March 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Do African American Male and Female Adolescents Differ in Technological Engagement?: The Effects of Parental Encouragement and Adolescent Technological Confidence
AbstractAfrican Americans, especially African American women, remain one of the most underrepresented groups in technology-based degrees and careers. However, little is known about whether gender differences permeate African American adolescents ’ engagement in technology in earlier development, such as in middle and high school (ages 12–18). Drawing on an ecological and intersectional framework, we examined if African American male and female adolescents differed in technological engagement and what contextual factors affected their en gagement. We hypothesized that parental encouragement would be associated w...
Source: Sex Roles - March 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Inconceivable: South African Lesbians Talking about Being Voluntary Childfree
AbstractLittle is known about lesbian couples who choose to be childfree at a time when motherhood is an increasingly available option, particularly given that they live in societies which still conflate motherhood with womanhood. Without their voices, there is an incomplete understanding of women opting out of motherhood and a risk of excluding the experiences of those who do not fit within dominant heterosexual norms. Therefore, in this South African study, we utilized a feminist social constructionist lens to explore the accounts of 20 middle-class, White lesbians in committed relationships who identified as voluntarily...
Source: Sex Roles - February 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Sexual Victimization Experiences of Men Attending College: A Mixed Methods Investigation
AbstractEmerging research supports that men attending college are at elevated sexual assault risk. However, research is limited by assessment issues as well as a lack of examination of how men conceptualize their experiences. The current study sought to expand our understanding of college men ’s sexual assault experiences via a mixed methods study. Fifty-eight U.S. college men (11.2% of a sample of 518 men) reported a sexual assault history since age 14 and completed measures of their assault characteristics, psychological adjustment, and alcohol use. A total of 44 also provided a writ ten narrative of the assault. R...
Source: Sex Roles - February 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Early Adolescents ’ Responses to Witnessing Gender-Based Harassment Differ by their Perceived School Belonging and Gender Typicality
AbstractThe current study examined bystanders of gender-based harassment (GBH) in early adolescence. Specifically, it examined whether early adolescents ’ sense of school belonging, perceived peer support, and self-perceived gender typicality predicted how they respond to witnessing GBH (e.g., whether they confront the perpetrator, seek social support, or ignore it), and whether they feel good or worried about confronting perpetrators of GBH. U.S. 7th and 8th graders (n = 594; 300 male early adolescents and 294 female early adolescents;Mage = 12.74,SD = .70) completed measure...
Source: Sex Roles - February 16, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Traditional Gender Ideology, Work Family Conflict, and Marital Quality among Chinese Dual-Earner Couples: A Moderated Mediation Model
AbstractTraditional gender ideology, which refers to individuals ’ expectations for the gendered segregation between work and family responsibilities, is a well-documented predictor for marital quality. Using three annual-wave, dyadic data from 240 Chinese dual-earner heterosexual couples surveyed during the early years of their marriage, we (a) examined how hu sbands’ and wives’ endorsement of traditional gender ideology interact with each other to predict marital quality and (b) tested work-to-family and family-to-work conflict as potential mediators to delineate the mechanisms via which traditional gen...
Source: Sex Roles - February 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Body Image Victimization Experiences and Disordered Eating Behaviors among Chinese Female Adolescents: The Role of Body Dissatisfaction and Depression
AbstractBody image victimization experiences that include appearance-based teasing, “fat talk,” and negative comments by parents and peers have been found to be associated with female adolescents’ disordered eating behaviors. Using the perspectives of the tripartite influence model and the dual-pathway model, we aimed to investigate the effect of body image victimization expe riences on disordered eating behaviors among Chinese female adolescents, as well as the potential mediating role of body dissatisfaction and depression in this association. The participants were 1399 students (Mage = 13...
Source: Sex Roles - February 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

It ’s Not You, It’s Me: An Exploration of Mentoring Experiences for Women in STEM
AbstractAlthough the number of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) continues to grow, men still represent a significant majority of those employed in these industries. Mentoring programs have been identified as a useful tool to alleviate this gap and therefore have been developed in an effort to attract and retain women in STEM. However, research suggests that women are still being mentored less often than their male colleagues. To understand this issue in depth, 36 women holding managerial positions in STEM organizations in the United States and Canada were interviewed and their experiences wi...
Source: Sex Roles - February 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Powerful Male Hero: A Content Analysis of Gender Representation in Posters for Children ’s Animated Movies
AbstractFindings across a wide body of research suggest that media targeted at young audiences often portray characters according to stereotypical gender roles. Childhood is a particularly sensitive time in gender identity development, and logic from social cognitive theory suggests that repeatedly observing these stereotypes can have a lasting influence on young audiences ’ worldview. Building on previous research investigating gender role displays in film content, and with the expectation that content creators use movie posters to convey a one-shot summary of films to audiences, we conducted a content analysis on t...
Source: Sex Roles - February 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Strategies Aimed at Reducing Gender Differences in Negotiation Are Perceived by Women as Ineffective
AbstractWomen often fare worse in negotiations than men. Negotiation researchers, trainers, and policymakers thus aim to find solutions —such as specific strategies for female negotiators—to reduce gender differences in negotiations. However, if using such a specific strategy is not perceived to yield benefits (e.g., better economic outcomes) as well as to include risks (e.g., unfavorable social evaluations), women should natura lly be unlikely to use it. Hence, we examined 218 German women’s perceptions of three specific strategies (i.e., using a relational account, feminine charm, and confrontation) and...
Source: Sex Roles - February 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Feeling my Sister’s Pain”: Perceived Victim Suffering Moderates the Impact of Sexualized Music Videos on Fijian Women’s Responses to Men’s Intimate Partner Violence against Women
AbstractTo better understand how sexualized music videos affect women ’s responses to intimate partner violence (IPV), we examined the role of individual variability in perceived victim pain and perceived victim culpability in moderating and mediating (respectively) the priming effects of sexual music videos on women. Female Fijian college students (n = 243) were randomly assigned to one of three viewing conditions: stereotyped sexual music videos, non-stereotyped/non-sexual music videos, or neutral videos. All participants then read a portrayal of a male-toward-female IPV episode and their perceptions ...
Source: Sex Roles - February 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Bad, Pathetic and Greedy Women: Expressions of Surrogate Motherhood Stigma in a Russian Online Forum
AbstractGestational surrogacy, in which the surrogate mother is not biologically related to the child she is carrying, is the most common type of surrogacy today. Although technologically well-developed and legal in many countries, it is stigmatized socially because it provokes and even contradicts basic traditional concepts of family, motherhood, and gender roles. The present study examines the types and expressions of the surrogacy stigma in Russia, applying a dual-pathway stigma model to a qualitative content analysis of 15,602 posts on a Russian-language online forum for surrogate mothers. Our findings reveal that the ...
Source: Sex Roles - January 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Gendered Racial Microaggressions, Feminism, and Asian American Women ’s Eating Pathology: An Intersectional Investigation
The authors would like to correct the errors in the texts of the original version of this article. The authors apologize for the oversight and further state that the changes made to the statements don ’t have an impact to the overall outcome of the study. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Essentialism, Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation, and Filial Piety as Predictors for Transprejudice in Chinese People
AbstractAlthough research on prejudice against gender and sexual minorities has been increasing in recent years, little attention has been paid to predictors for transprejudice and its potential culture-specific correlates in particular. This cross-sectional study addressed these gaps in the literature by exploring the relative contributions of social dominance orientation, authoritarianism, filial piety, and essentialist beliefs of gender to negative attitudes toward transgender people in 371 Chinese participants. Path analyses showed that (a) consistent with previous research, authoritarianism and social dominance orient...
Source: Sex Roles - January 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Differences in the Nature, Antecedents and Consequences of Parental Burnout
AbstractParenthood remains one of the most gender-typed social roles in adulthood. Given gender inequality in parenting, it has been very surprising to find that parental burnout affects both mothers and fathers in equal proportion. The aim of the present study was to properly test gender effects in the nature, average level, antecedents, and consequences of parental burnout. Data were collected from a strictly matched sample of about 900 French- and English-speaking mothers and fathers. We found measurement invariance across genders and a higher average level of parental burnout among mothers than fathers. We also found t...
Source: Sex Roles - January 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What Drives Support for Transgender Rights? Assessing the Effects of Biological Attribution on U.S. Public Opinion of Transgender Rights
AbstractScholars have a limited understanding of what drives opinion on transgender rights. The present study begins to fill this gap by applying attribution theory to data from a national quota-based (U.S. Census approximation) online survey of 1000  U.S. citizens to evaluate how individuals’ beliefs about the biological origin of a person’s transgender status influence support for transgender rights, including employment, housing, healthcare, and bathroom protections. Across all models, we find that believing transgender status is biologi cal is correlated with increased support for transgender rights. I...
Source: Sex Roles - January 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Initial Test of the Cosmetics Dehumanization Hypothesis: Heavy Makeup Diminishes Attributions of Humanness-Related Traits to Women
AbstractObjectification theory suggests that sexualization has significant dehumanizing consequences for how perceivers see women. To date, research has mostly documented how sexualized bodies in the mass media are objectified and dehumanized. The purpose of the present work was to test the novel cosmetics dehumanization hypothesis (CDH), that is, that subtler manifestations of sexualization, such as heavy makeup, might influence the way people attribute humanness-related traits to women. Across four experiments, 1000 participants (mostly from the United Kingdom and United States) were asked to evaluate women ’s face...
Source: Sex Roles - January 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Implicit and Explicit Gender Stereotypes at the Bargaining Table: Male Counterparts ’ Stereotypes Predict Women’s Lower Performance in Dyadic Face-to-Face Negotiations
AbstractIn every major occupational group and at every level of educational attainment, U.S. women earn less than men (Carnevale et al.2018). Besides a component explained by objective factors (e.g., hours worked, occupation, experience), the gender wage gap includes a large component unexplained by objective factors. This latter component may be attributed, at least in part, to factors such as gender stereotyping and discrimination. In one study, we focus specifically on negotiation partners ’ gender stereotypes by investigating mock face-to-face negotiations around salary and benefits mimicking real world job setti...
Source: Sex Roles - January 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Segregation and its Correlates in Established Adulthood
AbstractWe investigated whether gender segregation exists in established adulthood, the period from 30 to 45  years-old, and whether gender segregation is associated with the same correlates in adulthood with which it is associated in childhood and adolescence (i.e., cooperative and competitive activity orientation, perceived responsiveness of same- and other-gender peers, communion and agency, and gender reference group identity). National U.S. samples of adult women (n = 312) and men (n = 109) were recruited using Amazon’s MTurk. Fully 73% of peers nominated for “hanging out&r...
Source: Sex Roles - January 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Men Should Be Competent, Women Should Have it All: Multiple Criteria in the Evaluation of Female Job Candidates
AbstractThe present research investigated whether evaluations of female and male job candidates rely on different dimensions. Going beyond previous studies on the role of gender stereotypes, we examined the relative importance of competence, morality, and sociability in employment decisions. In Study 1, we content-analyzed 68 archival reports of professionals to explore the extent to which they spontaneously referred to the three dimensions in evaluations of women and men. In Study 2, 259 Italian student participants rated the importance of different traits in hiring a female or male candidate for a job position. Additiona...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Under Pressure: Differentiating Adolescents ’ Expectations Regarding Stereotypic Masculine and Feminine Behavior
AbstractThe present study provided a novel way to compare the pressure felt by adolescents to engage in same gender behavior and other gender behavior. A new scale of felt pressure was developed which measured the reactions participants anticipated from others if they were to engage in masculine or feminine stereotyped behaviors. The scale was tested on a sample of 297 Australian adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17. Factor analysis indicated two factors which corresponded to Masculine-Typed and Feminine-Typed behaviors. Items related to feminine-typed behaviors were designated as same gender for young women and other...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Four Dimensions of Criticism Against Gender-Fair Language
AbstractThe gender-neutral third-person pronoun singularhen was recently introduced in Swedish as a complement to she (hon) and he (han). The initiative to addhen initially received strong criticism. In the present study, we analyzed 208 arguments from 168 participants with critical attitudes towardhen. We used Blaubergs ’ (1980) and Parks and Roberton ’s (1998) taxonomies of critical arguments against past gender-fair language reforms in English in the 1970s and 1990s as a basis for coding the arguments. A majority of arguments (80.7%) could be coded into existing categories, indicating that criticisms of gend...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gendered Racial Microaggressions, Feminism, and Asian American Women ’s Eating Pathology: An Intersectional Investigation
AbstractAlthough multiple studies have examined the effects of sexism on women ’s disordered eating behaviors, Asian American women’s unique experiences of gendered racism in regard to disordered eating have often been ignored in the psychological literature. With a sample of 192 Asian American women, we examined (a) the extent to which sexism, racism, and gendered racial microaggressions were associated with disordered eating symptomatology, (b) the extent to which feminist identity dimensions and womanism were associated with disordered eating symptomatology, and (c) if self-objectification, media internaliza...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexual Minority Stress and Social Support Explain the Association between Sexual Identity with Physical and Mental Health Problems among Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women
AbstractBisexual women report more physical and psychological health problems than lesbian women do, which may be attributed to greater sexual minority stress and less social support. However, many studies combine lesbian and bisexual women into a single group. The current study examined if sexual minority stress and social support mediated the association between women ’s sexual identity (lesbian or bisexual) and health-related outcomes. A total of 650 U.S. young adult lesbian (n = 227) and bisexual (n = 423) women completed an online survey about sexual minority stress, social suppo...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Public Attitudes about Transgender Participation in Sports: The Roles of Gender, Gender Identity Conformity, and Sports Fandom
AbstractWe examine the roles of gender, gender attitudes, and interest in sports on public attitudes about transgender people ’s participation in athletics. Using a representative survey of 1020 adults in the United States from 2015 and after controlling for a variety of demographic, political, and attitudinal factors, we find that women, consistent with their gender identity, are more supportive than men of transgender athletes participating in sports. In addition, we find that individuals who hold traditional gender role beliefs and those who have greater gender identity conformity with their gender are less likely...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Women ’s and Men’s Evaluations of Lesbians and Gay Men and their Levels of Outness
AbstractThe coming out process is an important component of gay identity development (Troiden 1988) because it allows for an opportunity to overcome feelings of shame and increase self-acceptance (Eliason and Schope 2007). Given the importance of being openly gay (compared to not-openly gay), two experiments were performed. Experiment 1 examined whether heterosexual people ’s evaluations of gay individuals are influenced by their outness levels. Experiment 1 recruited 295 U.S. MTurk participants who read a vignette describing either an openly gay or not-openly gay individual. Results illustrate that openly gay t...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

How Preschoolers Associate Power with Gender in Male-Female Interactions: A Cross-Cultural Investigation
AbstractInteractions between males and females often display a power imbalance. Men tend to adopt more dominant physical postures, lead conversations more, and are more likely to impose their will on women than vice versa. Furthermore, social representations typically associate males with a higher power than females. However, little is known about how those representations emerge in early childhood. The present study investigated whether preschool children from different countries assign more power to males than to females in the context of mixed-gender interactions. In Experiments 1a (n = 148) and 1b (n&thin...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Beneath the Surface of the Sexual Harassment Label: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Working Women
AbstractThe now extensive literature on workplace sexual harassment provides compelling evidence for the persistence and pervasiveness of the phenomenon, with about half of all U.S. women experiencing harassment at some point in their working lives (Fitzgerald and Cortina2018). One thought-provoking and counterintuitive finding from this literature is that relatively few of these women use the label “sexual harassment” in understanding their experiences (Magley et al.1999; McLaughlin et al.2012). The study described here explores definitional and motivational explanations for this low level of self-labeling, us...
Source: Sex Roles - December 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Social Perception of Women According to their Reactions to a Stranger Harassment Situation ( piropo )
AbstractIn the present research we explored how women are perceived as a function of their reactions to a harassing situation (piropo). Piropos, which are very common in Spain, are appearance-related comments directed by men to unknown women on the street. In Study 1, participants read hypothetical vignettes where a woman reacted positively, negatively, or indifferently (between-participants design) to a “mild/gallant” piropo. Men and women (n = 118) evaluated the competence, warmth, capacity for leadership, and superficiality/profoundness of the target of the piropo. Study 2 (n = 28...
Source: Sex Roles - December 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research