Confusing Stalking for Romance: Examining the Labeling and Acceptability of Men ’s (Cyber)Stalking of Women
AbstractEvidence suggests that in the United States we live in a stalking culture— a culture in which stalking is normalized, minimized, and romanticized through various cultural institutions. We also live in an era when romantic interactions and dating are increasingly taking place online. Bringing together these ideas, the present study examines perceptions of lay observers of the cyberstalking of women with a focus on gender and stalking context. Drawing on data from an original vignette study via an Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) survey (n = 727), we examine whether (a) observer’s gender, (b) ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Differences in the Intergenerational Transmission Process of Educational Aspirations in Late Childhood
AbstractParents ’ aspirations for their children’s future educational attainment influence their child’s educational aspirations. However, gender differences in the intergenerational transmission of educational aspirations have not been fully explored. The present study employed a two-step model of value tran smission to provide a detailed picture of the gender patterns that occur during the transmission process of educational aspirations in late childhood. A total of 2857 Chinese students (Mage = 9.85 years,SD = .37, range = 8–12; 1373 girls) and their...
Source: Sex Roles - November 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Scripted Reality: How Observers Make Sense of a Non-consensual Sexual Encounter
AbstractResearch on third party reactions to (transgressive) sexual encounters has frequently bypassed the question of how observers categorize such encounters as normal sexual experience, sexual violence, or potentially as something else. In the present study, we investigated the ways in which participants made sense of a nonconsensual sexual encounter between a man (i.e., the initiating party) and either a male or a female student (i.e., the targeted party). We specifically focused on how participants utilized sexual scripts and gender stereotypes to describe what happened and as a means of attributing responsibility to ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Anti-Sexual Assault Activism and Positive Psychological Functioning among Survivors
AbstractIn the present study, we examined the links between involvement in anti-sexual assault activism with post-traumatic growth and positive affect among 282  U.S. adult sexual assault survivors. We also explored potential mediators (i.e., self-blame, shame, community connection, meaning in life, trauma coping self-efficacy, and personal control) in these linkages. Results indicated that involvement in anti-sexual assault activism was positively correla ted with both post-traumatic growth and positive affect. In addition, our findings revealed that involvement in anti-sexual assault activism was indirectly related ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Outperforming iBodies: A Conceptual Framework Integrating Body Performance Self-Tracking Technologies with Body Image and Eating Concerns
AbstractRecently, the use of digital self-tracking devices has increased exponentially. Although these devices are positioned as health-tools, an emerging empirical literature has started to document relationships between the use of such technologies and body image and eating concerns. To date, however, these explorations have not been guided by an integrated theoretical framework. The present manuscript aimed to fill this gap by providing a framework to guide and stimulate this area of research. The proposed framework integrates elements of critical sociocultural theories that have been successful in accounting for the de...
Source: Sex Roles - November 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acknowledgements
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - November 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Biological Clock: Age, Risk, and the Biopolitics of Reproductive Time
AbstractThe present article explores the social and subjective dimensions of the biological clock and its implications for reproductive time through a qualitative study based on 40 life story interviews of women from Santiago de Chile. Although the narrative of the biological clock has become a prevalent frame for addressing reproductive time in the context of late childbearing, age-related infertility, and the use of assisted reproductive technologies, few studies engage in an in-depth analysis of the biological clock —its boundaries, dynamics, and the particular ways in which it shapes women’s views and exper...
Source: Sex Roles - October 31, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Consequences of a Zero-Sum Perspective of Gender Status: Predicting Later Discrimination against Men and Women in Collaborative and Leadership Roles
AbstractThe zero-sum perspective (ZSP) implies gains made by one group (e.g., women) translate into equivalent loss for another group (e.g., men). The present studies extend prior research by examining whether individuals with a ZSP of gender status exhibit later discrimination. In Study 1, 624  U.S. undergraduates completed online measures of political orientation, social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), sexism, and ZSP of gender status. One month later, they read three online scenarios depicting a male target and three depicting a female target in a leader ship or collaborative role, t...
Source: Sex Roles - October 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Media-Induced Sexual Harassment: The Routes from Sexually Objectifying Media to Sexual Harassment
AbstractMedia that sexually objectify women by portraying them in ways that emphasize physical beauty and sexual readiness as well as reduce them to decorative and sexual objects have been traditionally identified by scholars as a powerful cultural risk factor encouraging sexual harassment and sexual violence. In the present article we review the existing empirical evidence linking sexually objectifying media and sexual harassment of women to the overarching and integrative Media-Induced Sexual Harassment framework. This framework offers a coherent scheme for explaining the effects of sexually objectifying media on three t...
Source: Sex Roles - October 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Is Self-Employment a Good Option? Gender, Parents and the Work-Family Interface
AbstractSelf-employment is a career decision that is likely to be influenced by the gendered dynamics of work and care for parents of young children. We test a theoretical model investigating the effect atransition into self-employment (compared to staying organizationally-employed) has on the work-family interface (work-to-family, family-to-work conflicts and work-family enrichment), exploring the key mechanisms of job autonomy, flexibility and work hours for mothers and fathers. We theorize gender differences in this model which we test using national, cohort data of Australian parents ’ employment transitions over...
Source: Sex Roles - October 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Media Frames of Voluntary Childlessness in the United States from 1989 to 2018
AbstractVoluntary childlessness (VC) is a family communication issue which has garnered media attention for over 30  years. Guided by framing theory, in the present study we analyze media frames of voluntary childlessness in the United States between 1989 and 2018 to critically examine the formation of discourses governing childfree families over time. Guided by mixed method media frame analysis, 103 news articl es were inductively thematized and then deductively coded to identify and quantify the dominant frames and the frame elements (i.e., story characters and generalizations to ongoing phenomena) that comprised th...
Source: Sex Roles - October 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Allies Against Sexism: The Impact of Men ’s Egalitarian Versus Paternalistic Confrontation on Women’s Empowerment and Well-Being
AbstractMen as advantaged group members can be involved in actions against inequality. But how do women experience men ’s confrontation of sexism? We examine how women perceive men’s egalitarian versus paternalistic confrontation of sexism. We hypothesized that women would be more likely to report empowerment and well-being (i.e., more happiness and less anger) after egalitarian confrontation than after paternal istic confrontation, which should increase their future intention to confront sexism. Using hypothetical scenarios, the results of three studies conducted in Spain, Germany, and Mexico confirmed our hyp...
Source: Sex Roles - October 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Male, National, and Religious Collective Narcissism Predict Sexism
AbstractResults of three cross-sectional studies indicate that sexism in Poland is associated with collective narcissism —a belief that one’s own group’s (the in-group’s) exaggerated exceptionality is not sufficiently recognized by others—with reference to three social identities: male, religious, and national. In Study 1 (n = 329), male collective narcissism was associated with sexism. This relationship was sequentially mediated by precarious manhood and traditional gender beliefs. In Study 2 (n = 877), Catholic collective narcissism predicted tolerance of violence...
Source: Sex Roles - October 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Interpersonal Sexual Objectification, Fear of Rape, and U.S. College Women ’s Depression
AbstractIn the  present study, we extend prior research on objectification theory by integrating fear of rape into a mediation model predicting depression in college women. With a sample of 496 U.S. college women 18–37 years-old, we examined three aspects of fear of rape (taking rape precautions, safety conce rns, and fear of men), along with body shame and appearance anxiety, as potential mediators in the linkage of interpersonal sexual objectification through body surveillance to depression. We found that sexual objectification was associated with more body surveillance, which in turn was related to ...
Source: Sex Roles - September 29, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Selfie Editing and Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery Among Young Chinese Women: The Role of Self-Objectification and Facial Dissatisfaction
AbstractResearch reveals significant positive associations between selfie editing and consideration of cosmetic surgery, yet little is known about why this relationship exists. To address this question, the present study investigated the association between selfie editing and consideration of cosmetic surgery among young Chinese women and the mediating effects of self-objectification and facial dissatisfaction. A sample of 589 Chinese undergraduate women completed measures of selfie editing, self-objectification, facial dissatisfaction, and consideration of cosmetic surgery. Results showed that selfie editing was significa...
Source: Sex Roles - September 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Does Sex Really Sell? Paradoxical Effects of Sexualization in Advertising on Product Attractiveness and Purchase Intentions
AbstractTo test the “sex sells” assumption, we examined how Italian men and women react to sexualized advertising. Women showed lower product attractiveness and purchase intentions toward products presented with sexualized female models than with neutral ads, whereas men were unaffected by ads’ sexualization (Stu dy 1,n = 251). Study 2 (n = 197) replicated the overall results. Study 3 (n = 198) tested hostile sexism as a moderator as well as negative emotions as a mediator of consumers’ responses. Especially men with higher hostile sexism showed more purchas...
Source: Sex Roles - September 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Drawback of Sexual Empowerment: Perceiving Women as Emancipated but Still as Sexual Objects
AbstractThe belief that sexualization might be used as a source of power for women in Western societies is spreading (Anderson2014; Erchull and Liss2013). The present research aims at evaluating the interpersonal consequences for women endorsing this belief. In three experimental studies with Belgian and French participants (100 college men in Study 1; 135 men in Study 2; 203 women in Study 3), we examine how women who intentionally self-sexualize (i.e., endorse a sex-is-power belief; SIPB) are perceived on four facets of social judgment (i.e., agency, morality, competence, warmth). Furthermore, we compare the perception o...
Source: Sex Roles - September 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Motherhood and Maternal Fitness of Mothers Whose Parental Rights Were Terminated in Israel: The Importance of Sexual Heteronormality and Legitimacy
AbstractMotherhood represents a social construct that is given meaning within patriarchal systems of law and custom. The present study analyzes the Israeli legal discourse surrounding motherhood, parenting capacity, and sexual conduct of marginalized women whose parental rights were terminated. It examines how information about a mother ’s sexual heteronormal life style played a role in the construction of her motherhood as maternal unfitness. Drawing from 80 court decisions terminating parental rights, three themes emerged: the bad wife as a marker of the bad mother, “legitimate” sexual life as a pre-con...
Source: Sex Roles - September 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Relational Burden of Objectification: Exploring How Past Experiences of Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Are Related to Relationship Competencies
AbstractThe present study examines the associations between past experiences of interpersonal sexual objectification (ISO) on relationship initiation, social withdrawal, and positive relationships (which we refer to as relationship competencies). Consistent with objectification theory, we predicted that ISO would be associated with self-objectification, which would then be associated with body shame, appearance anxiety, and stress. In turn, these negative affect variables would be negatively associated with relationship competencies. Data were collected from 392  U.S. college students (M = 21.42 yea...
Source: Sex Roles - August 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

More than the Sum of Its Parts: Intersections of Sexual Orientation and Race as They Influence Perceptions of Group Similarity and Stereotype Content
AbstractAcross two studies conducted in the United States, we apply an intersectional analysis to investigate how the interaction of sexual orientation (gay versus straight) and race (Black versus White) in male groups affect perceptions of inter-group similarity and stereotype content. The intersectionality hypothesis (Hypothesis 1) predicts that the interaction of race and sexual orientation will influence inter-group similarity perceptions and produce unique stereotype content that is not the result of simply adding race stereotypes to sexual orientation stereotypes. The related prototypicality hypothesis (Hypothesis 2)...
Source: Sex Roles - August 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Predicting Adolescents ’ Self-Objectification from Sexualized Video Game and Instagram Use: A Longitudinal Study
AbstractA growing body of research has demonstrated negative effects of sexualization in the media on adolescents ’ body image, but longitudinal studies and research including interactive and social media are scarce. The current study explored the longitudinal associations of adolescents’ use of sexualized video games (SVG) and sexualized Instagram images (SII) with body image concerns. Specifically, our st udy examined relations between adolescents’ SVG and SII use and appearance comparisons, thin- and muscular-ideal internalization, valuing appearance over competence, and body surveillance. A sample of ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Gendered Brain: Implications of Exposure to Neuroscience Research for Gender Essentialist Beliefs
We examined whether exposure to scientific evidence for gender differences or similarities in the brain affects beliefs about gender essentialism, and indirectly shapes sexism and justification of gender inequality, using samples from Turkey. Study 1 (n = 414 undergraduates) showed that exposure to evidence on brain similarities led to lower gender essentialist beliefs, which, in turn, negatively predicted sexism and justification of gender inequality. Unexpectedly, exposure to evidence on gender differences did not lead to an increase in gend er essentialist beliefs. Although men scored higher than women on ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gendered Racial Stereotypes and Coaching Intercollegiate Athletic Teams: The Representation of Black and Asian Women Coaches on U.S. Women ’s and Men’s Teams
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the representation of Black and Asian women coaches on women ’s and men’s intercollegiate athletic teams. Through the theoretical lens of gendered racial stereotypes associating Black individuals with masculinity and Asian individuals with femininity, the authors hypothesized that, among women coaches, Black women coaches would be better represented on me n’s teams and Asian women coaches better represented on women’s teams. The authors collected archival data from the National Collegiate Athletics Association’s (NCAA) Demographics Database, inc...
Source: Sex Roles - August 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Body Image Comparisons on Social Networking Sites and Chinese Female College Students ’ Restrained Eating: The Roles of Body Shame, Body Appreciation, and Body Mass Index
AbstractBody image comparisons on social networking sites (SNS) have been found to be associated with disordered eating among western young women, however, the inner mechanism driving this association is largely unknown. Based on social comparison, sociocultural, and objectification theories, the present study aimed to investigate the association between body image comparisons on SNS and restrained eating, as well as the mediating role of body shame and the moderating roles of body appreciation and body mass index (BMI) among Chinese young adult women. A sample of 567 Chinese college women were recruited to complete a ques...
Source: Sex Roles - August 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Food for Boys and Food for Girls: Do Preschool Children Hold Gender Stereotypes about Food?
AbstractFamily meals are occasions for socializing children to gender roles and the symbolic meaning of food and eating. One of the relevant symbolic meaning of food concerns its gender connotation: Meat, especially red meat, is considered the quintessential male food, whereas fruit, vegetables, dairy, desserts, and fish are considered typical female food. These food-gender associations have been mainly investigated in adulthood; only a few studies involved children. The present study examined preschool children ’s explicit and implicit food-gender stereotypes, their stereotypical food likings, and mothers’ inf...
Source: Sex Roles - August 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Confronting Sexism: Promoting Confrontation Acceptance and Reducing Stereotyping through Stereotype Framing
AbstractRelative to confrontations of other forms of prejudice and stereotyping, confronting gender stereotypes can be challenging, in part, because recipients may be unlikely to accept such feedback. Given the importance of accepting negative feedback in the promotion of reparative efforts, the present research investigated how to frame confrontations of gender stereotyping to be more readily accepted. Across three experiments (131 and 247  U.S. undergraduates; 174 U.S. MTurk workers), we investigated how different framings for confrontations of gender stereotyping, framed as targeting either positive or negativ...
Source: Sex Roles - July 30, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Feminist Active Commitment and Sexual Harassment Perception among Chinese Women: The Moderating Roles of Targets ’ Gender Stereotypicality and Type of Harassment
AbstractIn recent years, sexual harassment has become more acknowledged in many developed countries. However, in East Asian culture, it is a sensitive and controversial topic upon which few scholars have focused. The current research aimed to explore whether the relationship between feminist identity and perception of sexual harassment was affected by target ’s traditional or nontraditional gender stereotypicality and types of sexual harassment (unwanted sexual attention or gender harassment) among Chinese working women. The participants were 424 heterosexual women, aged 18 to 71 years-old (mdn = 3...
Source: Sex Roles - July 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexual Consent: How Relationships, Gender, and Sexual Self-Disclosure Affect Signaling and Interpreting Cues for Sexual Consent in a Hypothetical Heterosexual Sexual Situation
AbstractSexual communication is critical to establishing sexual encounters. Sexual script theory has been used to explore how individuals communicate sexual consent and perceive sexual consent cues. Gender differences appear to dictate how consent cues are expressed and interpreted. Using a sample of 309  U.S. heterosexual participants (Mage = 34.6 years, range = 19.3–72.2), we explore how single and partnered women and men interpret and perceive cues for consenting to sexual behaviors in a hypothetical situation. Results revealed that relationship length and sexual self-disclosu...
Source: Sex Roles - July 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Women ’s Use of and Access to Illicit Cannabis: An Investigation of Gendered Norms among College Students in Canada
AbstractIn the present study, I investigate how often unacknowledged gendered norms shape young women ’s use of and access to illicit cannabis. I apply a “doing gender” approach to analyse 58 interviews conducted with cannabis using and non-using female and male college students in Canada in 2012, a time when nonmedical cannabis possession and supply were illegal. I identify prominent gendered norms and stereotypes that are critical of women’s use and that create barriers to women’s participation as either buyers or dealers in the illicit cannabis market. I show how these norms reinforce assoc...
Source: Sex Roles - July 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Girls Try, Boys Aim High: Exposing Difference in Implied Ability, Activity, and Agency of Girls Versus Boys in Language on McDonald ’s Happy Meal Boxes
AbstractThe present research investigates subtle yet powerful differences in the language present on cultural artifacts marketed for girls and boys. Through a content analysis of the verbs written on the girl-oriented and boy-oriented sides of all 56 McDonald ’s Happy Meal boxes distributed between 2011 and 2019 in the United States, I uncover stark differences in the implied ability, activity, and agency levels of boys versus girls. The mixed methods nature of my exploration allows for statistical testing coupled with analysis of the language in conte xt, revealing pervasive, nuanced differences that bolster our und...
Source: Sex Roles - July 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Parental Corporal Punishment and Girls ’ Self-Esteem: The Moderating Effects of Girls’ Agency and Communion in China
AbstractThe current study aimed to examine the moderating effects of girls ’ agency and communion in the links between both fathers’ and mothers’ corporal punishment and girls’ self-esteem in China. Chinese girls (n = 302) enrolled in grades 4–8 were instructed to independently complete the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC), the Children’s Sex Role Inventory (CSRI), the Global Self-Worth subscale of Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), and demographic items. Results indicated that bot h fathers’ and mothers’ corporal punishment were not directl...
Source: Sex Roles - July 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Curvy Ideal Silhouette Scale: Measuring Cultural Differences in the Body Shape Ideals of Young U.S. Women
AbstractCultural trends in the United States may be shifting toward a curvy body ideal (defined as a body with a small waist and wider hips, such that the waist-to-hip ratio falls at .70 or below). As such, a thorough exploration of the curvy ideal is warranted, but an existing figural scale to explore this construct is lacking. We developed a computer-generated figural scale that assessed the discrepancy between actual versus ideal bodies on a 5  × 5 matrix crossing a 5-point scale of curviness and a 5-point scale of thinness simultaneously. In a modest-sized sample of young U.S. women (n =&thin...
Source: Sex Roles - July 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Benefit-Finding Improves Well-Being among Women Who Have Experienced Gender Discrimination
AbstractWomen experience gender discrimination in numerous important life domains, which can harm psychological well-being. Benefit-finding —identifying the positive implications of having overcome a negative experience—has been theorized as a coping strategy to improve well-being. We experimentally tested whether prompting women, recruited online, to consider the implications of their past experiences of discrimination for themselv es in the present—and the benefit-finding that follows—can improve well-being. U.S women (n = 409) were asked to consider a past experience of sexism in th...
Source: Sex Roles - July 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Variation in Masculinities and Fathering Behaviors: A Cross-National Comparison of the United States and Canada
AbstractResearch continues to examine the barriers to and facilitators of positive fathering behaviors. One area recently addressed by researchers focuses on the relationship between masculine norm adherence and father involvement. Yet, little work has examined cross-national variability in this relationship —despite differences in gender norms, fathering expectations, and social policies across countries. The present study considers possible differences in the relationship between masculine norm adherence and fathering behaviors in the United States and Canada—two rich, multiethnic countries with m any similar...
Source: Sex Roles - July 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Immoral, Incompetent, and Lacking Warmth: How Stereotypes of Teenage Fathers Compare to Those of Other Parents
AbstractConstructions of teenage fathers largely portray them as absent, criminal, and violent (Johansson and Hammar én2014; Kiselica and Kiselica2014), with their identity tied to the role of breadwinner rather than parent. Although teenage fathers report being judged and belittled, little is known about societally held stereotypes toward teenage fathers. With samples of participants in Australia, we conducted three studies, based on the Stereotype Content Model, to explore societal stereotypes, and attitudes more broadly, of teenage fathers, including factors that may influence attitudes. Study 1 (n =&thins...
Source: Sex Roles - June 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Intersectional Approach to the Glass Ceiling: Gender, Race and Share of Middle and Senior Management in U.S. Workplaces
AbstractA robust body of research examines factors affecting the likelihood that women experience increasing barriers to promotion in workplaces. However, limited research examines how racialized and gendered processes may intersect and work differently for racially and gender marginalized workers. Specifically, the processes relating to a worker ’s ability to reach middle-level management positions (e.g., those managers who oversee a small group of employees) and senior-level management positions (e.g., CEOs and other executive positions) may vary based on workers’ race and gender. Using 2015 EEO-1 data collec...
Source: Sex Roles - June 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Moving Beyond Access: Predictors of Maternity and Paternity Leave Duration in the United States
AbstractParental leave has been linked to numerous positive child and family outcomes, yet little is known about which new mothers and fathers take longer parental leaves. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the financial, demographic, identity-relevant, and job characteristics that predict the duration of maternity and paternity leave in a community sample of 130  U.S. dual-earner couples who were followed across their transition to parenthood in 2008–2009. The findings show that financial characteristics, especially paid leave, are important for leave duration for both parents. In addition, identit...
Source: Sex Roles - June 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Discrepancies in Perceptions of the Bodies of Female Fashion Models
AbstractFor over 30  years, researchers and journalists have made the claim that men do not prefer the level of thinness typically embodied by female fashion models, along with the secondary claim that women overestimate the extent to which men find these ultra-thin bodies attractive. The current studies examined men’ s and women’s perceptions of the bodies of fashion models shown in media images, as well as how each gender believed the other would perceive the models’ bodies. In Study 1, 548 U.S. college students rated the body size and attractiveness of 13 images of models from women’s f...
Source: Sex Roles - June 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

In Their Own Words: The Meaning of the Strong Black Woman Schema among Black U.S. College Women
AbstractBlack girls are socialized to be “strong” under the premise that strength will serve as a means of psychological resistance to oppression prevalent within American society. Although research demonstrates that Black women who internalize ideals of strength (independence, emotional restraint, and self-sacrifice) reap some psychos ocial benefits, strength is linked to several psychological consequences. The growing understanding of these consequences have put Black women at a crossroads—forced to reconcile the wisdom of matriarchs with the detriments of being strong. This tension has pushed Black wom...
Source: Sex Roles - June 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Reducing Transgender Stigma via an E-contact Intervention
AbstractAs a result of persisting stigma, transgender people experience vastly higher rates of harassment, violence, and mental health issues compared to cisgender people. The current study experimentally evaluated a computer-mediated intergroup contact strategy, called E-contact, to reduce transgender stigma. E-contact is a synchronous, cooperative, goal-directed online interaction which is informed by Allport ’s intergroup contact theory. In total, 114 cisgender, heterosexual, Australian undergraduates and community members (83 women, 31 men) were randomly allocated to E-contact with an online confederate who eithe...
Source: Sex Roles - June 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

How Female Disclosure Recipients React to Women Survivors: The Impact of Rape Acknowledgment and Rejection of Rape Myths
AbstractBecause female rape survivors who are listened to and believed have been found to have fewer difficulties, it is essential that researchers examine factors that influence the social reactions survivors receive. The present experiment included 397 female U.S. college-students who were randomly assigned to read a vignette that either reflected an acknowledged rape survivor (i.e., used the word “rape” to describe the incident) or described an unacknowledged rape survivor (e.g., used the word “miscommunication” to describe the incident). The college women then answered questions about their own ...
Source: Sex Roles - June 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Perceived Humanization by Intimate Partners during Pregnancy Is Associated with fewer Depressive Symptoms, Less Body Dissatisfaction, and Greater Sexual Satisfaction through Reduced Self-Objectification
AbstractConsistent with objectification theory, the primary goal of the present study was to investigate the role of perceived humanization from one ’s intimate partner as a predictor of depression (i.e., symptom severity), eating disorders (i.e., body dissatisfaction), and sexual dysfunction (i.e., dissatisfaction with quality of the sexual relationship) during pregnancy through decreased self-objectification. We tested our hypotheses within a dyadic framework, considering the respective contributions of humanization perceived by each partner to self-objectification and well-being in 159 U.S. heterosexual coupl...
Source: Sex Roles - June 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Make it Safe at Night or Teach Women to Fight? Sexism Predicts Views on Men ’s and Women’s Responsibility to Reduce Men’s Violence Toward Women
AbstractThe current study explores associations among sexism, gender, and support for two approaches to reduce men ’s violence toward women targeting (a) men’s behavior to reduce male violence toward women and (b) women’s behavior so that they can avoid male violence. The associations between sexism and support for these two interventions were examined in 21,937 participants in the New Zealand Attitudes an d Values Survey. For both women and men, hostility toward nontraditional women (hostile sexism) was associated with lower support for targeting men to reduce men’s violence against women. To a les...
Source: Sex Roles - June 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“We’re Continually Comparing Ourselves to Something”: Navigating Body Image, Media, and Social Media Ideals at the Nexus of Appearance, Health, and Wellness
AbstractIn modern Western society, women commonly encounter media that conflates appearance and health. However, this phenomenon is seldom explored qualitatively from the perspective of the women who encounter and internalize these messages. The present study describes how a group of women perceive appearance, health, and wellness ideals promoted through media and social media as well as how they attempted to challenge and negotiate these. Qualitative data were collected from in-depth semi-structured interviews with 25 women (aged 22 –72 years) who embraced a holistic health perspective in Perth, Western Austral...
Source: Sex Roles - June 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Talk about Bodies”: Recommendations for Using Transgender-Inclusive Language in Sex Education Curricula
AbstractWe investigated the impact that trans-exclusionary language in existing sex education resources has on the well-being of transgender and non-binary (TNB) young adults. We conducted qualitative interviews with 11  U.S. TNB young adults receiving healthcare in Seattle, five parents, and five healthcare affiliates. Participants described the negative emotional impact of encountering trans-exclusionary language in prior sex education experiences. Participants recommended four practical strategies for adapting language to be inclusive of TNB bodies, experiences, and identities. These included not gendering anatomy ...
Source: Sex Roles - June 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexism and the Effectiveness of Femvertising in China: A Corporate Social Responsibility Perspective
AbstractThe present study draws on theories and prior research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and gender attitudes (i.e., sexism) to understand young Chinese peoples ’ responses toward women-empowering advertising (i.e., femvertising). We conducted two experiments in which male and female Chinese college students (232 in Study 1 and 231 in Study 2) were exposed to either women-empowering or control advertisements (traditional ad in Study 1 and gender-irrelevan t ad in Study 2) and reported their attitudes about the ads as well as their purchase intentions toward the advertised products (shampoo and smartpho...
Source: Sex Roles - June 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Religious Paradox: Can Priming Ideas of God Reduce Rape Victim Blame?
AbstractRape victim blame contributes to unreported incidents of sexual assault and failure to support victims (Ahrens inAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3-4), 263-274,2006). The present study investigated the relationship between religiosity, religious priming, and rape victim blame. Using an online Qualtrics panel, 247  U.S. participants were randomly assigned to either a neutral prime or a religious prime. They then read a short vignette of an acquaintance rape scenario and answered questions regarding perceptions of victim blame, victim credibility, benevolent and hostile sexism, religiosity, religious...
Source: Sex Roles - May 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Remembering about Things to Do Depend on Partnership Status
AbstractProspective memory, which is the ability to remember to do something in the future, is strongly linked to gender stereotypes. Women are expected to play a mnemonic role in romantic heterosexual couples and be successful in prospective memory tasks. Our purpose was to test whether stereotypical expectations manifest in gender differences in remembering to perform intended actions. Furthermore, we investigated whether these differences manifest only when participants are in a relationship with an other-gender partner which puts women under higher social pressure to be effective in prospective remembering. Forty Polis...
Source: Sex Roles - May 13, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Mothers ’ Gender Beliefs Matter for Adolescents’ Academic Achievement and Engagement: An Examination of Ethnically Diverse U.S. Mothers and Adolescents
We examined mothers ’ beliefs about gender-typed values and activities and their associations with the academic skills (i.e., math and reading/language arts) and engagement (i.e., emotional engagement in school) of their adolescent children (13–15 years-old) in a U.S. sample of Black, Chinese American, Latinx, and White families (n = 158). Mothers were more likely to endorse gender-typed activities (e.g., “Boys shouldn’t play with dolls”) than gender-typed values (e.g., “Men should make the important decisions in the family”). We found that Chinese American and L...
Source: Sex Roles - May 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Felt Pressure to Conform to Cultural Gender Roles: Correlates and Consequences
AbstractMany children feel obligated by their parents and peers to behave in ways that are consistent with traditional gender roles of their culture, an obligation referred to as “felt pressure to conform to gender roles” (abbreviated asfelt pressure) (Egan and Perry2001). The current research was designed to examine links between children ’s felt pressure and (a) their own responses to other peers’ “gender policing” and (b) their parents’ reports of gender socialization attitudes. U.S. children (6–12-years-old; 37 girls; 40 boys) completed self-report measures assessing (a) ...
Source: Sex Roles - May 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research