Evidence for a Comprehensive Sexuality Education Intervention that Enhances Chinese Adolescents ’ Sexual Knowledge and Gender Awareness and Empowers Young Women
AbstractWhile Chinese adolescents become more sexually active, their sexual attitudes are profoundly influenced by traditional gender and sexual norms. The tensions between the rapid transition in youth sexuality and lags in sex education call for a paradigm shift of sexuality education in China. The present study examined the effectiveness of a school-based empowerment comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) intervention in changing adolescents ’ sexual knowledge, gender and sexual attitudes, and sexual self-efficacy. We used data from a quasi-experimental intervention study with self-administered pretest and postte...
Source: Sex Roles - April 9, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Measurement of Feminist Identity and Attitudes Over the Past Half Century: A Critical Review and Call for Further Research
AbstractThe study of feminism has  had a long and complicated history in psychological research over the past half century. Although a number of instruments have been designed to assess feminist attitudes and identity in the United States during this time, many contain psychometric problems or sample limitations, or they were deriv ed from outdated models of feminism. Scales designed to assess feminist identity and attitudes require updating to reflect the shifting goals, meanings, and (mis)interpretations of feminism. Given feminism’s changing landscape and the emergence of postfeminism, a critical review of th...
Source: Sex Roles - February 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Why Can ’t You Just Pick One? The Stigmatization of Non-binary/Genderqueer People by Cis and Trans Men and Women: An Empirical Test of Norm-Centered Stigma Theory
AbstractNon-binary and genderqueer identities often resonate with people whose genders are outside the man-woman dichotomy, fluid, androgynous, and/or variant. Yet the gender binary system remains the unwavering norm, often placing non-binary and genderqueer people on the margins of social acceptability, and surprisingly little research has investigated those who stigmatize non-binary/genderqueer people. The current study utilizes Worthen ’s (2020) Norm-Centered Stigma Theory (NCST) and nationally representative data collected from U.S. online panelists (n = 3009: 1419 cis men, 1461 cis women, 74 trans ...
Source: Sex Roles - February 9, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gendered Racism and Mental Health among Young Adult U.S. Black Women: The Moderating Roles of Gendered Racial Identity Centrality and Identity Shifting
AbstractBlack women are uniquely located at the intersection of two marginalized identities which puts them at risk of experiencing a combined discrimination known as gendered racism. Among Black Women, experiencing increased gendered racism is associated with higher poorer mental health which includes higher levels of anxiety and depression. To cope with these experiences of gendered racism, Black women often engage in identity shifting by adjusting one ’s behavior and language to conform to environmental norms. Paradoxically, having a strong sense of one’s gendered racial identity has been theorized to potent...
Source: Sex Roles - January 12, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Examining Care and Opposition in the Narratives of U.S. Local Women of Color Activists
AbstractDespite a long history of critical engagement in local justice movements, the efforts of U.S. Women of Color activists remain understudied. In the present study we examine the manifestations of opposition and care that Women of Color utilize in exercising and sustaining their activism as they work to build justice-oriented change in their communities. We specifically explore how oppositional consciousness and ethics of care shape the perspectives and actions of local Women of Color activists. Qualitative data were collected via oral history interviews with eight local Women of Color activists in Cincinnati, Ohio. U...
Source: Sex Roles - January 11, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Assessing the Rising Emphasis on Muscularity for Women: Psychometric Properties of the Brazilian Version of the Female Muscularity Scale
AbstractThe female appearance ideal has undergone considerable changes in recent years, resulting in increases in drive for muscularity among Brazilian women. The Female Muscularity Scale (FMS) was developed to assess muscularity concerns among U.S. women and was shown to be a promising measure of muscularity-related attitudes and behaviors. The present studies aimed to translate and culturally adapt the FMS to Brazilian Portuguese and to explore its factorial structure among Brazilian women (Study 1:n = 202,Mage = 24.40,SD = 5.03) and to confirm the factor structure as well as evaluate convergent and divergent validity an...
Source: Sex Roles - January 8, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Dressing up with Disney and Make-Believe with Marvel: The Impact of Gendered Costumes on Gender Typing, Prosocial Behavior, and Perseverance during Early Childhood
AbstractWearing costumes is a common experience during early childhood and is often important to sociodramatic play. Costumes tend to be highly gendered for both girls and boys (such as princess and superhero costumes). However, there is very little research on the impact that wearing costumes has on gender-differentiated behavior, such as toy preference, prosocial behavior, or perseverance during early childhood. The current study included 223  U.S. children, aged between 3 and 5 years-old. Children were assigned to wear either a gendered, counter-gendered, or gender-neutral costume, and they then took part in t...
Source: Sex Roles - January 8, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexy, Thin, and White: The Intersection of Sexualization, Body Type, and Race on Stereotypes about Women
AbstractMedia images often present one idealized type of woman: she is thin, sexualized, and White. Although research has shown that there are stereotypes associated with sexualized women, known research has not addressed whether these stereotypes vary based on other characteristics such as body type and race. The current study aimed to examine the stereotypes associated with women who varied in sexualization, as well as body size and race, and whether participants ’ characteristics moderated these stereotypes. U.S. college-aged students (n = 500: 101 men, 393 women, 6 unknown) completed measures of gen...
Source: Sex Roles - January 8, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Resource Transmission is not Reciprocal: A Dyadic Analysis of Family Support, Work-Life Balance, and Life Satisfaction in Dual-Earner Parents with Adolescent Children
AbstractParents in dual-earner couples use family resources to balance work and other life roles, which can influence not only their own well-being, but that of their partner. Following the theories of conservation of resources and role balance, in the present study we proposed that family support is positively associated with life satisfaction, directly and via work-life balance, in dyads of different-sex dual-earner parents with adolescent children 10 –17 years-old. Questionnaires were administered to 303 different-sex dual-earner couples in Temuco, Chile. Both parents answered the family subscale of the Multi...
Source: Sex Roles - January 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“I Can’t Operate, that Boy Is my Son!”: Gender Schemas and a Classic Riddle
AbstractTo study the power of lived experiences and conscious attitudes in helping individuals to overcome nonconscious gender schemas, U.S. university students (n = 152) were administered a classic riddle requiring the gender schema-inconsistent realization that a surgeon could be a woman. Fewer than a third of participants (30%) responded that the surgeon in the riddle could be a woman. More participants (36%) responded to the riddle by noting that the surgeon could be a second father in a same-sex marriage. Regression analysis tested whether demographic, experiential, and attitudinal variables predicted th...
Source: Sex Roles - January 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Young Adult Women ’s Aspirations for Education and Career in Qatar: Active Resistance to Gendered Power
AbstractUsing Komter ’s theory of hidden gender power in marriage, we explore how young Qatari women’s aspirations are influenced by their parents, future husbands, and the internalization of social norms about gender dynamics. Interviewing a convenience sample of 28 Qatari women, ages 18 to 25 years old and attend ing university in Qatar, we explore the ways in which women acquiesce to or resist the gendered barriers they face to fulfilling their aspirations for education and career. Interviews were conducted in Arabic and translated into English. Using a qualitative descriptive design for analysis, inter...
Source: Sex Roles - January 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Sexual Objectification and Alcohol Use Link: The Mediating Roles of Self-Objectification, Enjoyment of Sexualization, Body Shame, and Drinking Motives
AbstractAlcohol consumption is on the rise among U.S. women, especially college women, despite the negative consequences that uniquely and disproportionately affect them. The current work integrates objectification theory and related research with literature on drinking motivations to explore how women ’s experiences living in a culture that constantly objectifies the female body is associated with women’s consumption of alcohol. Among a sample of 539 female U.S. college students, the present study examined how differentially valenced responses to interpersonal sexual objectification (enjoymen t of sexualizatio...
Source: Sex Roles - January 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Contextual Effects on the Gendered Division of Housework: A Cross-Country and Cross-Time Analysis
AbstractIndividuals who espouse an egalitarian gender ideology as well as economically independent women benefit from a more egalitarian division of housework. Although these two individual-level characteristics affect the gender division of housework, each suggests a different mechanism; the former is anchored within an economic logic and the latter within a cultural one. Using data of 25 countries from the 2002 and 2012 “Family and Changing Gender Roles” modules of the International Social Survey Program, we examine whether a country’s mean gender ideology and women’s labor force participation (WL...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What Predicts Attitudes toward Transgender and Nonbinary People? An Exploration of Gender, Authoritarianism, Social Dominance, and Gender Ideology
AbstractTransgender and nonbinary (TGNB) people face discrimination based on negative societal attitudes toward TGNB identities. Our study explored factors contributing to negative TGNB attitudes, including participants ’ gender, age, religion, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and adherence to traditional gender ideologies. Our sample of 808 U.S. Mechanical Turk participants completed measures of RWA, SDO, traditional masculinity and femininity, and transgender attitudes and beliefs. Because TGNB people have diverse identities, we modified the transgender attitudes and belie...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

She Needs to See it to be it: The Importance of Same-Gender Athletic Role Models
AbstractIn four studies, we examined the importance of gender-matched athletic role models for women. Although both women and men may benefit most from exposure to high profile athletes in their own sport, women may have fewer motivating role models available to them. When asked to nominate examples of athletes, women were less likely than men to list same-gender examples (Study 1) and athletes from their own sport (Studies 1 and 2 with 183 and 382 MTurk workers, respectively); even high-performing female athletes were less likely to nominate a same-gender role model than their male peers (Study 3 with 110 varsity athletes...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

To Venture or Not to Venture? Gender Stereotyping and Women ’s Entrepreneurial Aspirations
The objective of the present paper is to explore the relationship between perceived gender stereotyping and women ’s entrepreneurial aspirations. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 was based on a sample of 64 U.S. undergraduate students and focused on the direct and indirect roles of perceived gender stereotyping on entrepreneurial aspirations. Study 2 was based on a sample of 100 mostly working U.S. gradua te students and focused on venture preferences and their moderators. Findings establish that experiencing gender stereotypes is not only negatively associated with women’s entrepreneurial aspirations, ...
Source: Sex Roles - January 4, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Socialisation Influences on Gender Ideologies of Immigrant and Native Youth in Germany, England, Sweden and the Netherlands
AbstractAdolescence is a crucial life course phase for identity formation, and youths ’ gender ideologies significantly predict gendered behaviours and longer-term transitions. With Western post-industrial societies becoming more culturally diverse, the present study provides novel cross-nationally comparative evidence on gender socialisation processes among native and immigrant yo uth in Sweden, Germany, England, and the Netherlands, which vary in gender and migration policies and cultures. In addition to parents’ gender ideologies, the study also considers classmates’ gender ideologies as factors shapin...
Source: Sex Roles - December 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Men ’s Discomfort and Anticipated Sexual Misclassification Due to Counter-Stereotypical Behaviors: the Interplay between Traditional Masculinity Norms and Perceived Men’s Femininization
AbstractThe present research examines men ’s self-conscious discomfort while imagining performing counter-stereotypical (traditionally feminine) behaviors as compared to stereotypical (traditionally masculine) behaviors, as a function of traditional masculinity endorsement and perceived social changes in men’s gender norms (men’s femi nization) in two distinct cultural populations (U.S. Americans and Kosovan Albanians). Experiment 1 (n = 192, U.S.) confirmed prior findings by showing that men, as compared to women, experienced more self-conscious discomfort when imagining performing counter-...
Source: Sex Roles - December 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Confusing Stalking for Romance: Examining the Labeling and Acceptability of Men ’s (Cyber)Stalking of Women
AbstractEvidence suggests that in the United States we live in a stalking culture— a culture in which stalking is normalized, minimized, and romanticized through various cultural institutions. We also live in an era when romantic interactions and dating are increasingly taking place online. Bringing together these ideas, the present study examines perceptions of lay observers of the cyberstalking of women with a focus on gender and stalking context. Drawing on data from an original vignette study via an Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) survey (n = 727), we examine whether (a) observer’s gender, (b) ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Differences in the Intergenerational Transmission Process of Educational Aspirations in Late Childhood
AbstractParents ’ aspirations for their children’s future educational attainment influence their child’s educational aspirations. However, gender differences in the intergenerational transmission of educational aspirations have not been fully explored. The present study employed a two-step model of value tran smission to provide a detailed picture of the gender patterns that occur during the transmission process of educational aspirations in late childhood. A total of 2857 Chinese students (Mage = 9.85 years,SD = .37, range = 8–12; 1373 girls) and their...
Source: Sex Roles - November 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Scripted Reality: How Observers Make Sense of a Non-consensual Sexual Encounter
AbstractResearch on third party reactions to (transgressive) sexual encounters has frequently bypassed the question of how observers categorize such encounters as normal sexual experience, sexual violence, or potentially as something else. In the present study, we investigated the ways in which participants made sense of a nonconsensual sexual encounter between a man (i.e., the initiating party) and either a male or a female student (i.e., the targeted party). We specifically focused on how participants utilized sexual scripts and gender stereotypes to describe what happened and as a means of attributing responsibility to ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Anti-Sexual Assault Activism and Positive Psychological Functioning among Survivors
AbstractIn the present study, we examined the links between involvement in anti-sexual assault activism with post-traumatic growth and positive affect among 282  U.S. adult sexual assault survivors. We also explored potential mediators (i.e., self-blame, shame, community connection, meaning in life, trauma coping self-efficacy, and personal control) in these linkages. Results indicated that involvement in anti-sexual assault activism was positively correla ted with both post-traumatic growth and positive affect. In addition, our findings revealed that involvement in anti-sexual assault activism was indirectly related ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Outperforming iBodies: A Conceptual Framework Integrating Body Performance Self-Tracking Technologies with Body Image and Eating Concerns
AbstractRecently, the use of digital self-tracking devices has increased exponentially. Although these devices are positioned as health-tools, an emerging empirical literature has started to document relationships between the use of such technologies and body image and eating concerns. To date, however, these explorations have not been guided by an integrated theoretical framework. The present manuscript aimed to fill this gap by providing a framework to guide and stimulate this area of research. The proposed framework integrates elements of critical sociocultural theories that have been successful in accounting for the de...
Source: Sex Roles - November 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acknowledgements
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - November 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Biological Clock: Age, Risk, and the Biopolitics of Reproductive Time
AbstractThe present article explores the social and subjective dimensions of the biological clock and its implications for reproductive time through a qualitative study based on 40 life story interviews of women from Santiago de Chile. Although the narrative of the biological clock has become a prevalent frame for addressing reproductive time in the context of late childbearing, age-related infertility, and the use of assisted reproductive technologies, few studies engage in an in-depth analysis of the biological clock —its boundaries, dynamics, and the particular ways in which it shapes women’s views and exper...
Source: Sex Roles - October 31, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Consequences of a Zero-Sum Perspective of Gender Status: Predicting Later Discrimination against Men and Women in Collaborative and Leadership Roles
AbstractThe zero-sum perspective (ZSP) implies gains made by one group (e.g., women) translate into equivalent loss for another group (e.g., men). The present studies extend prior research by examining whether individuals with a ZSP of gender status exhibit later discrimination. In Study 1, 624  U.S. undergraduates completed online measures of political orientation, social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), sexism, and ZSP of gender status. One month later, they read three online scenarios depicting a male target and three depicting a female target in a leader ship or collaborative role, t...
Source: Sex Roles - October 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Media-Induced Sexual Harassment: The Routes from Sexually Objectifying Media to Sexual Harassment
AbstractMedia that sexually objectify women by portraying them in ways that emphasize physical beauty and sexual readiness as well as reduce them to decorative and sexual objects have been traditionally identified by scholars as a powerful cultural risk factor encouraging sexual harassment and sexual violence. In the present article we review the existing empirical evidence linking sexually objectifying media and sexual harassment of women to the overarching and integrative Media-Induced Sexual Harassment framework. This framework offers a coherent scheme for explaining the effects of sexually objectifying media on three t...
Source: Sex Roles - October 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Is Self-Employment a Good Option? Gender, Parents and the Work-Family Interface
AbstractSelf-employment is a career decision that is likely to be influenced by the gendered dynamics of work and care for parents of young children. We test a theoretical model investigating the effect atransition into self-employment (compared to staying organizationally-employed) has on the work-family interface (work-to-family, family-to-work conflicts and work-family enrichment), exploring the key mechanisms of job autonomy, flexibility and work hours for mothers and fathers. We theorize gender differences in this model which we test using national, cohort data of Australian parents ’ employment transitions over...
Source: Sex Roles - October 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Media Frames of Voluntary Childlessness in the United States from 1989 to 2018
AbstractVoluntary childlessness (VC) is a family communication issue which has garnered media attention for over 30  years. Guided by framing theory, in the present study we analyze media frames of voluntary childlessness in the United States between 1989 and 2018 to critically examine the formation of discourses governing childfree families over time. Guided by mixed method media frame analysis, 103 news articl es were inductively thematized and then deductively coded to identify and quantify the dominant frames and the frame elements (i.e., story characters and generalizations to ongoing phenomena) that comprised th...
Source: Sex Roles - October 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Allies Against Sexism: The Impact of Men ’s Egalitarian Versus Paternalistic Confrontation on Women’s Empowerment and Well-Being
AbstractMen as advantaged group members can be involved in actions against inequality. But how do women experience men ’s confrontation of sexism? We examine how women perceive men’s egalitarian versus paternalistic confrontation of sexism. We hypothesized that women would be more likely to report empowerment and well-being (i.e., more happiness and less anger) after egalitarian confrontation than after paternal istic confrontation, which should increase their future intention to confront sexism. Using hypothetical scenarios, the results of three studies conducted in Spain, Germany, and Mexico confirmed our hyp...
Source: Sex Roles - October 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Male, National, and Religious Collective Narcissism Predict Sexism
AbstractResults of three cross-sectional studies indicate that sexism in Poland is associated with collective narcissism —a belief that one’s own group’s (the in-group’s) exaggerated exceptionality is not sufficiently recognized by others—with reference to three social identities: male, religious, and national. In Study 1 (n = 329), male collective narcissism was associated with sexism. This relationship was sequentially mediated by precarious manhood and traditional gender beliefs. In Study 2 (n = 877), Catholic collective narcissism predicted tolerance of violence...
Source: Sex Roles - October 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Interpersonal Sexual Objectification, Fear of Rape, and U.S. College Women ’s Depression
AbstractIn the  present study, we extend prior research on objectification theory by integrating fear of rape into a mediation model predicting depression in college women. With a sample of 496 U.S. college women 18–37 years-old, we examined three aspects of fear of rape (taking rape precautions, safety conce rns, and fear of men), along with body shame and appearance anxiety, as potential mediators in the linkage of interpersonal sexual objectification through body surveillance to depression. We found that sexual objectification was associated with more body surveillance, which in turn was related to ...
Source: Sex Roles - September 29, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Selfie Editing and Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery Among Young Chinese Women: The Role of Self-Objectification and Facial Dissatisfaction
AbstractResearch reveals significant positive associations between selfie editing and consideration of cosmetic surgery, yet little is known about why this relationship exists. To address this question, the present study investigated the association between selfie editing and consideration of cosmetic surgery among young Chinese women and the mediating effects of self-objectification and facial dissatisfaction. A sample of 589 Chinese undergraduate women completed measures of selfie editing, self-objectification, facial dissatisfaction, and consideration of cosmetic surgery. Results showed that selfie editing was significa...
Source: Sex Roles - September 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Does Sex Really Sell? Paradoxical Effects of Sexualization in Advertising on Product Attractiveness and Purchase Intentions
AbstractTo test the “sex sells” assumption, we examined how Italian men and women react to sexualized advertising. Women showed lower product attractiveness and purchase intentions toward products presented with sexualized female models than with neutral ads, whereas men were unaffected by ads’ sexualization (Stu dy 1,n = 251). Study 2 (n = 197) replicated the overall results. Study 3 (n = 198) tested hostile sexism as a moderator as well as negative emotions as a mediator of consumers’ responses. Especially men with higher hostile sexism showed more purchas...
Source: Sex Roles - September 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Drawback of Sexual Empowerment: Perceiving Women as Emancipated but Still as Sexual Objects
AbstractThe belief that sexualization might be used as a source of power for women in Western societies is spreading (Anderson2014; Erchull and Liss2013). The present research aims at evaluating the interpersonal consequences for women endorsing this belief. In three experimental studies with Belgian and French participants (100 college men in Study 1; 135 men in Study 2; 203 women in Study 3), we examine how women who intentionally self-sexualize (i.e., endorse a sex-is-power belief; SIPB) are perceived on four facets of social judgment (i.e., agency, morality, competence, warmth). Furthermore, we compare the perception o...
Source: Sex Roles - September 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Motherhood and Maternal Fitness of Mothers Whose Parental Rights Were Terminated in Israel: The Importance of Sexual Heteronormality and Legitimacy
AbstractMotherhood represents a social construct that is given meaning within patriarchal systems of law and custom. The present study analyzes the Israeli legal discourse surrounding motherhood, parenting capacity, and sexual conduct of marginalized women whose parental rights were terminated. It examines how information about a mother ’s sexual heteronormal life style played a role in the construction of her motherhood as maternal unfitness. Drawing from 80 court decisions terminating parental rights, three themes emerged: the bad wife as a marker of the bad mother, “legitimate” sexual life as a pre-con...
Source: Sex Roles - September 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Relational Burden of Objectification: Exploring How Past Experiences of Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Are Related to Relationship Competencies
AbstractThe present study examines the associations between past experiences of interpersonal sexual objectification (ISO) on relationship initiation, social withdrawal, and positive relationships (which we refer to as relationship competencies). Consistent with objectification theory, we predicted that ISO would be associated with self-objectification, which would then be associated with body shame, appearance anxiety, and stress. In turn, these negative affect variables would be negatively associated with relationship competencies. Data were collected from 392  U.S. college students (M = 21.42 yea...
Source: Sex Roles - August 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

More than the Sum of Its Parts: Intersections of Sexual Orientation and Race as They Influence Perceptions of Group Similarity and Stereotype Content
AbstractAcross two studies conducted in the United States, we apply an intersectional analysis to investigate how the interaction of sexual orientation (gay versus straight) and race (Black versus White) in male groups affect perceptions of inter-group similarity and stereotype content. The intersectionality hypothesis (Hypothesis 1) predicts that the interaction of race and sexual orientation will influence inter-group similarity perceptions and produce unique stereotype content that is not the result of simply adding race stereotypes to sexual orientation stereotypes. The related prototypicality hypothesis (Hypothesis 2)...
Source: Sex Roles - August 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Predicting Adolescents ’ Self-Objectification from Sexualized Video Game and Instagram Use: A Longitudinal Study
AbstractA growing body of research has demonstrated negative effects of sexualization in the media on adolescents ’ body image, but longitudinal studies and research including interactive and social media are scarce. The current study explored the longitudinal associations of adolescents’ use of sexualized video games (SVG) and sexualized Instagram images (SII) with body image concerns. Specifically, our st udy examined relations between adolescents’ SVG and SII use and appearance comparisons, thin- and muscular-ideal internalization, valuing appearance over competence, and body surveillance. A sample of ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Gendered Brain: Implications of Exposure to Neuroscience Research for Gender Essentialist Beliefs
We examined whether exposure to scientific evidence for gender differences or similarities in the brain affects beliefs about gender essentialism, and indirectly shapes sexism and justification of gender inequality, using samples from Turkey. Study 1 (n = 414 undergraduates) showed that exposure to evidence on brain similarities led to lower gender essentialist beliefs, which, in turn, negatively predicted sexism and justification of gender inequality. Unexpectedly, exposure to evidence on gender differences did not lead to an increase in gend er essentialist beliefs. Although men scored higher than women on ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gendered Racial Stereotypes and Coaching Intercollegiate Athletic Teams: The Representation of Black and Asian Women Coaches on U.S. Women ’s and Men’s Teams
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the representation of Black and Asian women coaches on women ’s and men’s intercollegiate athletic teams. Through the theoretical lens of gendered racial stereotypes associating Black individuals with masculinity and Asian individuals with femininity, the authors hypothesized that, among women coaches, Black women coaches would be better represented on me n’s teams and Asian women coaches better represented on women’s teams. The authors collected archival data from the National Collegiate Athletics Association’s (NCAA) Demographics Database, inc...
Source: Sex Roles - August 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Body Image Comparisons on Social Networking Sites and Chinese Female College Students ’ Restrained Eating: The Roles of Body Shame, Body Appreciation, and Body Mass Index
AbstractBody image comparisons on social networking sites (SNS) have been found to be associated with disordered eating among western young women, however, the inner mechanism driving this association is largely unknown. Based on social comparison, sociocultural, and objectification theories, the present study aimed to investigate the association between body image comparisons on SNS and restrained eating, as well as the mediating role of body shame and the moderating roles of body appreciation and body mass index (BMI) among Chinese young adult women. A sample of 567 Chinese college women were recruited to complete a ques...
Source: Sex Roles - August 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Food for Boys and Food for Girls: Do Preschool Children Hold Gender Stereotypes about Food?
AbstractFamily meals are occasions for socializing children to gender roles and the symbolic meaning of food and eating. One of the relevant symbolic meaning of food concerns its gender connotation: Meat, especially red meat, is considered the quintessential male food, whereas fruit, vegetables, dairy, desserts, and fish are considered typical female food. These food-gender associations have been mainly investigated in adulthood; only a few studies involved children. The present study examined preschool children ’s explicit and implicit food-gender stereotypes, their stereotypical food likings, and mothers’ inf...
Source: Sex Roles - August 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Confronting Sexism: Promoting Confrontation Acceptance and Reducing Stereotyping through Stereotype Framing
AbstractRelative to confrontations of other forms of prejudice and stereotyping, confronting gender stereotypes can be challenging, in part, because recipients may be unlikely to accept such feedback. Given the importance of accepting negative feedback in the promotion of reparative efforts, the present research investigated how to frame confrontations of gender stereotyping to be more readily accepted. Across three experiments (131 and 247  U.S. undergraduates; 174 U.S. MTurk workers), we investigated how different framings for confrontations of gender stereotyping, framed as targeting either positive or negativ...
Source: Sex Roles - July 30, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Feminist Active Commitment and Sexual Harassment Perception among Chinese Women: The Moderating Roles of Targets ’ Gender Stereotypicality and Type of Harassment
AbstractIn recent years, sexual harassment has become more acknowledged in many developed countries. However, in East Asian culture, it is a sensitive and controversial topic upon which few scholars have focused. The current research aimed to explore whether the relationship between feminist identity and perception of sexual harassment was affected by target ’s traditional or nontraditional gender stereotypicality and types of sexual harassment (unwanted sexual attention or gender harassment) among Chinese working women. The participants were 424 heterosexual women, aged 18 to 71 years-old (mdn = 3...
Source: Sex Roles - July 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexual Consent: How Relationships, Gender, and Sexual Self-Disclosure Affect Signaling and Interpreting Cues for Sexual Consent in a Hypothetical Heterosexual Sexual Situation
AbstractSexual communication is critical to establishing sexual encounters. Sexual script theory has been used to explore how individuals communicate sexual consent and perceive sexual consent cues. Gender differences appear to dictate how consent cues are expressed and interpreted. Using a sample of 309  U.S. heterosexual participants (Mage = 34.6 years, range = 19.3–72.2), we explore how single and partnered women and men interpret and perceive cues for consenting to sexual behaviors in a hypothetical situation. Results revealed that relationship length and sexual self-disclosu...
Source: Sex Roles - July 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Women ’s Use of and Access to Illicit Cannabis: An Investigation of Gendered Norms among College Students in Canada
AbstractIn the present study, I investigate how often unacknowledged gendered norms shape young women ’s use of and access to illicit cannabis. I apply a “doing gender” approach to analyse 58 interviews conducted with cannabis using and non-using female and male college students in Canada in 2012, a time when nonmedical cannabis possession and supply were illegal. I identify prominent gendered norms and stereotypes that are critical of women’s use and that create barriers to women’s participation as either buyers or dealers in the illicit cannabis market. I show how these norms reinforce assoc...
Source: Sex Roles - July 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Girls Try, Boys Aim High: Exposing Difference in Implied Ability, Activity, and Agency of Girls Versus Boys in Language on McDonald ’s Happy Meal Boxes
AbstractThe present research investigates subtle yet powerful differences in the language present on cultural artifacts marketed for girls and boys. Through a content analysis of the verbs written on the girl-oriented and boy-oriented sides of all 56 McDonald ’s Happy Meal boxes distributed between 2011 and 2019 in the United States, I uncover stark differences in the implied ability, activity, and agency levels of boys versus girls. The mixed methods nature of my exploration allows for statistical testing coupled with analysis of the language in conte xt, revealing pervasive, nuanced differences that bolster our und...
Source: Sex Roles - July 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Parental Corporal Punishment and Girls ’ Self-Esteem: The Moderating Effects of Girls’ Agency and Communion in China
AbstractThe current study aimed to examine the moderating effects of girls ’ agency and communion in the links between both fathers’ and mothers’ corporal punishment and girls’ self-esteem in China. Chinese girls (n = 302) enrolled in grades 4–8 were instructed to independently complete the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC), the Children’s Sex Role Inventory (CSRI), the Global Self-Worth subscale of Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), and demographic items. Results indicated that bot h fathers’ and mothers’ corporal punishment were not directl...
Source: Sex Roles - July 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Curvy Ideal Silhouette Scale: Measuring Cultural Differences in the Body Shape Ideals of Young U.S. Women
AbstractCultural trends in the United States may be shifting toward a curvy body ideal (defined as a body with a small waist and wider hips, such that the waist-to-hip ratio falls at .70 or below). As such, a thorough exploration of the curvy ideal is warranted, but an existing figural scale to explore this construct is lacking. We developed a computer-generated figural scale that assessed the discrepancy between actual versus ideal bodies on a 5  × 5 matrix crossing a 5-point scale of curviness and a 5-point scale of thinness simultaneously. In a modest-sized sample of young U.S. women (n =&thin...
Source: Sex Roles - July 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research