Much Ado about “Masculinity”: An Exploration of the Current State of Men and Masculinities Research
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 2, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Are Men Better Leaders? An Investigation of Head Coaches ’ Gender and Individual Players’ Performance in Amateur and Professional Women’s Basketball
AbstractMale-dominated industries such as sport contain stereotypical and subjective notions of leadership ability (Burton et al.2009; Fink2008). These gender stereotypes often manifest themselves within varying levels of leadership, but specific to the sport industry, they are the most visible within the head coach role. Men hold the majority of head coach positions within the professional and amateur levels of sport, and these hiring practices can be based on gender-role stereotypes (Acosta and Carpenter2014). In an attempt to challenge stereotypical gender based leadership preferences, leadership ability and performance...
Source: Sex Roles - August 30, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Just for Women? Feminist Multicultural Therapy with Male Clients
AbstractFeminist multicultural therapy is an integrative approach to psychotherapy that emphasizes a systems-level understanding of psychological distress and the process of therapeutic change. In the present exploratory study, the experiences of feminist multicultural therapists working with male clients were studied using Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) (Hill et al.1997). Phone interviews were conducted with eight female practicing licensed or license-eligible therapists who had worked with at least one male client in the past 6  months. Consistent with the theoretical approach, all of the therapists interview...
Source: Sex Roles - August 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Parental Gender Expectations by Socioeconomic Status and Nativity: Implications for Contraceptive Use
AbstractParental gender expectations, which may be egalitarian or not, could vary by nativity and socioeconomic status. Parental gender expectations provide a model for children ’s gender role attitudes and could also have effects on reproductive health over the life course, including women’s contraceptive choices. Yet, parental gender expectations are not often studied quantitatively. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine how p arental gender expectations in the United States vary by immigrant generation and socioeconomic status, whether parental gender expectations in...
Source: Sex Roles - August 22, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“One Doesn’t Slap a Girl but…” Social Representations and Conditional Logics in Legitimization of Intimate Partner Violence
AbstractThe present research, which fits into the conceptual framework of social representations, aims to analyze the impact of gender and legitimizing ideologies on the evaluation of intimate partner violence (IPV). Using an inductive mixed methods approach, two studies were conducted in a French context. In Study 1, 24 participants were asked to express their views about a vignette describing an IPV case during semi-structured interviews. In Study 2, 123 participants completed a questionnaire which was based on the results of Study 1. They were asked to evaluate the severity and justification for this same IPV case in re...
Source: Sex Roles - August 18, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Children ’s Gender-Typed Behavior from Early to Middle Childhood in Adoptive Families with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents
AbstractGender-typed behaviors —both gender-conforming and nonconforming—were investigated longitudinally among children in 106 adoptive U.S. families with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents at two times (Wave 1, preschool-age; Wave 2, school-age) over 5 years. At Wave 1 (W1), parents reported on children’s gender-type d behavior using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok and Rust1993), and children ’s gender-typed toy play was evaluated using observational methods. At Wave 2 (W2), children reported on their own gender-typed behavior using the Children’s Occupations, Ac...
Source: Sex Roles - August 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Intersection of Gender, Sexuality, and Religion in Mormon Mixed-Sexuality Marriages
AbstractMixed-sexuality marriages (MSMs) are defined in the present study as those where one partner identifies as heterosexual and the other partner identifies as gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer or reports experiencing same-sex attraction. Members of conservative religions, such as Mormonism, may be more likely to enter MSMs given the religion ’s stance on homosexuality and doctrinal emphasis on heteronormative marriage. Using data from 56 interviews with individuals who either have been or currently are Mormon and in a MSM, we explore participants’ ideas about gender roles and sexuality in the context of their ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Professors ’ Behaviors and Attributes that Promote U.S. Women’s Success in Male-Dominated Academic Majors: Results from a Mixed Methods Study
AbstractHigh rates of attrition of women from male-dominated academic majors may stem from both individual-level personal attributes (e.g., lower confidence in skills; Sax et al.2015) and non-supportive environmental factors (e.g., chilly climate; Blickenstaff2005; Hill et al.2010). Grounded in social cognitive career theory (Lent et al.1994), the present study utilized a mixed methods approach to identify faculty behaviors and attributes that support women in male-dominated majors and help to prevent attrition. In Study 1, data from eight focus groups involving 23 senior women in male-dominated majors at a mid-sized U.S. ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effects of Principal-Teacher Gender Similarity on Teacher ’s Trust and Organizational Commitment
AbstractIn many Western public primary school systems, the gender composition of the principals is more heterogenic than that of the teachers, but research on the effect of gender on social psychological processes related to school leadership is scarce. The present work aims to address this lacuna by exploring the effects of principal-teacher gender similarity in the Israeli public primary school system, where most teachers are women, on teachers ’ trust in their principals and on organizational commitment. Data from 594 female public primary teachers working with male and female principals were analyzed. The results...
Source: Sex Roles - August 2, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

More than a Media Moment: The Influence of Televised Storylines on Viewers ’ Attitudes toward Transgender People and Policies
AbstractNumerous studies have demonstrated the power of entertainment narratives to influence attitudes and behaviors; fewer have examined the effects of TV portrayals on attitudes toward marginalized groups. The present study is among the first to explore how entertainment narratives depicting transgender individuals influence viewers ’ attitudes toward transgender people and related policies. The study examines the impact of exposure to a TV storyline onRoyal Pains (USA Network) and cumulative effects of viewing other TV series featuring transgender individuals. An online survey of 488  U.S. viewers ofRoyal Pa...
Source: Sex Roles - August 2, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender, Emotions Management, and Power in Organizations: The Case of Israeli Women Junior Military Officers
AbstractThrough in-depth retrospective interviews with 25 women officers in the Israeli military, we discovered that their experiences with power are central to their military experience even years after their discharge. The interviewees conveyed a dialectical emotional experience of power, interpreting it as a source of pleasure and empowerment and a source of shame at the same time. The women are made to feel ashamed because, according to accepted gendered beliefs, they crossed gender boundaries and used military power preserved exclusively for masculine use. Shame is a disciplinary mechanism through which women learn to...
Source: Sex Roles - July 31, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Rape Myths and Hookup Culture: An Exploratory Study of U.S. College Students' Perceptions
AbstractThe present study provides the first known systematic examination of the association of hookup culture endorsement and rape myth acceptance. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the primary hypothesis that hookup culture endorsement would be the primary predictor of rape myth acceptance levels among a sample of 422  U.S. college students. Findings indicated the existence of a complex relationship in which rape myth acceptance increases or decreases based upon the form of hookup culture endorsement examined. Beliefs that hookups are harmless and elevate social status increased rape myth accept...
Source: Sex Roles - July 27, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Building a Pink Dinosaur: the Effects of Gendered Construction Toys on Girls ’ and Boys’ Play
AbstractPlay with building toys such as LEGO ® sets promotes spatial learning in children. The present study examined the effects of the color of the bricks (either pink or blue) and the femininity/masculinity of the object built on boys’ and girls’ play with LEGO® sets. Children (n = 116,Mage = 7.27 range = 5–10) were given the opportunity to build with LEGO® brick sets, both instructed and free play tasks. For the instructed task, the type of object (feminine: cat; masculine: dinosaur) and color of the bricks (pink, blue) were counterbalanced across participants...
Source: Sex Roles - July 18, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Critical Examination of the Reliability and Validity of a Gender Role Attitude Scale in Flanders (Belgium): What Lessons Can be Learned?
AbstractWestern societies have shifted toward more egalitarian gender role attitudes (GRA). Quantitative research on GRA has been critiqued for not having kept up with societal changes in GRA. GRA scales are claimed to lack discriminative power and not fully capture the diversity within non-traditional attitudes. The present study gives an overview of the theoretical critiques with regard to GRA scales and empirically assesses these critiques. A typical example of a GRA scale measuring adolescents ’ GRA in Flanders (Belgium) is used to test the scale’s quality across three waves of surveys completed by 4063 ear...
Source: Sex Roles - July 17, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Shades of Sexualization: When Sexualization Becomes Sexual Objectification
AbstractSexualization in mass media is a widespread phenomenon. Although sexualization and sexual objectification are often used as synonymous, they are two different concepts. Across two studies, we investigated how sexualization affects perceptions of women (Study 1) and men (Study 2) as sexual objects. Participants were asked to judge sexual objectification, competence, and sexiness of female and male models portrayed with different degrees of sexualization, namely, as Non-Revealing (dressed), merely Revealing (undressed), and Sexualized Revealing (undressed and provocative). The results of both studies showed that as t...
Source: Sex Roles - July 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Individual, Interpersonal, and Sociostructural Factors Influencing Partner Nonmonogamy Acceptance among Young African American Women
AbstractIn 2015 in the United States, the HIV diagnosis rate among African American women was 16 times that of White women, and HIV especially affected young African American women. African American women ’s partnerships with nonmonogamous men may be one factor contributing to this disparity. Previous research has not adequately described factors influencing acceptance of partner nonmonogamy among African American women. To better understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 11 African American women aged 18–24 years-old who reported having sex in the past 3 months and reported knowing or suspecting a p...
Source: Sex Roles - July 12, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Names and “Doing Gender”: How Forenames and Surnames Contribute to Gender Identities, Difference, and Inequalities
AbstractNames, as proper nouns, are clearly important for the identification of individuals in everyday life. In the present article, I argue that forenames and surnames need also to be recognized as “doing” words, important in the categorization of sex at birth and in the ongoing management of gender conduct appropriate to sex category. Using evidence on personal naming practices in the United States and United Kingdom, I examine what happens at crisis points of sexed and gendered naming in the life course (for example, at the birth of babies, at marriage, and during gender-identity transitions). I show how fo...
Source: Sex Roles - July 10, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Drag Gender: Experiences of Gender for Gay and Queer Men who Perform Drag
AbstractThe present study explored the experience and understanding of gender for gay and queer men who perform drag. It is part of a 20-year program of research focused on how LGBTQ gender identities arise, why they coalesce, and how they are enacted within their social contexts. Interviewers on this topic involving 18 participants were subjected to a grounded theory analysis. Drag genders were tied to common experiences of overcoming social messages that maligned femininity within men, an appreciation of performance arts, and a desire to use social power to confront issues of sexism, genderism, and/or heterosexism. At th...
Source: Sex Roles - July 10, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Cross-cultural Study of Biological, Psychological, and Social Antecedents of Self-objectification in Italy and Romania
AbstractAlthough there is extensive documentation of the damaging psychological consequences of self-objectification, more research is needed to explain its antecedents. With the present study we (a) investigated the correlates of self-objectification by analyzing biological (age and body-mass index), psychological (self-esteem), and sociocultural dimensions (influence of mass media and significant others) in women and men; (b) examined the role of culture in self-objectification processes; and (c) tested the effect of gender as a moderator in the relationship between both psychological and sociocultural dimensions and sel...
Source: Sex Roles - July 6, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Female Leadership and Role Congruity within the Clergy: Communal Leaders Experience No Gender Differences Yet Agentic Women Continue to Suffer Backlash
AbstractRole congruity theory predicts that female leaders will experience prejudice because the role of leader aligns more closely with the stereotypic male gender role than it does with the stereotypic female role. Yet the theory also states that the context of leadership matters. Female leaders in communal contexts often do not experience prejudice because the communal role is congruent to the female role. The purpose of my study is to examine female leadership within the context of the religious congregation and the profession of the clergy. Using multilevel models to analyze Wave 2 of the U.S. Congregational Life Surv...
Source: Sex Roles - July 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Controlling for Prior Attainment Reduces the Positive Influence that Single-Gender Classroom Initiatives Exert on High School Students ’ Scholastic Achievements
AbstractResearch points to the positive impact that gender-segregated schooling and classroom initiatives exert on academic attainment. An evaluation of these studies which reveal positive effects highlights, however, that students are typically selectively assigned to single- or mixed-gender instructional settings, presenting a methodological confound. The current study controls for students ’ prior attainment to appraise the efficacy of a single-gender classroom initiative implemented in a co-educational high school in the United Kingdom. Secondary data analysis (using archived data) was performed on 266 middle-abi...
Source: Sex Roles - July 4, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Reproductive Vocabularies: Interrogating Intersections of Reproduction, Sexualities, and Religion among U.S. Cisgender College Women
In conclusion, we draw out implications for understanding women ’s reproductive decision-making and the social construction of reproductive norms. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - June 28, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Student Narrative Writing in Teaching Sexuality and Gender Identity
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - June 24, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Changing Jobs and Changing Chores? The Longitudinal Association of Women ’s and Men’s Occupational Gender-Atypicality and Couples’ Housework Performance
AbstractPrior research linking occupational sex composition (the proportion of women in an occupation) to housework has yielded conflicting results and relies exclusively on cross-sectional data. The present article extends scholarship on the gendered division of household labor by using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) 1981 –2013 to assess how changes in occupational sex composition alter heterosexual married couples’ housework performance over time. I find that either spouse’s gender-atypical employment (e.g., husband’s employment in a predominately female job) is a...
Source: Sex Roles - June 22, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Instagram Use and Self-Objectification: The Roles of Internalization, Comparison, Appearance Commentary, and Feminism
AbstractThe current study examined potential mediators (i.e., internalization of cultural standards of beauty, engaging in upward and downward appearance comparison, and receiving positive and negative appearance-related commentary), moderators (i.e., feminist beliefs), and moderated mediation of the links between Instagram (an electronic way to share visual images) use and self-objectification and body surveillance among 492 undergraduate women from the Southeast United States. Results revealed that internalization of cultural standards of beauty and engaging in upward appearance comparison uniquely mediated Instagram usa...
Source: Sex Roles - June 22, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Influence of Gender Identities on Body Image and Breast Health among Sexual Minority Women in Taiwan: Implications for Healthcare Practices
AbstractThe present paper presents constructions of gender roles among Taiwanese sexual minority women with different gender identities (i.e., butch and femme, known as T and Po, respectively, in Taiwan) and associations between their views toward their own breasts and breast healthcare intentions and behaviour. A total of 37 face-to-face interviews were conducted among women aged 20  years or older who self-identified as lesbians or women who partnered with other women in four areas of Taiwan between August 2012 and October 2012. The majority of the T –identity lesbians held negative views toward their own brea...
Source: Sex Roles - June 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Intersectional Investigations into Gender Based Violence
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - June 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Academic Conference as a Chilly Climate for Women: Effects of Gender Representation on Experiences of Sexism, Coping Responses, and Career Intentions
AbstractAcross many disciplines, women are underrepresented in faculty positions relative to men. The present research focuses on the academic conference as a setting because it is a gateway to an academic career and a context in which women might experience sexism. We surveyed 329 presenters (63% women) from three U.S. national academic conferences, which differed in women-to-men ratios, about their perceptions of the conference climate, their coping tactics (e.g., gender performance, silence, or voice), and their intentions to exit the conference or academia. The greater the representation of women at the conference rela...
Source: Sex Roles - June 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sociological Perspectives on Violence in the Family
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - June 19, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What Makes Muslim Women Entrepreneurs Successful? A Field Study Examining Religiosity and Social Capital in Tunisia
AbstractThe present study sheds light upon critical factors that help explain the entrepreneurial success among Muslim women living in a democratic Tunisia, a Muslim-majority country considered by many to be the lone Arab Spring success story. We hypothesized that successful entrepreneurs need social capital, including the capital that comes from marriage and high levels of wasta (the Arabic concept of having personal connections with influential others). Moreover, given the lack of empirical attention paid to the role of the culture, language, and customs associated with Islam on women ’s empowerment, we examine whe...
Source: Sex Roles - June 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Partner Context of Sexual Minority Women ’s and Men’s Cybersex Experiences: Implications for the Traditional Sexual Script
AbstractCybersex refers to a subgroup of interactive, interpersonal online sexual activities. People can engage in cybersex with three types of partners: (a) a primary committed partner, (b) a known non-partner, and, (c) a stranger. These partner types differ in degree of anonymity —one of five characteristics that make the internet appealing for sexual activity according to the Quin-A Engine. Previously, researchers have found that the partner context of heterosexual people’s cybersex experiences largely conform to the traditional sexual script (TSS; a cultural set of nor ms that incorporates traditional gende...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Effects of Gender Neuroessentialism on Transprejudice: An Experimental Study
AbstractThis experimental study examined the impacts of gender neuroessentialism on stereotyping and prejudice against transgender people. We randomly assigned 132 Chinese, mostly heterosexual college students to read one of three fictitious articles in which the first article explained sex differences in personality and social behavior by neurological factors (biological determinist), a second article questioned this deterministic claim (interactionist), and a third article was unrelated to gender (neutral baseline). The biological determinist condition aimed to foster essentialist beliefs by priming the deterministic way...
Source: Sex Roles - May 27, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Household Decision Making Among Married Women in Kenya: A Latent Class Analysis
AbstractThe present study examines the decision-making process among 4931 married Kenyan women. Using the Latent Class Analytical method, three household decision-making profiles were isolated. A majority of the women (45.6%) were in the category classified as Egalitarian and viewed decisions, other than those related to food, as a joint effort between spouses. The second largest group (28.9%) included women classified as Independent who made all household decisions other than the way in which to spend the husband ’s money. The third group (25.5%) was classified as Conservative and viewed household decisions as basic...
Source: Sex Roles - May 24, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Trans Prejudice in Sport: Differences from LGB Prejudice, the Influence of Gender, and Changes over Time
AbstractThe purpose of our study was to examine prejudice toward trans individuals in sport. Questionnaire data were collected from separate, albeit demographically similar, samples of students in 2007 (n = 199) and 2014 (n = 124). Results indicate that trans prejudice was higher than prejudice expressed toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals and that these differences remained over time. There were no gender differences as women and men expressed the same degrees of trans prejudice. Finally, trans prejudice significantly decreased over time, although the magnitude of the change was not as large as the corresp...
Source: Sex Roles - May 24, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Egg White or Sun-Kissed: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Skin Color and Women ’s Leisure Behavior
AbstractThe present study explores how culture-based meanings and values toward skin color, which are associated with women ’s body image ideals and gender-role expectations, profoundly influence women’s leisure behaviors. Using in-depth interviews with East Asian, Asian American, and Euro-American women (n = 43), results revealed how leisure behaviors are tied to cultural perceptions of skin color. People from different cultural backgrounds construct meanings and values pertaining to skin color, including beauty-related standards, social class, gender roles, and lifestyles. Culture-based values, ...
Source: Sex Roles - May 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Making a Case for Woman-Focused Treatment
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Examination of the Directional Effects between Relationship Quality and Well-Being for a National Sample of U.S. Men and Women
AbstractThe interaction between relationship quality and individual well-being has commonly been examined using a negative conceptualization of these constructs (e.g., relationship aggression and depression, respectively). The present study examines the direction of association between individual well-being and relationship quality. Specifically, we examined if this direction differed based on positive and negative conceptualizations of individual (i.e., life satisfaction and depression) and relationship (i.e., relationship satisfaction and conflict) well-being and how this differed for men and women. Using a series of cro...
Source: Sex Roles - May 16, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Walking Away from the Mild Side: Black Women and Kink
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 16, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Collection of Works Addressing Rural Queer Studies
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 16, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Crossover, Degendering, or …? A Multidimensional Approach to Life-Span Gender Development
AbstractInspired by Sandra Bem and subsequent theorists, we examine gender as a multidimensional construct that differs across adulthood to test claims made by two different theories of life-span gender development —that men and womencross over and become more like the other gender with age, and that aging involvesdegendering or viewing gender as a less central aspect of the self. Self-report survey data from a U.S. sample of men and women recruited from Amazon ’s Mechanical Turk (25–89 years,M age  = 47.38,SD = 14.05) were used to investigate the extent to which stereotyp...
Source: Sex Roles - May 12, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Queering Bem: Theoretical Intersections Between Sandra Bem ’s Scholarship and Queer Theory
AbstractSandra Bem revolutionized psychology with her research on gender, androgyny, and gender schematicity, which culminated in her book,The Lenses of Gender. Her work also provides a model for how to cross inter-disciplinary lines to enhance scholarship and reach political goals. We analyze similarities and differences between Bem ’s scholarship and scholarship inqueer theory, a theoretical movement in the humanities that analyzes discourses that construct man/woman and straight/gay binaries. There are important overlaps between Bem ’s lenses of gender (biological essentialism, gender polarization, and andro...
Source: Sex Roles - May 12, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Psychological Androgyny and Children ’s Mental Health: A New Look with New Measures
AbstractWe evaluated Bem ’s (1981,1993) thesis that psychological androgyny —perceiving the self to possess characteristics of both genders—is associated with healthy adjustment and minimal gender-polarizing cognition. Prior studies testing Bem’s ideas have yielded ambiguous results, mainly because self-perceptions of gender-typed attributes have been inferred narrowl y from self-perceptions of expressive and instrumental personality traits. We administered measures of gender identity (self-perceived similarity to a gender) that more clearly capture self-perceptions of attributes typical of a gender...
Source: Sex Roles - May 12, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Leaky Bodies, Spilled Blood: Breanne Fahs on Menstruation and Resistance in Psychotherapy, Pedagogy, and Activism
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 10, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When do Gender Stereotypes Impair Math Performance? A Study of Stereotype Threat Among Ugandan Adolescents
AbstractThe present study examined the effect of gender-based stereotype threat (ST) on the mathematics performance of high school students in Uganda, East Africa, as moderated by students ’ stereotype endorsement and/or their perceptions of stereotypic expectancies by others. Participants were 190 ninth grade students (age 14–15, senior 2, in Uganda) from all-female and coed boarding schools. Only perceived stereotypic expectancies by others significantly moderated ST effects on performance. A reminder of cross-gender comparisons led both young women and young men to underperform if they assumed that the resea...
Source: Sex Roles - May 9, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Portuguese Mothers and Fathers Share Similar Levels of Work-Family Guilt According to a Newly Validated Measure
AbstractTransformations in family and work life have led to profound changes in the articulation of both spheres. The massive entry of women into the labor market, the decline of a family model based on the male provider, increasing job demands, and persistent gender inequality are factors that can generate work-family conflict and lead to feelings of guilt. Work-family guilt is a topic still rarely studied, particularly in Portugal. Given the importance of understanding the complexity of the relationships underlying the work-family interface and the lack of instruments in Portuguese to assess the feeling of guilt as it pe...
Source: Sex Roles - May 9, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Speaking to a Broader Audience about Medicalization
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 9, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Women ’s Ideals for Masculinity Across Social Contexts: Patriarchal Agentic Masculinity is Valued in Work, Family, and Romance but Communal Masculinity in Friendship
AbstractThe present study explores women ’s ideals for masculinity in different social contexts (work, family/romance, and friendship) and compares how traditional (agentic) and non-patriarchal (communal) masculinity are valued in each context. Survey data were collected from one international (N = 159) and three South African samples (Ns  = 86, 100, 161) of women. Results show that although women value patriarchal ideals for masculinity, agentic and communal versions of masculinity are valued differently across contexts. Specifically, traditional agentic versions of masculinity were most valued i...
Source: Sex Roles - May 6, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Why Women Take Fewer Risk Than Men Do: The Mediating Role of State Anxiety
We examined the role of state anxiety in the relationship between gender and risk-taking. Fully 149 undergraduate students filled out the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Beck Depression Inventory –II (BDI) before playing the hot version of the Columbia Card Task (hot CCT), which is designed to measure emotionally based risk-taking behavior. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender and state anxiety were associated with risk-taking even when controlling for age, depressive mood, and trait anxiety. Moreover, results pointed out that gender is related to risk-taking through state anxiety. These r...
Source: Sex Roles - May 6, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Attitudes Toward and Beliefs about Transgender Youth: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Between the United States and India
AbstractUsing an internet-based survey, we examined attitudes toward transgender youth in the United States and India, two cultures with differences in conceptualizations of gender and treatment of transgender individuals in society, law, and religion. We found generally positive attitudes toward transgender youth in our U.S. (n = 218), but moderately negative ones in our Indian (n = 217), sample. Consistent with the literature on prejudice against transgender adults in many Western societies, general social conservatism in the form of religious beliefs and political ideology, gender-specific conservati...
Source: Sex Roles - May 2, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Bromance: Undergraduate Male Friendships and the Expansion of Contemporary Homosocial Boundaries
Conclusions are made about the bromance’s potential to improve men’s mental health and social well-being because participants indicate these relationships provide a space for emotional disclosure and the discus sion of potentially traumatic and sensitive issues. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 2, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research