A Brief Primer to Feminist Supervision
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - December 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Healing the Heart: A Qualitative Study of Challenges and Motivations to Cardiac Rehabilitation Attendance and Completion among Women and Men
AbstractHeart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Given that cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) participation is the best secondary prevention of cardiac mortality, it is important to understand the challenges and motivations people experience while taking part in rehabilitation. The present qualitative study explored the treatment experiences of 20 women and 20 men at urban and rural rehabilitation clinics in Minnesota. Participants were equally divided based on the number of CR session completed (less than or equal to 18 vs. more than 18). The study ’s primary aim was to articulate similarit...
Source: Sex Roles - December 2, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Hasn’t Anything Changed?” Resilience, Creativity, and Privilege in Women’s Lives in the Academy
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - December 2, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Objectifying Women ’s Bodies is Acceptable from an Intimate Perpetrator, at Least for Female Sexists
AbstractObjectification of the female body is generating much research. Nevertheless, this has revealed little about whether women ’s evaluations depend on the level of psychological intimacy with the perpetrator of that objectification. Intimacy theory predicts that objectifying comments would seem more acceptable coming from a close partner, especially for sexist women. The present study begins to fill these gaps by analyzi ng responses from 301 heterosexual/bisexual adult women in the United States (Mage = 37.02, range = 18–72) to appearance and sexual body comments made by four different...
Source: Sex Roles - November 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Constructing Difference: Lego ® Set Narratives Promote Stereotypic Gender Roles and Play
AbstractLEGO ® construction sets are a staple in many children’s lives. Given worldwide distribution, generations of children have grown up playing with these brightly colored, interlocking plastic bricks. Historically marketed to all children, the LEGO® Group has begun targeting male and female consumers di fferentially with the introduction of product lines such as LEGO® City and LEGO® Friends. Although the packaging, marketing, brick colors, and characters have changed, little is known about whether these product series encourage differences in the way boys and girls play. This content analysis com...
Source: Sex Roles - November 25, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Circumstances Beyond Their Control: Black Women ’s Perceptions of Black Manhood
AbstractInsufficient empirical attention has been paid to Black women ’s perceptions of Black male gender roles and associated masculinity. Although constructions of Black masculinity have been speculated about in popular media and literature, no known published studies have specifically investigated Black women’s perceptions of Black men or offered a conceptualiz ation of Black masculinity informed by their voices. Because women’s perceptions of and beliefs about men affect partnership decisions, quality of relationships, childrearing decisions, health behaviors, and other aspects of personal and psychos...
Source: Sex Roles - November 24, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Fathers ’ Realizations of Parental Leave Plans: Leadership Responsibility as Help or Hindrance?
AbstractThe present study investigates how fathers realized their parental leave plans with particular consideration of fathers ’ leadership responsibility as a potential hindrance. Applying the social cognitive model of career self-management, we expected that fathers with leadership responsibility and those who perceive that they could lose qualifications resulting from a career break would plan shorter leaves before chi ldbirth. Furthermore, self-efficacy beliefs were assumed to be supportive and leadership responsibility to be hindering factors in the final realization of leave plans (after childbirth). A sample ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Does a Woman ’s Marital Surname Choice Influence Perceptions of Her Husband? An Analysis Focusing on Gender-Typed Traits and Relationship Power Dynamics
AbstractWithin Western cultures, most women in heterosexual relationships adopt their husbands ’ surnames after marriage. In attempting to explain the enduring nature of this practice, researchers have noted that women tend to encounter stereotypes when they break with tradition by retaining their own surnames after marriage. A complementary possibility is that stereotypes are also directed toward men whose wives violate the surname tradition. The current research provides initial insight into this possibility through three studies that were conducted in the United States and United Kingdom with undergraduate and com...
Source: Sex Roles - November 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Some Women Are Born Fighters”: Discursive Constructions of a Fighter’s Identity by Female Finnish Judo Athletes
AbstractMartial arts and combat sports have been traditionally associated with masculinity, and a range of contradictory meanings have been attached to women ’s engagement and experiences. The present study draws on cultural praxis and feminist poststructuralist frameworks to explore how female martial artists are subjectified to dominant cultural discourses surrounding fighting and competition. Interviews with nine femalejudoka (judo athletes) were gathered in Finland and analyzed using Foucauldian Discourse Analysis (FDA). The FDA revealed that in female judoka talk, judo was constructed as a sport for all, but als...
Source: Sex Roles - November 16, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Exploring Heterosexual Adults ’ Endorsement of the Sexual Double Standard among Initiators of Consensually Nonmonogamous Relationship Behaviors
AbstractAlthough the traditional sexual double standard (SDS) has been well documented, recent research has produced inconsistencies. Some scholars argue that the SDS may only exist for less traditional sexual behaviors, reflecting society ’s progression toward equality. Thus, the current study examined the SDS when evaluating individuals initiating a variety of forms of consensual nonmonogamy (CNM; i.e., romantic relationships that are sexually and/or emotionally nonexclusive). Using a between-subject experimental paradigm, 793 het erosexual U.S. adults (338 men, 455 women) read one of eight vignettes depicting an i...
Source: Sex Roles - November 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Migrant Mothering in Transition: A Qualitative Study of the Maternal Narratives and Practices of Two Generations of Rural-Urban Migrant Mothers in Southern China
AbstractIn the last few decades, mothering in many societies has been affected by mass migration. Although migrant mothering is acknowledged to be dynamic, diverse, and continually reproduced in specific socio-cultural contexts, its transformation over generations has been ignored. Drawing on qualitative data obtained from 61 rural-urban migrant women in southern China, I compare the narratives of two generations of migrant mothers and their daily mothering of their left-behind children, revealing how the intersection of gender, class, and the rural-urban divide in China shapes their gendered ideology and performance of ch...
Source: Sex Roles - November 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Motivated Cognitive Basis of Transphobia: The Roles of Right-Wing Ideologies and Gender Role Beliefs
AbstractTransgender individuals challenge the traditional assumption that an individual ’s gender identity is permanently determined by their assigned sex at birth. Perceiving ambiguity surrounding indeterminate gender identities associated with transgender individuals may be especially disturbing for those who generally dislike ambiguity and have preference for order and predictabil ity, that is, for people scoring higher on Need for Closure (NFC). We tested the associations between NFC and transphobia in two studies using community samples from the United Kingdom (n = 231) and Belgium (n = 175),...
Source: Sex Roles - November 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Perceptions of Control in Women Undergoing Cancer-Related Surgery on Psychological Perceptions of Health
AbstractResearch has found that perceived health locus of control is related to increased health-enhancing behaviors. However, studies have not examined if perceived health locus of control similarly impacts psychological health and have largely ignored women ’s health. These studies have also overlooked contexts where individuals have little control over their behaviors. Therefore, in the current study, we examine how perceptions of health locus of control relate to psychological health in a sample of women with clinical suspicion of having gynecologi cal cancer. Women (n = 301), ranging from 40 to 80 ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 13, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Exploration of Black Women ’s Gendered Racial Identity Using a Multidimensional and Intersectional Approach
AbstractThe current study explored the potential for an empirically supported taxonomy of gendered racial identity among Black women sampled in the United States. Drawing from Black racial identity theory (Sellers et al.1998a), gendered racial identity was defined as the significance and qualitative meaning women attribute to their membership within Black and woman social identity groups. To assess this construct, Black women (n = 240;Mage = 35.83,SD = 11.88, range = 19–79) completed measures of racial and gender centrality as well as an opened-ended question assessing the mean...
Source: Sex Roles - November 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Do Sexist Mothers Change More Diapers? Ambivalent Sexism, Maternal Gatekeeping, and the Division of Childcare
AbstractThe present study examined the role of ambivalent sexist ideologies in the division of childcare responsibilities. We proposed maternal gatekeeping as a mediator through which hostile sexist attitudes toward men and women facilitate gendered division of childcare. A sample of 207 mothers with at least one child aged 6  years or younger completed extensive questionnaires. As hypothesized, the mother’s hostile sexist attitudes toward men and women were positively related to maternal gatekeeping tendencies. Gatekeeping, in turn, was related to the mother’s greater time investment in childcare and grea...
Source: Sex Roles - November 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Matching Abilities to Careers for Others and Self: Do Gender Stereotypes Matter to Students in Advanced Math and Science Classes?
AbstractInterest in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers falls off more quickly for young women than for young men over adolescence, and gender stereotypes may be partially to blame. Adolescents typically become more stereotypical in their career interests over time, yet they seem to become more flexible in applying stereotypes to others. Models of career interest propose that career decisions result from the alignment of self-perceived abilities with occupation-required skills and that gender stereotypes may influence this process. To investigate the discrepancy between applying stereotypes to ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acknowledgements
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - November 9, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Relationship between Egalitarian Gender Role Attitudes and Life Satisfaction
AbstractIn the present study, we investigated the relationship between egalitarian gender role endorsement, gender role satisfaction, and satisfaction with life among women in two cultural contexts, Kurdistan in Iraq and Norway, which differ widely in their acceptance of gender inequality according to the World Values Survey and the UN Gender Inequality Index. We predicted the relationship between egalitarian gender role endorsement (measured by the ENRICH- Equalitarian Roles Scale) and gender role satisfaction would vary across these two cultural contexts, but that gender role satisfaction would predict satisfaction with ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 8, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Parents ’ Influence on Infants’ Gender-Typed Toy Preferences
AbstractGender socialization influences children at early ages, shaping their developing identities. The toys provided by parents deliver some of the earliest gender-based messages by encouraging children to engage in activities associated with, for example, dolls and trucks. In the current study, we measured the influence of parental socialization by assessing 5- and 12 ½-month-old infants’ exposure to dolls and trucks and by experimentally manipulating parents’ encouragement to play with these toys. We found that infants displayed gender-typical toy preferences at 12 ½, but not 5 months, a ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 3, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gendered Self-Concept and the Aggressive Expression of Driving Anger: Positive Femininity Buffers Negative Masculinity
AbstractThe aggressive expression of driving anger is a risk factor for aggressive and dangerous driving behavior and is associated with a greater risk of accident involvement. The present study related positive and negative facets of a masculine and feminine self-concept to aggressive and adaptive forms of anger expression while driving. A sample of 417 drivers (194 women, 46.5%) in Germany completed the Positive-Negative Sex Role Inventory (PN-SRI) as a measure of positive and negative masculinity and femininity and the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) as a measure of driving anger expression. Aggressive forms of...
Source: Sex Roles - October 24, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Validation of the German Version of the Sexual Self-Esteem Inventory for Women and its Application in a Sample of Sexually and Physically Abused Women
In conclusion, our study supports the validity and applicability of the German version of the SSEI-SF. Results regarding the differences in SSE between survivors of abuse and healthy controls contribute to the further understanding of fem ale sexuality and have implications for treatment. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - October 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Doing and Undoing Gender in Commuter Marriages
AbstractMuch recent literature has focused on how women and men “do” (and potentially “undo”) gender when juggling home and work responsibilities. Commuter marriages—in which dual-income professionals live apart due to the demands of their jobs—present a strategic context in which to investigate these gendered processes. Drawing upon theoretical work on doing and undoing gender, prior literature about gender dynamics at the nexus of home and work, and data from in-depth interviews with 97 other-sex commuter spouses, this analysis finds that in some ways these nontraditional arrangements ...
Source: Sex Roles - October 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Birds of a Feather Flock Together: The Interpersonal Process of Objectification within Intimate Heterosexual Relationships
AbstractOn the basis that objectification is a self-perpetuating phenomenon, we tested two new hypotheses about the role of objectification within ongoing, intimate heterosexual relationships. First, individuals who self-objectify and objectify others tend to have partners who also self-objectify and objectify others. Second, objectification within relationships is associated with reduced relationship quality. Furthermore, rather than relying on the perspective of only one dyad member, we applied the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM: Kenny et al.2006) as a framework for hypothesis testing. That is, we collected da...
Source: Sex Roles - October 19, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Relative Earnings and Depressive Symptoms among Working Parents: Gender Differences in the Effect of Relative Income on Depressive Symptoms
AbstractThe relationship between income and psychological well-being is well established. Yet, most of this research is conducted at the individual level without taking into account the role played by relative earnings at the couple level. In the present study we estimate the effect of share of family income on depressive symptoms of individuals. Specifically, we examine whether within-person change in the share of family income has differential effects on the level of depressive symptoms of mothers and fathers. Using data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY79), we follow the same individuals over 4 ...
Source: Sex Roles - October 16, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Psychological Well-Being of Sexual Minority Young Adults in Iceland: Assessing Differences by Sexual Attraction and Gender
AbstractThe literature on sexual minority adolescents and young adults has highlighted a poor mental status among those groups compared to their heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities are also more likely to experience stress factors such as bullying and physical violence. However, sexual minority young adults have not been studied much in Iceland, a Nordic country renowned for a high degree of sexual equality. Given what the literature has shown to date, a noteworthy question is whether patterns of mental well-being of sexual minority adolescents and young adults in Iceland are comparable to other countries. The aim of the...
Source: Sex Roles - October 14, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Support for a Modified Tripartite Dual Pathway Model of Body Image Concerns and Risky Body Change Behaviors in French Young Men
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to extend the extant literature by testing a modified Tripartite Dual Pathway Model of the development of male body image and eating concerns among French young men. A sample of 147 French male college students (Mage = 22.09 years-old, range = 18–30) completed a questionnaire assessing sociocultural influences, internalization of the lean/low body fat ideal and the muscular/athletic ideal, appearance comparison, body fat and muscularity dissatisfaction, muscularity enhancement behaviors, drive for thinne ss, and bulimic symptoms. The revised and final ...
Source: Sex Roles - October 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Of Men and Money: Characteristics of Occupations that Affect the Gender Differentiation of Children ’s Occupational Interests
AbstractOccupational interests become gender differentiated during childhood and remain so among adults. Two characteristics of occupations may contribute to this differentiation: the gender of individuals who typically perform the occupation (workers ’ gender) and the particular goals that the occupation allows one to fulfill, such as the opportunity to help others or acquire power (value affordances). Two studies tested hypotheses about whether U.S. 6- to 11-year-olds show gender differences in their interest in novel jobs that were depicted as (a) being performed by men versus women and (b) affording money, power,...
Source: Sex Roles - October 4, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What Are Men Doing while Women Perform Extra Unpaid Labor? Leisure and Specialization at the Transitions to Parenthood
AbstractMarriage has significantly changed since Becker proposed his specialization model yet some scholars maintain that specialization characterizes modern couples. Specialization occurs when one partner, traditionally the man, concentrates on market work while the other partner, traditionally the woman, focuses on nonmarket work such as housework or childcare. Using innovative time diary data from primarily highly-educated, White, dual-earner U.S. couples, we examine how couples manage their time in market and household work and leisure across a momentous, gendered life course turning point —the transition to pare...
Source: Sex Roles - October 3, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

From Janet T. Spence ’s Manifest Anxiety Scale to the Present Day: Exploring Math Anxiety and its Relation to Math Achievement
AbstractJanet Taylor Spence conducted a great deal of foundational work establishing the negative relation between anxiety and performance. Spence operationalized trait anxiety by creating the Manifest Anxiety Scale, and she conducted numerous studies linking scores on this scale to performance across a variety of cognitive tasks. The field of math anxiety research has built from her work to examine the ways in which negative emotions regarding math can hinder math performance. We discuss the antecedents and development of math anxiety, as well as the ways in which other individual differences, such as working memory, affe...
Source: Sex Roles - October 3, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Janet Taylor Spence: Innovator in the Study of Gender
AbstractJanet Spence ’s contributions moved gender researchers beyond a simple understanding of psychological gender in terms of individual differences in masculinity and femininity. In early work, she constructed the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, or PAQ, consisting of a masculine and a feminine scale, which she interpreted as assessing the core of psychological masculinity and femininity. Spence subsequently recognized that the masculine, or instrumental, scale reliably predicts only self-assertive, dominant behaviors and that the feminine, or expressive, scale reliably predicts only other-oriented, relati onal...
Source: Sex Roles - September 30, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Blazing and Illuminating a Trail: The Career and Scholarship of Janet Taylor Spence
AbstractJanet Taylor Spence was a gender pioneer in her career as an academic psychologist and an important contributor to the psychological study of gender roles. That is, she both blazed a path for women in academia and contributed to our scientific understanding of the factors that produce and shape such paths. In this piece, I address both these aspects of her life and work. I begin by briefly highlighting Spence ’s groundbreaking posts in academia and her influence on my own academic career. With respect to her research, I identify five aspects of Spence’s work that were innovative and made important, last...
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Problematization of Sexuality among Women Living with HIV and a New Feminist Approach for Understanding and Enhancing Women ’s Sexual Lives
AbstractIn the context of HIV, women ’s sexual rights and sexual autonomy are important but frequently overlooked and violated. Guided by community voices, feminist theories, and qualitative empirical research, we reviewed two decades of global quantitative research on sexuality among women living with HIV. In the 32 studies we found , conducted in 25 countries and composed mostly of cis-gender heterosexual women, sexuality was narrowly constructed as sexual behaviours involving risk (namely, penetration) and physiological dysfunctions relating to HIV illness, with far less attention given to the fullness of sexual l...
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Time, Money, or Gender? Predictors of the Division of Household Labour Across Life Stages
AbstractDrawing on a life course perspective and data gathered during three developmental periods —the transition to adulthood (age 25;n = 168), young adulthood (age 32;n = 337), and midlife (age 43;n = 309), we explored patterns of division of household labour among Canadian men and women. We also investigated associations among housework responsibility and variables representing time availability (i.e., work hours), relative resource (i.e., earning a greater share of income in a relationship ), and gender constructionist perspectives (i.e., marital status and raising children) at three...
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Shedding Light on the Reality of Smart Girls
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Janet Taylor Spence: A Model Role Model
AbstractThe article summarizes and reflects on the contributions of Janet Taylor Spence in the areas of editing, service to her institutions, and service to her profession. It is based on both the objective record and on the personal experience and observations of the author, a long-time colleague. It reviews the many editorial positions Janet Taylor Spence held, including being editor of theAnnual Review of Psychology andContemporary Psychology, and the award she received from the National Academy of Sciences. It also sketches many of the leadership positions she held, including being president of the American Psychologic...
Source: Sex Roles - September 26, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Contextualizing a Life in Science: Janet Taylor Spence and the History of Women and Gender in American Psychology
AbstractThe present paper reflects on the life and career of Janet Spence (1923 –2015) by situating her experiences within the history of women and gender in American psychology. This history has revealed the structural factors that have affected women’s participation in psychology, the shared themes in women’s interpersonal and professional experiences, and the specific strategies that women have used to navigate an androcentric, and at times overtly sexist, discipline. In spanning the second half of the twentieth century, Spence’s career provides an interesting case study of how these decades of i...
Source: Sex Roles - September 25, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Neoliberal Beliefs and Perceptions of Unintended Adolescent Pregnancy after Consensual or Forced Sex
AbstractFrom a neoliberal perspective, young women are free to make autonomous choices and are personally responsible for the outcomes of these choices. Neoliberal ideals may appear to empower women as free sexual agents; however, an individualistic focus on self-sufficiency and personal responsibility may lead to harsh, decontextualized responses to those who experience unintended outcomes. We hypothesized that observers with stronger neoliberal beliefs would show more stigmatizing responses to an unintentionally pregnant adolescent. We also explored whether these expected associations would be moderated by whether or not...
Source: Sex Roles - September 25, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Overcoming Functional Fixedness in Naming Traditions: A Commentary on Pilcher ’s Names and “Doing Gender”
AbstractBecause people ’s names are central to everyday life, their role in the gender system is often overlooked. In the target article, Pilcher (2017) brings novel attention to the ways in which naming traditions allow individuals to enact gender in their lives. In this commentary, I expand on Pilcher ’s argument that naming traditions merit more attention than they currently receive. Specifically, I begin by discussing links between forenaming and the gender binary. I then describe the ways in which the marital surname tradition reflects gendered power dynamics. In an effort to spur additional scholarly atte...
Source: Sex Roles - September 25, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Paving the Way: The Distinctive Mentoring Style of Janet Taylor Spence
AbstractJanet Taylor Spence (1923 –2015), a major figure in American psychology, made seminal scientific contributions to the fields of anxiety and gender psychology. In this essay, the authors, both former Spence students, weave a tapestry of her teaching and mentoring by using as the threads Spence’s reflections on her profess ional life, the authors’ personal experiences with Spence, and findings from the relevant career literature. Three areas of teaching and mentoring are used to illustrate Spence’s distinctive yet highly effective style of mentoring: (a) modeling and insisting on careful think...
Source: Sex Roles - September 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Remembering Janet Taylor Spence (1923 –2015)
AbstractJanet Taylor Spence was a history-making figure in professional psychology and in the study of gender. In the period between her birth in 1923 and her death in 2015, vast changes took place in both domains, and Janet Spence was at the center of both. This issue ofSex Roles is dedicated to her life and work, providing a perspective and an accounting of the contributions that she made to our field. The set of papers included here chronicle Janet ’s career path, evaluate the impact of her work in the areas of anxiety and of gender, recount memories from her colleagues and students, and in a closing article, anal...
Source: Sex Roles - September 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Navigating the Workplace: The Costs and Benefits of Shifting Identities at Work among Early Career U.S. Black Women
AbstractAlthough much progress has been made in race relations in the United States, discrimination still persists in the workplace. As a result, Black women, among individuals from other underrepresented groups, develop coping strategies, such as identity shifting, to diminish the negative consequences of discrimination. We used the phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory to examine shifting racial, gender, and class identities among early career (recent college graduates) U.S. Black women working in predominantly White environments. Drawing on ten semi-structured interviews with college-educated Black women...
Source: Sex Roles - September 22, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Mind the Gender Gap: Changing Misconceptions about Gender, Leadership, and Occupational Segregation
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 18, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Menstrual Knowledge and Taboo TV Commercials: Effects on Self-Objectification among Italian and Swedish Women
AbstractDespite menstruation being a physiological phenomenon in women ’s life, social research has highlighted that there are still many taboos, also conveyed by advertising, which prevent an open discourse on the topic and can have negative impacts on women’s well-being. The present study examined the influence of the exposure to existing TV advertisements for sa nitary napkins depicting menstruation as a taboo on self-objectification in women from Italy (n = 160) and Sweden (n = 159). To do so, we also investigated the moderating role of menstrual knowledge in this relationship. Our findi...
Source: Sex Roles - September 18, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What We Know and Where We Go from here: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth Hookup Literature
AbstractIn this paper, we acknowledge and critique the absence of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) experiences in the recent proliferation of scholarship on “hooking up” among youth (aged 16 to 24). Although previous research has documented that LGB youth hookup at high rates (up to three-quarters of LGB youth), and oftentimes more than heterosexuals, the most basic aspects of hookups (e.g., motivations, experiences, and outcomes) have not been comp rehensively explored. This is pertinent because young adulthood, in particular, is a time when young people explore their sexuality. Most scholarship on hooking up ...
Source: Sex Roles - September 13, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Friendship Selection and Influence Processes for Physical Aggression and Prosociality: Differences between Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Contexts
AbstractThe present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms (n = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms (n&...
Source: Sex Roles - September 13, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Impact of Different Forms of #fitspiration Imagery on Body Image, Mood, and Self-Objectification among Young Women
AbstractThe present study experimentally examined the impact of different forms of inspirational fitness images ( “fitspiration”) on women’s body image. Australian female participants (n = 152, 17–30 years-old;Mage = 21.55,SD = 3.94) were randomly assigned to view fitspiration media which depicted the body in a functional (performing exercise) or non-functional (posed) way, with or without accompanying appearance-focused text. There were no main effects of image type or text presence for body satisfaction, mood, or st ate self-objectification. However, state body s...
Source: Sex Roles - September 12, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Issues in Schools: Advocacy, Research, and Global Perspectives
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 12, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Too Many Boxes, or Not Enough? Preferences for How We Ask About Gender in Cisgender, LGB, and Gender-Diverse Samples
AbstractAs U.S. society has become more aware of gender identity issues, there has been a push for more inclusive demographic categories that go beyond the traditional gender binary of male/female. In three studies, we assessed the attitudes of U.S. cisgender men and women across sexual orientations (Study 1), heterosexual cisgender men and women (Study 2), cisgender LGB men and women (Study 3), and transgender and gender non-binary individuals across sexual orientations (Study 3) regarding different formats of gender questionnaires. Studies 2 and 3 showed a strong overall preference for the non-binary formats. Across all ...
Source: Sex Roles - September 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“The Heart Desires but the Body Refuses”: Sexual Scripts, Older Men’s Perceptions of Sexuality, and Implications for Their Mental and Sexual Health
AbstractWe use sexual scripting theory in the present paper to gain a better understanding of older men ’s perceptions of their sexuality in relation to dominant Tanzanian cultural norms of masculinity. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 older men, and ten focus group discussions were conducted with 60 men aged 60–82. Participants’ recruitment was guided by theoretical sampli ng strategies. Consistent with the principles of grounded theory, data collection and analysis occurred simultaneously. Our findings indicate that Jando (male initiation rites) serves as a script for male sexualit...
Source: Sex Roles - September 9, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When Sexism Leads to Racism: Threat, Protecting Women, and Racial Bias
AbstractThe stated goal of protecting White women from harm has been used, historically and contemporarily, as a pretext for racial violence. Two studies explored the relationship between protective paternalism (the belief that men should protect and care for women —part of benevolent sexism; Glick and Fiske1996) and anti-minority racial attitudes. In Study 1 (n = 474, 61% women, 61% White), survey data found that protective paternalism was related to anti-Black bias, but only for White respondents. Study 2 (n = 242, 52% women, 74% White) experimentally manipulated feelings of threat to test for i...
Source: Sex Roles - September 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research