Professors ’ Romantic Advances Undermine Students’ Academic Interest, Confidence, and Identification
AbstractExpressions of sexual interest on the part of professors toward students can be unfairly coercive due to the power dynamic involved. Three experiments (totaling 336 participants) explore a different cost of such sexual overtures or “passes.” That cost involves students’ interest in pursuing success in the scholarly field in which the pass occurred. U.S. college students, both male and female, contemplated receiving a pass from a professor who had previously praised their abilities in a valued field of study. Afterwards, compared to their peers who did not contemplate such a pass, those who did ima...
Source: Sex Roles - November 18, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Hypersexualization and Sexualization in Advertisements for Halloween Costumes
AbstractConcerns about sexualization of Halloween costumes appear frequently in the lay press, but systematic investigation of such costumes or the ads in which they appear is relatively rare. We coded a randomly selected sample of 1001 advertisements for child, teen, and adult Halloween costumes for 13 different markers of sexualization that we combined into overall scores for costume sexualization, model sexualization, and hypersexualization. We found that ratings of model characteristics and costume were significantly more sexualized when the model was adult and female. Significant interactions indicated that model char...
Source: Sex Roles - November 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acknowledgements
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - November 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Socialization of Gender-Based Aggression: A Case Study in Cambodian Primary Schools
AbstractAs Cambodia confronts the implications of recent genocide and traditional gender norms, gender-based violence is increasingly important in Cambodian policy and practice. Typically, research focuses on adolescence or gender-based violence in secondary schools, however, we argue that understanding the factors and processes leading to the perpetuation and acceptance of gender-based violence begins in primary school settings with gender-based aggression. A case study of four target schools in and around Siem Reap, Cambodia indicates that gender-based aggression is socialized through the normalization of aggression as p...
Source: Sex Roles - October 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Narrative Identity Development and Desistance from Illegal Behavior among Substance-Using Female Offenders: Implications for Narrative Therapy and Creating Opportunity
AbstractAccording to narrative identity theory, to desist from breaking the law, offenders must fashion a prosocial identity through a process of redemption by “making good” of past negative events. To improve understanding of women offenders’ redemption, analyses were conducted of the life stories and the identity change those stories revealed for 118 U.S. women with histories of multiple criminal convictions. Women most often described redemption from illegal activity and substance misuse, distress and trauma, and the challenges of giving birth and parenting. They rarely described redemption in edu...
Source: Sex Roles - October 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Physical Self-Concept and its Association with Depressive Symptoms among Gay Men and Lesbian Women and their Heterosexual Counterparts
AbstractThe current study aimed to compare Israeli gay men and lesbian women with their heterosexual counterparts on their physical self-concept (PSC) and to further assess the association between PSC and depressive symptoms as a function of sexual orientation. Gay men (n = 142) were compared with heterosexual men (n = 90), and lesbian women (n = 82) were compared with heterosexual women (n = 214), all of whom who completed measures of PSC and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that gay men reported lower positive PSC in comparison to heterosexual men, whereas no ...
Source: Sex Roles - October 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Costs of Silencing the Self and Divided Self in the Context of Physical Abuse, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Medication Adherence in Women Living with HIV
AbstractRacial/ethnic minority status and physical abuse history are risk factors for higher mortality rates and lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in women living with HIV (WLWH) in the United States. The current study tested the hypotheses that minority status and physical abuse history might lead women to silence the self (minimize and hide thoughts and feelings in order to avoid relational conflict, loss, and/or abuse) as measured by the Silencing the Self Scale (STSS), and that STSS might mediate and moderate relationships of physical abuse and racial/ethnic minority status with ART adherence. Divided Sel...
Source: Sex Roles - October 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Friends in Need: Bystander Intervention for Intimate Partner Violence in Beijing and Seoul
AbstractHow and why friends respond to control intimate partner violence has seldom been studied in survey data, in cross-cultural comparisons, or outside the United States. Moreover, the study of such responses has been siloed in two different research streams. The concept of bystander intervention has been mainly studied in psychology, whereas informal social control has been used in sociology. We use comparative data from two East Asian cultures (China and South Korea) to hypothesize and test for relationships among totalitarian-style partner control, Confucian gender role norms, secrecy regarding intimate partner viole...
Source: Sex Roles - August 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Assessing College Women ’s Perception of Putative Risk for Being Sexually Victimized by a Man: Development of the Sexual Assault Script Scale (SASS)
AbstractSexual assault is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem. The responsibility for sexual assault lies solely with the perpetrator, yet interventions to change perpetrators ’ behavior are scarce, making research focused on identifying factors that increase risk for sexual victimization a necessary complement to work on sexual aggression. The present study used mixed-method methodology to develop a measure of sexual assault risk called the Sexual Assault Script Scale (SASS). In three separate studies, we surveyed 1031 U.S. undergraduate heterosexual or bisexual women on the extent to which...
Source: Sex Roles - August 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Mobile Phones as Interactive Technologies Mediating Gendered Work-Life Conflict: A Qualitative Study on Women in STEM
AbstractThe dominant literature on interactivity of mobile phones treats it as a feature of the device that is neutral and value-free. Mostly quantitative studies of interactivity consider it as a stable construct, devoid of the contexts that constitute it. Of particular interest is the nature of interactivity in women ’s lives within patriarchal home and work spaces. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 35 women in STEM careers in Singapore, I depict the gendered nature of mobile phone use, situated amid patriarchal structures, familial roles, and cultural norms. Specifically I examine the ways in which the mean ings...
Source: Sex Roles - August 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Feminism, Gender, and Agentic and Communal Themes in Narrative Identity
AbstractIndividuals create a sense of self-continuity by constructing a narrative identity that integrates their past experiences with an imagined future. Previous research indicates that men are more likely than women to include agentic themes in their narrative identities, whereas women are more likely than men to include communal themes. The present investigation examined whether feminist identity would moderate the effects of gender on the degree to which participants included agentic and communal themes in their narrative identities. U.S. undergraduates (n = 170) completed measures of feminist beliefs in...
Source: Sex Roles - August 27, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Congruence in Preferences and Expectations of Work-Family Role Management: Operationalization and the Relation with Work-Family Balance and Spousal Support
AbstractEmployees with children differ in how they want to manage their work and family roles. By integrating the literature on boundary management and role prioritization, we develop a visual measure to assess five such preferences: work-centric (i.e., prioritizing work over family), family-centric (i.e., prioritizing family over work), and three dual-centric preferences (i.e., emphasizing both roles to a similar extent), which differ in the degree to which working parents aim to blend their work and family roles, resulting in merging, integrating, or segmenting preferences. We test the validity of our measure in two stud...
Source: Sex Roles - August 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Breadwinner Seeks Bottle Warmer: How Women ’s Future Aspirations and Expectations Predict Their Current Mate Preferences
AbstractContemporary women in Western cultures are often trying to juggle careers alongside personal and societal expectations for childrearing in an effort to “have it all.” We examine the effects of this balancing act on heterosexual women’s mate selection motivations. Across three Canadian samples (n = 360), we tested concurrent hypotheses about the desirability of both similar and complementary characteristics in a potential mate. Specifically, women’s aspirations (to prioritize career over family) and their expectations for the roles they will most likely adopt within their future...
Source: Sex Roles - August 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

You are not as Cute as you Think you are: Emotional Responses to Expectancy Violations in Heterosexual Online Dating Interactions
AbstractDating initiation is a challenging phase of heterosexual romantic relationship development, with men and women often having different expectations and interpretations of communicative cues. With online dating becoming increasingly popular, the challenges of relationship initiation are more apparent and may even lead to negative interpersonal interactions, such as online harassment. The present investigation employed expectancy violations theory to understand and explain perceptions of women ’s responses to compliments in an online dating context. We predicted that due to general as well as gender-specific exp...
Source: Sex Roles - August 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Test of the Expanded Tripartite Dual Pathway Model in Physically Active Korean Men
AbstractThe notion that having body-related problems is a female-oriented issue ignores that men also are pressured to have an ideal body, resulting in body image concerns and problems among men. The present research examined the expanded tripartite dual pathway model to explain body image concerns and problems experienced by physically active Korean men. Participants were 427 Korean men in their 20s to 30s who engaged in any regular activity at least once a week. Participants completed an online questionnaire incorporating measures of sociocultural pressures to have a mesomorphic body ideal, internalization, dissatisfacti...
Source: Sex Roles - August 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Body Talk on Social Networking Sites, Body Surveillance, and Body Shame among Young Adults: The Roles of Self-Compassion and Gender
AbstractThe present study examined whether body talk on social networking sites (SNSs) was positively associated with body surveillance and body shame and whether body surveillance would mediate the relationship between body talk on SNSs and body shame. We also tested whether the links from body talk on SNSs to body surveillance and body shame would be moderated by self-compassion. Furthermore, the moderating role of gender in the mediation model was examined. The model was tested with 194 female and 119 male Chinese university students who completed questionnaires regarding body talk on SNSs, body surveillance, body shame...
Source: Sex Roles - August 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

SKIPing Together: A Motor Competence Intervention Promotes Gender-Integrated Friendships for Young Children
AbstractYoung children typically report primarily same-gender friendships across childhood. However, there is growing awareness of the benefits of gender-integrated friendships and gender integration in schools, especially for social-emotional domains. The current study tested whether Successful Kinesthetic Instruction for Preschoolers (SKIP), an evidence-based motor competence intervention led by physical education teachers, promotes gender-integrated friendships in preschool-aged children. Results documented that children (Mage = 47.38,SD = 6.21 months, range = 36.67–60.25...
Source: Sex Roles - August 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Diagnostic Aversion Predict Symptom Expression in a Community Sample of Distressed Men
AbstractAdherence to traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) is associated with a host of negative outcomes, including higher rates of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. However, relatively less is known about the mechanisms and contexts through which TMI affects the expression of psychological distress. In the current study, men ’s aversion to being diagnosed with a mental health disorder was tested as a mediator and moderator to help clarify the relationship between TMI and symptom expression. A community sample of 72 U.S. men experiencing elevated psychological distress completed self-report ques...
Source: Sex Roles - August 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Keeping Ourselves Sane: A Qualitative Exploration of Black Women ’s Coping Strategies for Gendered Racism
AbstractBlack women in the United States have historically overcome extreme hardships and continue to do so. They have survived unthinkable bouts of trauma due to their subordinate racial and gender statuses. Black women ’s attempts to navigate these circumstances present them with a distinct set of dilemmas, yet existing research gives little attention to how Black women manage adversities associated with navigating entangled systems of oppression. The present study aimed to gain a better understanding of how Bla ck women cope with gendered racism. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 Black women between the...
Source: Sex Roles - August 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prior Allegations of Harassment Impact Mock Jurors ’ Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in a Criminal Trial
AbstractThe current study examined factors that may influence jurors ’ judgments in a criminal sexual harassment case with Canadian undergraduate students. Undergraduate students (n = 268) examined whether defendant’s gender, victim’s gender, and whether the victim had made similar accusations in the past were influential in mock jurors’ judgments. Participants read a case summary describing an alleged sexual harassment and answered questions concerning defendant’s guilt, defendant’s culpability, and perceptions of the victim. Additionally, attitudes concerning sexual haras...
Source: Sex Roles - August 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Social Responsiveness and Objectification: The Moderating Roles of Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin Receptor 2A Genotypes in an Objectification Theory Model of Disordered Eating
AbstractFeminist scholars have called for gender researchers to consider gene-environment interactions for gender-imbalanced disorders (Salk and HydePsychology of Women Quarterly, 36, 395 –411,2012). Responding to these calls, the present study integrates objectification theory (Fredrickson and RobertsPsychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173 –206,1997) and genetic research. In the tested model, objectification experiences are associated with disordered eating through body surveillance and body shame, and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) genotypes (5-HTTLPR and rs25531), serotonin 2A receptor SNP genotypes (HTR2A rs...
Source: Sex Roles - August 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Heroes and the Helpless: The Development of Benevolent Sexism in Children
AbstractGender-stereotypical attitudes that males should be the protectors and that females need special care as the more delicate gender may reflect foundational components of benevolent sexism; however, children ’s attitudes regarding these roles have yet to be explored. The current study interviewed 113 U.S. children ages 3–11 years-old, presenting scenarios asking who should come to the rescue and who should receive special care (e.g., when tired or hurt). Results indicated that boys, across ages, b elieved that boys should be the heroes. Girls and boys selected their own gender to receive special...
Source: Sex Roles - August 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Two Sexes, Two Genders Only: Measuring Attitudes toward Transgender Individuals in Poland
AbstractTransphobia is an under-examined but important type of prejudice to study in Polish culture. Poland is a country where a majority of transgender people feel discriminated against. There is a need for a more evidence-based measures for researchers and practitioners to better understand transphobia. The main purpose of the present three studies (n = 300 participants for each study) was to validate the Genderism and Transphobia Scale (GTS; Hill and Willoughby2005) and the Transphobia Scale (TS; Nagoshi et al.2008) in Polish culture and to identify the possible psychological and demographic factors that m...
Source: Sex Roles - July 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Stranger Harassment and PTSD Symptoms: Roles of Self-Blame, Shame, Fear, Feminine Norms, and Feminism
AbstractStranger harassment is a prevalent experience for many women but is often trivialized as a social problem (Kearl2014; Vera-Gray2016). As a result, there is a lack of knowledge related to understanding women ’s lived experiences of stranger harassment. Our study attends to this gap in the literature by examining the relation between experiences of stranger/street harassment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among 367 young adult U.S. women. We also examined novel explanatory (i .e., self-blame, shame, and fear of rape), risk (adherence to traditional feminine norms of sweet and nice and...
Source: Sex Roles - July 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Parents ’ Beliefs about High School Students’ Spatial Abilities: Gender Differences and Associations with Parent Encouragement to Pursue a STEM Career and Students’ STEM Career Intentions
AbstractIn the present study, we investigated whether parents ’ beliefs about their high school aged adolescents’ spatial abilities (i.e., spatial visualization, mental manipulation, and navigation abilities) differed based on their child’s gender. We also examined whether these beliefs related to parents’ encouragement of their child to pursue a Scien ce, Technology, Engineering, or Mathematics (STEM) career as well as students’ actual STEM major and career intentions. Data were collected from 117 pairs of U.S. high school students and one of their parents. We found that parents of young men ...
Source: Sex Roles - July 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Leadership as a Reflection of Who We Are: Social Identity, Media Portrayal, and Evaluations of Hillary Clinton in the 2016  U.S. Presidential Election
AbstractThe 2016  U.S. Presidential election presented a unique opportunity to study gender and leadership. Using the social identity theory of leadership (Hogg2001) as a guiding framework, we sought to understand the effect of social identities —gender and political affiliation—on voters’ evaluations of Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in this election. We surveyed 440 participants’ attitudes toward female leaders, political affiliation, level of media exposure, and their evaluations of Clinton’s charisma and effectiveness in Study 1. Results indicate that female voters, those with f...
Source: Sex Roles - July 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Subjective Importance of Masculinity as a Factor in Understanding Risky Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors among Sexual Minority Men
AbstractIn the present study we evaluated relationships among internalized stigma, subjective importance of masculine gender roles, and risky sexual attitudes and behaviors among men who reported same-sex attraction or behavior. A national U.S. sample of 95 men who identified as gay (79.4%), bisexual (10.3%), or another sexual orientation identity label (10.3%) participated via an online survey. Three mediation models examined the importance men placed on their own adherence to masculinity as a mediator of the relationships between internalized stigma and self-reported risky sexual attitudes and behaviors. The statisticall...
Source: Sex Roles - July 8, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Who Thinks Outside the Gender Box? Feminism, Gender Self-Esteem, and Attitudes toward Trans People
AbstractTrans people are targeted with widespread prejudice and discrimination in the United States. In order to better understand this hostility, we examined how different gender beliefs (gender traditionalism, gender self-esteem, feminist attitudes, and feminist identity) are associated with cisgender heterosexual individuals ’ trans prejudice. We found that cisgender heterosexual men reported more trans prejudice, more gender traditionalism, less feminist attitudes, and a weaker feminist identity than cisgender heterosexual women. Participants who reported less traditional gender beliefs and more feminist attitude...
Source: Sex Roles - July 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Impact of Social Media on Body Image Perceptions and Bodily Practices among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Critical Review of the Literature and Extension of Theory
AbstractRecent evidence indicates that interactive media-based web technologies, such as social networking sites, have an appreciable effect on users ’ perceptions of and attitudes toward their own bodies, as well as resultant weight and shape control behaviours. However, little research has been done to investigate whether social media differentially influence gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, who are known to be at increased risk of body image disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The current paper aims to address this gap by surveying and extending existing theory, using a critic...
Source: Sex Roles - July 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Abstract Thinking Increases Support for Affirmative Action
We report a meta-analysis across our studies. Overall, thinking abstractly about affirmative action clearly leads to mor e favorable attitudes toward it, and this effect is somewhat stronger when discrimination is perceived to be high. Consequently, companies and policymakers that would like to increase support for affirmative action policies could use abstract thinking to do so, for example by encouraging employees t o think about and discuss why (vs. how) affirmative action policies are implemented. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - July 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Roles of Political Conservatism and Binary Gender Beliefs in Predicting Prejudices Toward Gay Men and People Who Are Transgender
AbstractNegativity toward gay men and transgender people is pervasive. Past research suggests that authoritarianism predicts biases against transgender people, in part due to an essentialist view of gender. To determine the generalizability of these findings, but with political conservatism as the focal predictor, we re-analyzed Norton and Herek ’s (2013) large (n = 2281) nationally representative U.S. dataset. In doing so, we modeled a latent factor indicated by anti-transgender attitudes and prejudice toward gay men to capture prejudice toward gender non-conformists. That is, prejudice against transge...
Source: Sex Roles - July 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When is it Okay to be Alone? Gender Differences in Normative Beliefs about Social Withdrawal in Emerging Adulthood
AbstractInformed by prior work on social withdrawal and gender role norms, the present study utilizes data from a large sample of U.S. (n = 656) and Canadian (n = 560) university students (Mage = 19.65 years) to test if the degree to which behaviors of social withdrawal are judged to be acceptable depends on (a) the motivation underlying the behavior (i.e., social withdrawal due to shyness versus unsociability versus avoidance or differences in withdrawal type) and (b) the gender of the actor (or the hypothetical person depicted as engaging in the behavior) and (c) the gender ...
Source: Sex Roles - July 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When Self-Worth Depends on Social Media Feedback: Associations with Psychological Well-Being
AbstractSocial media have become primary forms of social communication and means to maintain social connections among young adult women. Although social connectedness generally has a positive impact on psychological well-being, frequent social media use has been associated with poorer psychological well-being. Individual differences may be due to whether women derive their self-worth from feedback on social media. The associations between reasons for social media use, whether self-worth was dependent on social media feedback, and four aspects of psychological well-being (including stress, depressive symptoms, resilience, a...
Source: Sex Roles - July 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effects of Street Harassment on Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Quality of College Women
AbstractThe goal of the present study was to treat street harassment as a public health issue akin to sexual harassment in terms of its negative effects. Anxiety and depression were hypothesized to be mediators of the effect of street harassment on sleep quality. Fully 252 female undergraduate students at a large U.S. Northeastern university were surveyed. Findings indicated that street harassment was positively related to anxiety and depression as well as negatively related to sleep quality. Mediation analyses indicated that both anxiety and depression mediated the relationship between street harassment and sleep quality....
Source: Sex Roles - July 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gendered Appearances among Young Children and in the Media: An East-West Cultural Comparison
AbstractMany young children often exhibit a strong desire to wear extremely gender-typed clothing (appearance rigidity), reflecting their emerging gender identities. However, research on appearance rigidity largely has been limited to the United States, raising questions on whether appearance is a fundamental aspect of gender development. Studies 1 and 2 investigated whether appearance rigidity could also be observed in an East Asian culture (Hong Kong) and whether regional differences might be found. Based on cultural differences in systems of thought (e.g., more acceptance of contradictions in East Asian culture) and Eas...
Source: Sex Roles - June 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Bending and Gender Conformity: The Social Consequences of Engaging in Feminine and Masculine Pro-Environmental Behaviors
AbstractAlthough pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) have been characterized as feminine, some PEBs are masculine suggesting that gender bending (e.g., engaging in pro-environmental behaviors inconsistent with one ’s own gender) and gender conformity (e.g., engaging in pro-environmental behaviors consistent with one’s own gender) are possible for both women and men. Social consequences for gender bending versus conformity with PEBs were assessed in three studies. Gender bending created uncertainty about a n actor’s heterosexual identity (Studies 1 and 2). Consistent with stigma-by-association, actors&rsquo...
Source: Sex Roles - June 18, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effects of Gender and Appearance Comparisons on Associations Between Media-Based Appearance Pressure and Disordered Eating: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model
AbstractAppearance pressure from mass media and appearance social comparisons have been implicated in theory and research on disordered eating. However, mediating effects of upward and downward appearance comparisons on associations between appearance pressure and changes in disordered eating among women versus men have not been examined within longitudinal research designs. To address this gap, undergraduate students (1539 women and 882 men) from China completed self-report measures of appearance pressure from mass media; upward and downward appearance comparisons with more and less physically attractive peers, respective...
Source: Sex Roles - June 18, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When Do Motives to Sexually Please a Male Partner Benefit Women ’s Own Sexual Agency?
AbstractMotivation to please a partner sexually, also known as sexual communal strength (SCS), has been positively associated with sexual and relationship functioning, particularly for partners. We used a critical sexuality studies approach to examine SCS as it relates to women ’s own sexual agency. We also examined the potential moderating role of partner sexual coercion, defined as persistent pressure to attain sex. Specifically, we investigated whether frequency of partner sexual coercion moderates the effect of SCS on three different aspects of women’s sexual agenc y: sexual desire, sexual refusal assertive...
Source: Sex Roles - June 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

How Gender and Race Stereotypes Impact the Advancement of Scholars in STEM: Professors ’ Biased Evaluations of Physics and Biology Post-Doctoral Candidates
AbstractThe current study examines how intersecting stereotypes about gender and race influence faculty perceptions of post-doctoral candidates in STEM fields in the United States. Using a fully-crossed, between-subjects experimental design, biology and physics professors (n = 251) from eight large, public, U.S. research universities were asked to read one of eight identical curriculum vitae (CVs) depicting a hypothetical doctoral graduate applying for a post-doctoral position in their field, and rate them for competence, hireability, and likeability. The candidate ’s name on the CV was used to manipula...
Source: Sex Roles - June 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

From Gaze to Outrage: The Role of Group-Based Anger in Mediating the Relationship between Sexual Objectification and Collective Action
AbstractNumerous studies have demonstrated the harmful effects of sexual objectification on well-being. However, despite the rapid growth of the #MeToo movement, which has raised public awareness about sexual harassment, there has been much less research investigating the role of sexually objectifying behaviours in motivating people to try to tackle this issue through collective action (e.g., signing petitions, engaging in protests) and the process through which this occurs. Across two studies, we tested whether experiencing sexually objectifying behaviours motivates women to be willing to engage in collective action again...
Source: Sex Roles - June 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Roles and Date Context in Hypothetical Scripts for a Woman and a Man on a First Date in the Twenty-First Century
AbstractFirst dates set the tone for future interactions and determine whether such interactions will even occur. Although people may want to showcase their virtues, first date scripts involving a man and a woman reflect traditional gender roles wherein men are expected to be proactive and women, reactive. As gender-based attitudes and roles have begun to change, are hypothetical first date scripts also evolving? Although over 25  years of research on first date scripts suggests that these scripts consistently reflect traditional gender roles, no known study to date has quantitatively compared data collected across te...
Source: Sex Roles - June 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Exposure to Scientific Explanations for Gender Differences Influences Individuals ’ Personal Theories of Gender and Their Evaluations of a Discriminatory Situation
AbstractGender lay theory is a framework of information interpretation related to gender categorisation and can be divided into two general forms: gender essentialism versus gender as socially constructed. The present study investigated how exposure to scientifically framed explanations for gender differences affects individuals ’ gender lay theory and if endorsement of an essentialist gender lay theory influences discrimination attribution. The 413 Swedish participants were exposed to scientific explanations of gender differences, with either a biological or a social constructionist perspective, or to no-explanation...
Source: Sex Roles - June 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Female Video Game Players and the Protective Effect of Feminist Identity Against Internalized Misogyny
AbstractVideo games often contain sexist content that may be connected to negative consequences for female video game players, such as internalizing negative attitudes and beliefs about women. However, aspects of feminist identification may prevent such negative outcomes from occurring. The present study investigated the relationships among time spent playing video games, internalized misogyny, and the synthesis dimension of feminist identity, which is characterized by embracing the positive aspects of being a woman and incorporating feminine attributes into one ’s own unique personality. A total of 319 U.S. fem...
Source: Sex Roles - June 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Exploring Gender Differences in the Use of Internal State Language in Mother-Adolescent Reminiscing
AbstractThe use of internal state language (ISL) is socialized in family conversations. In childhood, girls tend to use more emotion words than boys do, and mothers tend to use more emotion words with daughters than with sons. However, research in adolescence has been sparse suggesting that ISL is used equally across both genders. The present cross-sectional study thus examined gender patterns in German adolescents ’ and their mothers’ emotion narratives. A total of 60 mother-adolescent dyads (ages 12, 15 and 18 years; each age group with ten male and ten female adolescents) narrated three autobiographical...
Source: Sex Roles - May 17, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Boys Just Don ’t! Gender Stereotyping and Sanctioning of Counter-Stereotypical Behavior in Preschoolers
AbstractAlthough children start to adopt gender stereotypes by the age of three, there is less evidence about how early they start to sanction other children ’s counter-stereotypical behaviors. The present study explored the two processes in a single design, comparing younger/older preschool boys and girls and using a two-task procedure involving (a) categorization of pictures of masculine/feminine colors, toys, and objects as more suited for boys/girl s or both and (b) descriptions and evaluations of boys/girls playing with gender counter-stereotypic toys. One hundred Serbian children aged 3–4 or 6–7&nbs...
Source: Sex Roles - May 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Effects of a Television Drama-Based Media Literacy Initiative on Taiwanese Adolescents ’ Gender Role Attitudes
AbstractFor the present study, we developed a television (TV) drama-based media literacy program for Taiwanese adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the effects of the program on their media literacy and gender role attitudes. Participants were ninth-graders (aged 14 and 15  years, 50.6% male) from eight classes at one school which were randomly divided into two groups (four classes each). The experimental group (n = 126) received a three-unit media literacy program based on the constructs of the Message Interpretation Process Model and utilizing popular TV idol dramas as the mat...
Source: Sex Roles - May 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Fathers ’ Paternity Leave-Taking and Children’s Perceptions of Father-Child Relationships in the United States
AbstractPaternity leave-taking is believed to benefit children by encouraging father-child bonding after a birth and enabling commitments to fathers ’ engagement. Yet, no known U.S. studies have directly focused on the associations between paternity leave-taking and children’s reports of father-child relationships. Understanding the potential consequences of paternity leave-taking in the United States is particularly important given the lack of a national paid parental leave policy. The present study uses five waves of data on 1319 families, largely socioeconomically disadvantaged, from the Fragile Families and...
Source: Sex Roles - May 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Qualitative Exploration of Religion, Gender Norms, and Sexual Decision-Making within African American Faith-Based Communities
AbstractHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a prominent health and social justice issue, especially for African American communities in the Southern United States. Gender role norms, specifically within faith-based communities in the South, pose challenges to empowering women to make safer sexual health decisions. To explore perceptions of gender norms and sexual health, 42 qualitative interviews were gathered from female members of 16 predominantly African American churches in Atlanta, GA. Constructs from the theory of gender and power and the social ecological model were used to guide coding and analysis. ...
Source: Sex Roles - May 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Black Women and Girls & amp; #MeToo: Rape, Cultural Betrayal, & amp; Healing
AbstractCreated by U.S. Black female activist, Tarana Burke, the #MeToo movement gained popularity in 2017, shedding light on the pervasive sexual harassment and assault of women. Since long before Anita Hill and @RapedAtSpelman, racial trauma has complicated the post-sexual violence landscape for U.S. Black women and girls, which may inhibit their ability to say “me too.” It is within this context of racial trauma that cultural betrayal trauma theory (CBTT) was developed: a new framework for understanding how outcomes of interpersonal trauma, like rape, are impacted by both victim and perpetrator(s) being subj...
Source: Sex Roles - April 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Selfie-Posting and Young Adult Women ’s Restrained Eating: The Role of Commentary on Appearance and Self-Objectification
AbstractConsidering the prevalence of social networking sites (SNSs) and restrained eating among young adult women, the present study aimed to investigate the association between selfie-posting on an SNS (WeChat Moments, the most widely used SNS in China) and self-objectification among Chinese young adult women as well as the mediating effects of commentary on appearance and self-objectification from the perspective of self-perception theory and objectification theory. A sample of 886 female undergraduate students who had an active WeChat Moments account were recruited voluntarily to complete questionnaires on selfie-posti...
Source: Sex Roles - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research