How Does Traditional Masculinity Relate to Men and Women ’s Problematic Pornography Viewing?
AbstractProblematic pornography viewing (PPV) is a growing concern. Based on a masculine gender role strain framework, individuals endorsing traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) may be especially drawn to pornography. However, relatively few studies have explored how TMI is related to PPV. Furthermore, no known studies have explored how these connections differ in men and women. To address these gaps, we conducted a large survey of 310 men and 469 women in the United States assessing multiple PPV and TMI dimensions. A bifactor structural equation model was used to regress PPV domains onto global and specific TMI factors....
Source: Sex Roles - September 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Powerless Men and Agentic Women: Gender Bias in Hiring Decisions
We examined male power-roles as a potential moderator of gender bias in hiring decisions. Drawing from previous work on perceptions of agentic women and precarious manhood theory, we predicted that men in low-power roles may react more negatively to agentic women compared to men in high-power roles. In two experiments, male participants evaluated r ésumés from male and female job candidates applying for a managerial position. Across experiments, results suggest that lacking power may facilitate biased hiring decisions. U.S. college men assigned to (Experiment 1,n = 83) or primed (Experiment 2,n&...
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Do Positive and Negative Stereotypes of Gay and Heterosexual Men Affect Job-Related Impressions?
AbstractTraditional gender stereotypes encompass (typically masculine) agency, comprising task-related competence, and (typically feminine) communion or warmth. Both agency and communion are important for successful performance in many jobs. Stereotypes of gay men include the perception that they are less gender-typed than their heterosexual counterparts are (i.e., more gay-stereotypical and less masculine). Using a German sample, Experiment 1 (n = 273) tested whether gay men at the same time appear higher in communion, but lower in agency than heterosexual men and whether a trade-off in hireability impressio...
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Of Straddlers and Rebels: Growing Gender Diversity Among Millennials Is a Fact
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Powerless Men and Agentic Women: Gender Bias in Hiring Decisions
We examined male power-roles as a potential moderator of gender bias in hiring decisions. Drawing from previous work on perceptions of agentic women and precarious manhood theory, we predicted that men in low-power roles may react more negatively to agentic women compared to men in high-power roles. In two experiments, male participants evaluated r ésumés from male and female job candidates applying for a managerial position. Across experiments, results suggest that lacking power may facilitate biased hiring decisions. U.S. college men assigned to (Experiment 1,n = 83) or primed (Experiment 2,n&...
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Do Positive and Negative Stereotypes of Gay and Heterosexual Men Affect Job-Related Impressions?
AbstractTraditional gender stereotypes encompass (typically masculine) agency, comprising task-related competence, and (typically feminine) communion or warmth. Both agency and communion are important for successful performance in many jobs. Stereotypes of gay men include the perception that they are less gender-typed than their heterosexual counterparts are (i.e., more gay-stereotypical and less masculine). Using a German sample, Experiment 1 (n = 273) tested whether gay men at the same time appear higher in communion, but lower in agency than heterosexual men and whether a trade-off in hireability impressio...
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Of Straddlers and Rebels: Growing Gender Diversity Among Millennials Is a Fact
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Ethnography of Breastaurant Masculinity: Themes of Objectification, Sexual Conquest, Male Control, and Masculine Toughness in a Sexually Objectifying Restaurant
AbstractThe present study is based on a 2-year participant-observer ethnography of a group of men in a “breastaurant” to characterize the unique masculinity features that environment evokes. Currently, whereas some research examines sexually objectifying restaurant environments regarding their impacts upon women in those spaces, no known scholarly attention has been given to men and masculinities in these environments. Through thematic analysis of table dialogue supplemented by brief unstructured interviews, I identify four major and one minor theme of “breastaurant masculinity” as distinctive to th...
Source: Sex Roles - September 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Adolescents ’ Endorsement of Communal and Agentic Conflict-Management Strategies with Friends and Romantic Partners
AbstractTo investigate contextual influences on gender differences and similarities, we compared adolescents ’ endorsement of gender-typed communal/other-focused and agentic/self-focused conflict-management strategies in three relationship contexts: same-gender friends, other-gender friends, and other-gender heterosexual romantic partners. Our 2 Participant Gender (between-subjects) × 3 Relationship Con text (within-subjects) mixed factorial design addressed whether findings of prior research (Keener and Strough2017) with college-aged participants would generalize to adolescents. Participants (n =&thinsp...
Source: Sex Roles - September 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Underneath the Mask of the Strong Black Woman Schema: Disentangling Influences of Strength and Self-Silencing on Depressive Symptoms among U.S. Black Women
AbstractRecent investigations have elucidated the influence of the Strong Black Woman (SBW) Schema on the mental health and treatment seeking behaviors of Black women in the United States. However, the SBW schematic characteristics that produce depression have yet to be identified. The current study fills this void in the literature through a quantitative examination of how characteristics of the SBW Schema relate to depressive symptomology. Analyses were based on 194 participants, including college students (n = 98) and community members (n = 96), ranging in age from 18 to 82 years-old (M ...
Source: Sex Roles - September 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender-Typed Play and Its State-of-The-Art Science
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Underneath the Mask of the Strong Black Woman Schema: Disentangling Influences of Strength and Self-Silencing on Depressive Symptoms among U.S. Black Women
AbstractRecent investigations have elucidated the influence of the Strong Black Woman (SBW) Schema on the mental health and treatment seeking behaviors of Black women in the United States. However, the SBW schematic characteristics that produce depression have yet to be identified. The current study fills this void in the literature through a quantitative examination of how characteristics of the SBW Schema relate to depressive symptomology. Analyses were based on 194 participants, including college students (n = 98) and community members (n = 96), ranging in age from 18 to 82 years-old (M ...
Source: Sex Roles - September 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender-Typed Play and Its State-of-The-Art Science
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

She Looks like She ’d Be an Animal in Bed: Dehumanization of Drinking Women in Social Contexts
AbstractThe purpose of the present research was to examine the perceptions of women who drink in social contexts through the lens of dehumanization (Haslam2006). Across three experiments, we manipulated the presence of alcohol by depicting a woman at a bar with a bottle of beer or a bottle of water and measured dehumanization. As hypothesized, women were dehumanized more in the alcohol condition than in the water condition by men (Experiments 1 –3) and women (Experiments 2 and 3). Notably, the presence of alcohol compared to water had no impact on dehumanization of men (Experiment 2). Also, as hypothesized, perceived...
Source: Sex Roles - September 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Trials of Women Leaders in the Workforce: How a Need for Cognitive Closure can Influence Acceptance of Harmful Gender Stereotypes
AbstractWomen leaders in the workforce are adversely affected by two sets of stereotypes: women are warm and communal but leaders are assertive and competent. This mismatch of stereotypes can lead to negative attitudes toward women leaders, however, not all individuals will be equally sensitive to these stereotypes. Men and women characterized by a need for cognitive closure (the desire for stable and certain knowledge) should be particularly sensitive to these stereotypes because they can be stable knowledge sources. We hypothesized that (a) negative attitudes toward women leaders in the workforce would vary with individu...
Source: Sex Roles - September 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

She Looks like She ’d Be an Animal in Bed: Dehumanization of Drinking Women in Social Contexts
AbstractThe purpose of the present research was to examine the perceptions of women who drink in social contexts through the lens of dehumanization (Haslam2006). Across three experiments, we manipulated the presence of alcohol by depicting a woman at a bar with a bottle of beer or a bottle of water and measured dehumanization. As hypothesized, women were dehumanized more in the alcohol condition than in the water condition by men (Experiments 1 –3) and women (Experiments 2 and 3). Notably, the presence of alcohol compared to water had no impact on dehumanization of men (Experiment 2). Also, as hypothesized, perceived...
Source: Sex Roles - September 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Meanings of Bodily and Sexual Expression in Youth Sexting Culture: Young Women ’s Negotiation of Gendered Risks and Harms
AbstractThe present paper explores how young people construct gendered social meanings and cultural norms surrounding sexual and bodily expression in youth sexting culture. Previous research suggests youth sexting is a gendered phenomenon in which young men are able to seek social capital through sexting, whereas young women are subject to social shaming and harassment. Drawing upon findings from group and one-to-one interviews with 41 young people aged 14 –18, I show how constructs of risk, shame, and responsibility operated along gendered lines. Young people attributed agency and legitimacy to young men’s sex...
Source: Sex Roles - August 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Yoga Culture: From Oppression Toward Liberation
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - August 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Pink for Girls, Red for Boys, and Blue for Both Genders: Colour Preferences in Children and Adults
AbstractColours carry social connotations like pink for girls and blue for boys. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated whether such early gender coding might be reflected in absolute colour preferences in children and adults of both genders. In two studies, participants selected their favourite (and least favourite, Study 2) colour from an unrestricted sample of colours. We tested 129 Swiss children (Study 1, 10 –14 years-old, 68 boys) and 180 Swiss adults (Study 2, 17–48 years-old, 88 men). In children, we observed that girls chose pink/purple as their favourite hue more often than boys did, th...
Source: Sex Roles - August 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Nonconformity Is Perceived Differently for Cisgender and Transgender Targets
AbstractThe present research examined the role gender non-conformity plays in attitudes toward transgender people. Study 1 with 232  U.S college students focused on attitudes toward female targets; Study 2 with 217 U.S. college students focused on male targets; and Study 3 with 462 mTurk workers directly compared attitudes toward female and male targets. In all three studies, participants read a vignette depicting either a tra nsgender or cisgender target who presents as either gender conforming or gender nonconforming. In all three studies, we found that gender nonconforming targets and transgender targets were ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What about the Male Victims? Exploring the Impact of Gender Stereotyping on Implicit Attitudes and Behavioural Intentions Associated with Intimate Partner Violence
AbstractAlthough intimate partner violence (IPV) is considered stereotypically as a gendered phenomenon, empirical evidence contradicts such gender asymmetry in reported rates of victimisation and perpetration. The current research explored the impact of stereotype priming on implicit attitudes associated with IPV victimisation (Study 1) and perpetration (Study 2), and further examined behavioural intentions associated with hypothetical gendered scenarios of IPV. Participants recruited in the United Kingdom were primed with either stereotype congruent, incongruent or no information about IPV victimisation (Study 1,n&thinsp...
Source: Sex Roles - August 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Addressing Unintended Consequences of Gender Diversity Interventions on Women ’s Sense of Belonging in STEM
AbstractValidated interventions that increase bias literacy (i.e., knowledge of gender bias) and decrease sexism are critical to addressing pervasive gender biases in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, interventions that highlight existing gender inequities may inadvertently act as a social identity threat cue for women. Including identity-safe cues in diversity interventions (i.e., suggesting that women are valued in STEM) may lessen these problematic outcomes. To explore this possibility, we conducted three experiments utilizing Video Interventions for Diversity in STEM (VIDS), a validated...
Source: Sex Roles - August 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Fewer, Younger, but Increasingly Powerful: How Portrayals of Women, Age, and Power Have Changed from 2002 to 2016 in the 50 Top-Grossing U.S. Films
AbstractA content analysis by Lauzen and Dozier (2005) of the 88 top-grossing U.S. films of 2002 found ample evidence for inequality of gender and age representation: Men made up 72% of all characters; women past the age of 40 became less and less visible, whereas men remained visible throughout their 50s; and significant gender differences in terms of leadership and occupational power were found, with women holding fewer positions of occupational power and rarely shown in leadership roles. The current study sought to establish whether these gender and age representations continue to exist in films made almost 15  yea...
Source: Sex Roles - August 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Images of Thin and Plus-Size Models Produce Opposite Effects on Women ’s Body Image, Body Dissatisfaction, and Anxiety
AbstractMainstream media ’s promotion of dangerously thin female images likely lowers self-image satisfaction and contributes to pathological body concerns and disordered eating among women. We tested upward and downward social-comparison effects on self-evaluations by exposing 145 Spanish women to images of thin (upward) or overweight (downward) models. We also tested whether explicitly asking or not asking participants to compare themselves with the models would moderate social comparison effects. Exposure to thin models deteriorated body image while increasing body dissatisfaction and anxiety. Conversely, exposur ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Corseting The Body: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Its Persistence and Resistance in The Lives of Girls and Women
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - August 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Accusers Lie and Other Myths: Rape Myth Acceptance Predicts Judgments Made About Accusers and Accused Perpetrators in a Rape Case
AbstractPrevious research results have yielded a consistent link between rape myth acceptance and sexual assault victim blaming: Individuals reporting higher levels of rape myth acceptance also report higher levels of victim blaming. In four studies we explored whether the presentation of rape-myth confirming information or rape-myth debunking information might moderate these tendencies. In these studies, U.S. undergraduates (97 in Study 1, 84 in Study 2, 98 in Study 3, and 116 in Study 4) read scenarios of a heterosexual sexual assault case and were randomly assigned to a control condition, a rape myth confirmation condit...
Source: Sex Roles - August 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Risk Factor or Protective Feature? The Roles of Grandiose and Hypersensitive Narcissism in Explaining the Relationship between Self-Objectification and Body Image Concerns
AbstractPeople who self-objectify perceive their bodies as objects which exist for the pleasure of others. Personality traits are important factors that might moderate the pathway between self-objectification and body image concerns. In the present paper, we explore if narcissism moderates this relationship, and we do so by exploring the facets of grandiose narcissism (associated with an inflated sense of self-importance) and hypersensitive narcissism (a more defensive and insecure narcissism). A convenience sample of 277 young Australian women (Mage = 21.34 years,SD = 3.25, range =&...
Source: Sex Roles - August 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gendered Morality and Backlash Effects in Online Discussions: An Experimental Study on How Users Respond to Hate Speech Comments Against Women and Sexual Minorities
AbstractHate speech in online users ’ comments is often targeted toward underprivileged social groups such as immigrants, sexual minorities, and women. Besides the general severity of such offenses, social media users’ personal characteristics influence the evaluation of hate comments. We focus on the flagging of hate comments aim ed toward women and sexual minorities (i.e., the intention to report such comments as inappropriate to a moderator or platform provider of an online discussion forum). We investigate the influence of user’s morality on the intention to flag of such comments. Relying on social ro...
Source: Sex Roles - July 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Looking for a Family Man? Norms for Men Are Toppling in Heterosexual Relationships
AbstractGender norms indicate that men should be agentic and work-oriented rather than communal and family-oriented. Yet, this traditional expectation conflicts with findings that communion is highly valued in romantic partners. Moreover, because more women in industrialized countries are pursuing careers, they may increasingly seek family-oriented partners to share the second shift of family tasks. Investigating the attractiveness of communal, family-oriented men, we show that 87 female college students in Belgium evaluate more family-oriented men as generally more attractive (Study 1) and that especially college women in...
Source: Sex Roles - July 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender-Typing of Children ’s Toys: Causes, Consequences, and Correlates
AbstractGender differences in children ’s toy interests and play behaviors are large and may lead to gender differentiation of physical, cognitive, and social development among children. In this Special Issue, we gather together cutting-edge research on the factors that affect gender differences in children’s toy interests, how subtl e gender-related messages affect children’s performance and behaviors, and how adults create these gender-related messages and affect children’s interests. We illustrate themes found in the current literature, but also comment on issues that need to be addressed by futu...
Source: Sex Roles - July 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Push-Ups Versus Clean-Up: Preschool Teachers ’ Gendered Beliefs, Expectations for Behavior, and Disciplinary Practices
AbstractUsing data from observations in three U.S. preschools (nine classrooms total) and interviews with nine preschool teachers observed, the present qualitative study examines moments of gender socialization through disciplinary interactions in preschool classrooms. I ask: How do teachers ’ expectations for children’s behaviors and use of disciplinary practices contribute to gender inequality in preschool? And, how do preschool teachers transmit and “do gender” through disciplinary practices and interactions? Using a grounded theory approach to data analysis, I find that in p reschool, teachers d...
Source: Sex Roles - July 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Model of Threatening Academic Environments Predicts Women STEM Majors ’ Self-Esteem and Engagement in STEM
AbstractThe present study tested a model of threatening academic environments among a vulnerable population: women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Women in STEM are underrepresented and more likely to perceive their STEM educational environments as threatening than do men. U.S. Women majoring in STEM fields (n = 579) completed a questionnaire measuring each construct of a model of threatening academic environments proposed by Inzlicht et al. (2009). Supporting the model, greater gender stigma consciousness predicted greater gender-based rejection sensitivity. Gender rejecti...
Source: Sex Roles - July 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Feeling Powerful but Incompetent: Fear of Negative Evaluation Predicts Men ’s Sexual Harassment of Subordinates
AbstractAlthough research has examined the role of power in men ’s likelihood of perpetrating sexual harassment against women, less is known about specific personality traits that might predict sexual harassment. Building upon theorizing that men are especially prone to engage in sexual harassment to the extent that their social status is threatened (Berdahl2007a), we conducted three studies with samples of adults (Studies 1 and 3) and college students (Study 2). In Studies 1 and 3, we asked participants to indicate their likelihood of engaging in sexual harassment of subordinates across a variety of scenarios. In St...
Source: Sex Roles - July 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Objectification, Masculinity, and Muscularity: A Test of Objectification Theory with Heterosexual Men
AbstractObjectification theory is increasingly used to explain the body image-related experiences of men because research indicates that men are at heightened risk for body image concerns because of sociocultural messages regarding appearance of the male body. Although researchers have explored body image concerns among men, it is important to understand various sociocultural correlates relating to their body image disturbances. Therefore, we introduced gender role conflict in the present study to better explain their drive for muscularity. Based on data from 473 heterosexual men in the United States, the proposed model de...
Source: Sex Roles - July 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Selfie Posting on Social Networking Sites and Female Adolescents ’ Self-Objectification: The Moderating Role of Imaginary Audience Ideation
AbstractPosting selfies on social networking sites (SNSs) has become an increasingly popular activity among adolescents, especially female adolescents. Given this popularity and relevant studies, the current study aimed to examine the association between selfie-posting on SNSs and self-objectification among Chinese female adolescents and to test whether an imaginary audience could moderate this relationship. A sample of 963 female adolescents aged 12 –16 years-old who have an active Qzone (one of the most popular SNS in China) account were recruited to participate in the present study. Participants were ask...
Source: Sex Roles - June 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Navigating the Pathway to Leader Emergence in Self-Managed Work Groups Over Time: Should I Self-Promote and Try to Emerge Initially as a Leader?
AbstractDespite literature revealing the negative effects of self-promotion on important outcomes for women in interviews, there is limited attention on whether this relationship exists in a peer-to-peer context (e.g., self-managed work groups). Whereas men ’s self-promotion is vital to attain interview success, work has shown that self-promoting men are not viewed favorably in a peer-to-peer setting. Moreover, most self-promotion research has focused on a single time point. It is thus a puzzle as to whether and when one should use self-promotion to emerge as a leader in a self-managed work group over time. My study ...
Source: Sex Roles - June 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Video Game Playing and Beliefs about Masculinity Among Male and Female Emerging Adults
AbstractVideo games have been soundly critiqued for their depiction of gender, and emerging research has shown that playing can be associated with holding stereotypical or narrow views of gender roles and norms. Yet, rarely has past research focused particularly on correlations between video game playing and perceptions of masculinity, in particular, despite critiques of gaming content and culture as a space where a type of hypermasculinity thrives. The current study explores the relationships between the overall amount of time spent with video games and time spent with games that contain violence with beliefs that emergin...
Source: Sex Roles - June 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Room for Improvement: Girls ’ and Boys’ Home Environments are Still Gendered
AbstractDecades ago, Rheingold and Cook (1975) observed marked gender-typing of preschool children ’s playthings and room furnishings. Our purpose was to determine whether this form of implicit gender socialization has been altered by cultural shifts toward more egalitarian attitudes. We also examined potential predictors of children’s room contents, including parents’ self-perceived gender -stereotypical personality traits (i.e., expressivity and instrumentality), sibling composition, and preschool experience as a proxy for exposure to peer pressure to conform to gender norms. In-depth cataloging of 75&n...
Source: Sex Roles - June 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Better off Alone? Ambivalent Sexism Moderates the Association Between Relationship Status and Life Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Women and Men
AbstractAlthough being in a romantic relationship confers numerous benefits to well-being, research has yet to examine the possibility that ambivalent sexism moderates this association. Because benevolent sexism enforces the view that people are incomplete without a romantic partner, we hypothesised that benevolent sexism would enhance the well-being benefits associated with being in a serious relationship. Conversely, hostile sexism views women with suspicion and should therefore attenuate the benefits one derives from being in a serious relationship. We tested these hypotheses using a national sample of heterosexual wome...
Source: Sex Roles - June 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Experiences with Benevolent Sexism: Scale Development and Associations with Women ’s Well-Being
We examined benevolent sexist behaviors and developed a 25-item Experiences with Benevolent Sexism Scale. Exploratory factor analysis (Study 1, U.S. college sample of 489 women) and confirmatory factor analysis (Study 2, online sample of 216 women) revealed three subscales of benevolently sexist experiences: Heterosexual Intimacy, Protective Paternalism, and Complementary Gender Differences. Women reported experiencing benevolently sexist events more frequently than overtly hostile sexist events; however, they perceived the hostile events to be more distressing and sexist (Studies 1 and 2). Experiencing Protective Paternal...
Source: Sex Roles - June 13, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Feminist Identity in Men: Masculinity, Gender Roles, and Sexual Approaches in Feminist, Non-Feminist, and Unsure Men
AbstractResearch on feminist identification in men has often focused on men who identify as feminist or who assert agreement with feminist goals. For some men, however, choices surrounding feminist self-identification may be uncertain in ways that are meaningful indicators of their beliefs and values. We hypothesized that men who were uncertain about their feminist identity held beliefs that fell between their feminist and non-feminist peers, representing a unique ideological position. We tested this possibility by comparing feminist, “unsure”, and non-feminist U. S. college (n = 533) and communit...
Source: Sex Roles - June 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Predictors of Gender-Typed Toy Purchases by Prospective Parents and Mothers: The Roles of Childhood Experiences and Gender Attitudes
AbstractGender differences in children ’s toy interests are among the largest in the psychological literature. Parents are often the primary purchasers of children’s toys. In these studies, we investigated the factors that predict whether parents and prospective parents will purchase gender-typed toys for their children or future chi ldren. Prospective parents (Study 1,n = 238, 151 women, 87 men) and mothers (Study 2,n = 96) reported their retrospective childhood interests, likelihood of purchasing gender-typed toys, stereotypes about toys, and environmental versus essentialist attri...
Source: Sex Roles - June 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

On the Prowl: Examining the Impact of Men-as-Predators and Women-as-Prey Metaphors on Attitudes that Perpetuate Sexual Violence
AbstractA common metaphor used to describe heterosexual relationships frames men as predators and women as prey. The present work assessed potential consequences of these metaphoric portrayals. Participants read a heterosexual dating scenario that did or did not metaphorically frame the situation in predator and prey terms. Using a U.S. college undergraduate sample of 120 women and 82 men in Study 1, exposure to these metaphors led to greater rape myth acceptance among men (but not among women). Using a broader sample of 76 women and 72 men via MTurk, Study 2 replicated these results and also found metaphor exposure led to...
Source: Sex Roles - May 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

No Homo: Gendered Dimensions of Homophobic Epithets Online
AbstractWe examine a case of homophobic language online, specifically the deployment of the phrase “no homo,” shorthand for “I’m not a homosexual.” An analysis of 396 instances (comprising 1061 individual tweets) of the use of the phrase “no homo” on the social media platform Twitter suggests that the phrase is a gendered epithet that conveys cultural norms about masculinity. The fi rst finding is that the phrase is used more often by male tweeters than by female tweeters. The second, as predicted by the literature on homophobia, is that the phrase is used in a negative emotional c...
Source: Sex Roles - May 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Feminist ≠ Feminine? Feminist Women Are Visually Masculinized Whereas Feminist Men Are Feminized
AbstractMany people hold negative stereotypes about feminists. Verbally, feminist women are often described in masculine terms whereas feminist men tend to be described in feminine terms. Here, we demonstrate that these effects extend to a fundamental perceptual level, more specifically, to the domain of face perception even in Norway, the most gender-egalitarian country of the world. Four studies were conducted using a data-driven reverse-correlation technique to test how feminist women and men are visually represented. In Studies 1 (n = 123) and 2 (n = 61), Norwegians had more masculine-lookin...
Source: Sex Roles - May 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Considerations in Qualitative Research Reporting: A Guide for Authors Preparing Articles for Sex Roles
AbstractQualitative inquiry is frequently used to deepen understanding, improve empathy, and inspire social change, making it particularly appropriate for researchers using feminist, critical or other frameworks that encourage readers to consider issues of power and privilege. Gender researchers using qualitative inquiry are able to select from within a multitude of qualitative approaches to address the purpose of any given research study. The availability of so many approaches makes it challenging to provide one set of “best practices” for qualitative inquiry. The purpose of the present paper is to address thi...
Source: Sex Roles - May 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

How Low Can You(r Power) Go? It Depends on Whether You are Male or Female
AbstractThree online experiments were conducted to determine whether gender differences in feelings of power are most evident in objectively lower or higher power situations (totaln = 1360; Studies 1 and 2: 238 and 771 U.S. MTurk respondents respectively; Study 3: 351 Canadian university students). We focused on evaluating whether men’s and women’s responses were in line with a cushioning account, whereby the higher power generally accorded to men as a group essential ly serves as a back-up power source for men in lower power positions. We also evaluated support for a ceiling account, whereby...
Source: Sex Roles - May 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research