The Gendered Brain: Implications of Exposure to Neuroscience Research for Gender Essentialist Beliefs
We examined whether exposure to scientific evidence for gender differences or similarities in the brain affects beliefs about gender essentialism, and indirectly shapes sexism and justification of gender inequality, using samples from Turkey. Study 1 (n = 414 undergraduates) showed that exposure to evidence on brain similarities led to lower gender essentialist beliefs, which, in turn, negatively predicted sexism and justification of gender inequality. Unexpectedly, exposure to evidence on gender differences did not lead to an increase in gend er essentialist beliefs. Although men scored higher than women on ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gendered Racial Stereotypes and Coaching Intercollegiate Athletic Teams: The Representation of Black and Asian Women Coaches on U.S. Women ’s and Men’s Teams
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the representation of Black and Asian women coaches on women ’s and men’s intercollegiate athletic teams. Through the theoretical lens of gendered racial stereotypes associating Black individuals with masculinity and Asian individuals with femininity, the authors hypothesized that, among women coaches, Black women coaches would be better represented on me n’s teams and Asian women coaches better represented on women’s teams. The authors collected archival data from the National Collegiate Athletics Association’s (NCAA) Demographics Database, inc...
Source: Sex Roles - August 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Body Image Comparisons on Social Networking Sites and Chinese Female College Students ’ Restrained Eating: The Roles of Body Shame, Body Appreciation, and Body Mass Index
AbstractBody image comparisons on social networking sites (SNS) have been found to be associated with disordered eating among western young women, however, the inner mechanism driving this association is largely unknown. Based on social comparison, sociocultural, and objectification theories, the present study aimed to investigate the association between body image comparisons on SNS and restrained eating, as well as the mediating role of body shame and the moderating roles of body appreciation and body mass index (BMI) among Chinese young adult women. A sample of 567 Chinese college women were recruited to complete a ques...
Source: Sex Roles - August 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Food for Boys and Food for Girls: Do Preschool Children Hold Gender Stereotypes about Food?
AbstractFamily meals are occasions for socializing children to gender roles and the symbolic meaning of food and eating. One of the relevant symbolic meaning of food concerns its gender connotation: Meat, especially red meat, is considered the quintessential male food, whereas fruit, vegetables, dairy, desserts, and fish are considered typical female food. These food-gender associations have been mainly investigated in adulthood; only a few studies involved children. The present study examined preschool children ’s explicit and implicit food-gender stereotypes, their stereotypical food likings, and mothers’ inf...
Source: Sex Roles - August 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Confronting Sexism: Promoting Confrontation Acceptance and Reducing Stereotyping through Stereotype Framing
AbstractRelative to confrontations of other forms of prejudice and stereotyping, confronting gender stereotypes can be challenging, in part, because recipients may be unlikely to accept such feedback. Given the importance of accepting negative feedback in the promotion of reparative efforts, the present research investigated how to frame confrontations of gender stereotyping to be more readily accepted. Across three experiments (131 and 247  U.S. undergraduates; 174 U.S. MTurk workers), we investigated how different framings for confrontations of gender stereotyping, framed as targeting either positive or negativ...
Source: Sex Roles - July 31, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Feminist Active Commitment and Sexual Harassment Perception among Chinese Women: The Moderating Roles of Targets ’ Gender Stereotypicality and Type of Harassment
AbstractIn recent years, sexual harassment has become more acknowledged in many developed countries. However, in East Asian culture, it is a sensitive and controversial topic upon which few scholars have focused. The current research aimed to explore whether the relationship between feminist identity and perception of sexual harassment was affected by target ’s traditional or nontraditional gender stereotypicality and types of sexual harassment (unwanted sexual attention or gender harassment) among Chinese working women. The participants were 424 heterosexual women, aged 18 to 71 years-old (mdn = 3...
Source: Sex Roles - July 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexual Consent: How Relationships, Gender, and Sexual Self-Disclosure Affect Signaling and Interpreting Cues for Sexual Consent in a Hypothetical Heterosexual Sexual Situation
AbstractSexual communication is critical to establishing sexual encounters. Sexual script theory has been used to explore how individuals communicate sexual consent and perceive sexual consent cues. Gender differences appear to dictate how consent cues are expressed and interpreted. Using a sample of 309  U.S. heterosexual participants (Mage = 34.6 years, range = 19.3–72.2), we explore how single and partnered women and men interpret and perceive cues for consenting to sexual behaviors in a hypothetical situation. Results revealed that relationship length and sexual self-disclosu...
Source: Sex Roles - July 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Women ’s Use of and Access to Illicit Cannabis: An Investigation of Gendered Norms among College Students in Canada
AbstractIn the present study, I investigate how often unacknowledged gendered norms shape young women ’s use of and access to illicit cannabis. I apply a “doing gender” approach to analyse 58 interviews conducted with cannabis using and non-using female and male college students in Canada in 2012, a time when nonmedical cannabis possession and supply were illegal. I identify prominent gendered norms and stereotypes that are critical of women’s use and that create barriers to women’s participation as either buyers or dealers in the illicit cannabis market. I show how these norms reinforce assoc...
Source: Sex Roles - July 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Girls Try, Boys Aim High: Exposing Difference in Implied Ability, Activity, and Agency of Girls Versus Boys in Language on McDonald ’s Happy Meal Boxes
AbstractThe present research investigates subtle yet powerful differences in the language present on cultural artifacts marketed for girls and boys. Through a content analysis of the verbs written on the girl-oriented and boy-oriented sides of all 56 McDonald ’s Happy Meal boxes distributed between 2011 and 2019 in the United States, I uncover stark differences in the implied ability, activity, and agency levels of boys versus girls. The mixed methods nature of my exploration allows for statistical testing coupled with analysis of the language in conte xt, revealing pervasive, nuanced differences that bolster our und...
Source: Sex Roles - July 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Parental Corporal Punishment and Girls ’ Self-Esteem: The Moderating Effects of Girls’ Agency and Communion in China
AbstractThe current study aimed to examine the moderating effects of girls ’ agency and communion in the links between both fathers’ and mothers’ corporal punishment and girls’ self-esteem in China. Chinese girls (n = 302) enrolled in grades 4–8 were instructed to independently complete the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC), the Children’s Sex Role Inventory (CSRI), the Global Self-Worth subscale of Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), and demographic items. Results indicated that bot h fathers’ and mothers’ corporal punishment were not directl...
Source: Sex Roles - July 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Curvy Ideal Silhouette Scale: Measuring Cultural Differences in the Body Shape Ideals of Young U.S. Women
AbstractCultural trends in the United States may be shifting toward a curvy body ideal (defined as a body with a small waist and wider hips, such that the waist-to-hip ratio falls at .70 or below). As such, a thorough exploration of the curvy ideal is warranted, but an existing figural scale to explore this construct is lacking. We developed a computer-generated figural scale that assessed the discrepancy between actual versus ideal bodies on a 5  × 5 matrix crossing a 5-point scale of curviness and a 5-point scale of thinness simultaneously. In a modest-sized sample of young U.S. women (n =&thin...
Source: Sex Roles - July 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Benefit-Finding Improves Well-Being among Women Who Have Experienced Gender Discrimination
AbstractWomen experience gender discrimination in numerous important life domains, which can harm psychological well-being. Benefit-finding —identifying the positive implications of having overcome a negative experience—has been theorized as a coping strategy to improve well-being. We experimentally tested whether prompting women, recruited online, to consider the implications of their past experiences of discrimination for themselv es in the present—and the benefit-finding that follows—can improve well-being. U.S women (n = 409) were asked to consider a past experience of sexism in th...
Source: Sex Roles - July 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Variation in Masculinities and Fathering Behaviors: A Cross-National Comparison of the United States and Canada
AbstractResearch continues to examine the barriers to and facilitators of positive fathering behaviors. One area recently addressed by researchers focuses on the relationship between masculine norm adherence and father involvement. Yet, little work has examined cross-national variability in this relationship —despite differences in gender norms, fathering expectations, and social policies across countries. The present study considers possible differences in the relationship between masculine norm adherence and fathering behaviors in the United States and Canada—two rich, multiethnic countries with m any similar...
Source: Sex Roles - July 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Immoral, Incompetent, and Lacking Warmth: How Stereotypes of Teenage Fathers Compare to Those of Other Parents
AbstractConstructions of teenage fathers largely portray them as absent, criminal, and violent (Johansson and Hammar én2014; Kiselica and Kiselica2014), with their identity tied to the role of breadwinner rather than parent. Although teenage fathers report being judged and belittled, little is known about societally held stereotypes toward teenage fathers. With samples of participants in Australia, we conducted three studies, based on the Stereotype Content Model, to explore societal stereotypes, and attitudes more broadly, of teenage fathers, including factors that may influence attitudes. Study 1 (n =&thins...
Source: Sex Roles - June 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Intersectional Approach to the Glass Ceiling: Gender, Race and Share of Middle and Senior Management in U.S. Workplaces
AbstractA robust body of research examines factors affecting the likelihood that women experience increasing barriers to promotion in workplaces. However, limited research examines how racialized and gendered processes may intersect and work differently for racially and gender marginalized workers. Specifically, the processes relating to a worker ’s ability to reach middle-level management positions (e.g., those managers who oversee a small group of employees) and senior-level management positions (e.g., CEOs and other executive positions) may vary based on workers’ race and gender. Using 2015 EEO-1 data collec...
Source: Sex Roles - June 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Moving Beyond Access: Predictors of Maternity and Paternity Leave Duration in the United States
AbstractParental leave has been linked to numerous positive child and family outcomes, yet little is known about which new mothers and fathers take longer parental leaves. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the financial, demographic, identity-relevant, and job characteristics that predict the duration of maternity and paternity leave in a community sample of 130  U.S. dual-earner couples who were followed across their transition to parenthood in 2008–2009. The findings show that financial characteristics, especially paid leave, are important for leave duration for both parents. In addition, identit...
Source: Sex Roles - June 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Discrepancies in Perceptions of the Bodies of Female Fashion Models
AbstractFor over 30  years, researchers and journalists have made the claim that men do not prefer the level of thinness typically embodied by female fashion models, along with the secondary claim that women overestimate the extent to which men find these ultra-thin bodies attractive. The current studies examined men’ s and women’s perceptions of the bodies of fashion models shown in media images, as well as how each gender believed the other would perceive the models’ bodies. In Study 1, 548 U.S. college students rated the body size and attractiveness of 13 images of models from women’s f...
Source: Sex Roles - June 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

In Their Own Words: The Meaning of the Strong Black Woman Schema among Black U.S. College Women
AbstractBlack girls are socialized to be “strong” under the premise that strength will serve as a means of psychological resistance to oppression prevalent within American society. Although research demonstrates that Black women who internalize ideals of strength (independence, emotional restraint, and self-sacrifice) reap some psychos ocial benefits, strength is linked to several psychological consequences. The growing understanding of these consequences have put Black women at a crossroads—forced to reconcile the wisdom of matriarchs with the detriments of being strong. This tension has pushed Black wom...
Source: Sex Roles - June 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Reducing Transgender Stigma via an E-contact Intervention
AbstractAs a result of persisting stigma, transgender people experience vastly higher rates of harassment, violence, and mental health issues compared to cisgender people. The current study experimentally evaluated a computer-mediated intergroup contact strategy, called E-contact, to reduce transgender stigma. E-contact is a synchronous, cooperative, goal-directed online interaction which is informed by Allport ’s intergroup contact theory. In total, 114 cisgender, heterosexual, Australian undergraduates and community members (83 women, 31 men) were randomly allocated to E-contact with an online confederate who eithe...
Source: Sex Roles - June 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

How Female Disclosure Recipients React to Women Survivors: The Impact of Rape Acknowledgment and Rejection of Rape Myths
AbstractBecause female rape survivors who are listened to and believed have been found to have fewer difficulties, it is essential that researchers examine factors that influence the social reactions survivors receive. The present experiment included 397 female U.S. college-students who were randomly assigned to read a vignette that either reflected an acknowledged rape survivor (i.e., used the word “rape” to describe the incident) or described an unacknowledged rape survivor (e.g., used the word “miscommunication” to describe the incident). The college women then answered questions about their own ...
Source: Sex Roles - June 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Perceived Humanization by Intimate Partners during Pregnancy Is Associated with fewer Depressive Symptoms, Less Body Dissatisfaction, and Greater Sexual Satisfaction through Reduced Self-Objectification
AbstractConsistent with objectification theory, the primary goal of the present study was to investigate the role of perceived humanization from one ’s intimate partner as a predictor of depression (i.e., symptom severity), eating disorders (i.e., body dissatisfaction), and sexual dysfunction (i.e., dissatisfaction with quality of the sexual relationship) during pregnancy through decreased self-objectification. We tested our hypotheses within a dyadic framework, considering the respective contributions of humanization perceived by each partner to self-objectification and well-being in 159 U.S. heterosexual coupl...
Source: Sex Roles - June 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Make it Safe at Night or Teach Women to Fight? Sexism Predicts Views on Men ’s and Women’s Responsibility to Reduce Men’s Violence Toward Women
AbstractThe current study explores associations among sexism, gender, and support for two approaches to reduce men ’s violence toward women targeting (a) men’s behavior to reduce male violence toward women and (b) women’s behavior so that they can avoid male violence. The associations between sexism and support for these two interventions were examined in 21,937 participants in the New Zealand Attitudes an d Values Survey. For both women and men, hostility toward nontraditional women (hostile sexism) was associated with lower support for targeting men to reduce men’s violence against women. To a les...
Source: Sex Roles - June 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“We’re Continually Comparing Ourselves to Something”: Navigating Body Image, Media, and Social Media Ideals at the Nexus of Appearance, Health, and Wellness
AbstractIn modern Western society, women commonly encounter media that conflates appearance and health. However, this phenomenon is seldom explored qualitatively from the perspective of the women who encounter and internalize these messages. The present study describes how a group of women perceive appearance, health, and wellness ideals promoted through media and social media as well as how they attempted to challenge and negotiate these. Qualitative data were collected from in-depth semi-structured interviews with 25 women (aged 22 –72 years) who embraced a holistic health perspective in Perth, Western Austral...
Source: Sex Roles - June 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Talk about Bodies”: Recommendations for Using Transgender-Inclusive Language in Sex Education Curricula
AbstractWe investigated the impact that trans-exclusionary language in existing sex education resources has on the well-being of transgender and non-binary (TNB) young adults. We conducted qualitative interviews with 11  U.S. TNB young adults receiving healthcare in Seattle, five parents, and five healthcare affiliates. Participants described the negative emotional impact of encountering trans-exclusionary language in prior sex education experiences. Participants recommended four practical strategies for adapting language to be inclusive of TNB bodies, experiences, and identities. These included not gendering anatomy ...
Source: Sex Roles - June 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexism and the Effectiveness of Femvertising in China: A Corporate Social Responsibility Perspective
AbstractThe present study draws on theories and prior research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and gender attitudes (i.e., sexism) to understand young Chinese peoples ’ responses toward women-empowering advertising (i.e., femvertising). We conducted two experiments in which male and female Chinese college students (232 in Study 1 and 231 in Study 2) were exposed to either women-empowering or control advertisements (traditional ad in Study 1 and gender-irrelevan t ad in Study 2) and reported their attitudes about the ads as well as their purchase intentions toward the advertised products (shampoo and smartpho...
Source: Sex Roles - June 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Religious Paradox: Can Priming Ideas of God Reduce Rape Victim Blame?
AbstractRape victim blame contributes to unreported incidents of sexual assault and failure to support victims (Ahrens inAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3-4), 263-274,2006). The present study investigated the relationship between religiosity, religious priming, and rape victim blame. Using an online Qualtrics panel, 247  U.S. participants were randomly assigned to either a neutral prime or a religious prime. They then read a short vignette of an acquaintance rape scenario and answered questions regarding perceptions of victim blame, victim credibility, benevolent and hostile sexism, religiosity, religious...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Remembering about Things to Do Depend on Partnership Status
AbstractProspective memory, which is the ability to remember to do something in the future, is strongly linked to gender stereotypes. Women are expected to play a mnemonic role in romantic heterosexual couples and be successful in prospective memory tasks. Our purpose was to test whether stereotypical expectations manifest in gender differences in remembering to perform intended actions. Furthermore, we investigated whether these differences manifest only when participants are in a relationship with an other-gender partner which puts women under higher social pressure to be effective in prospective remembering. Forty Polis...
Source: Sex Roles - May 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Mothers ’ Gender Beliefs Matter for Adolescents’ Academic Achievement and Engagement: An Examination of Ethnically Diverse U.S. Mothers and Adolescents
We examined mothers ’ beliefs about gender-typed values and activities and their associations with the academic skills (i.e., math and reading/language arts) and engagement (i.e., emotional engagement in school) of their adolescent children (13–15 years-old) in a U.S. sample of Black, Chinese American, Latinx, and White families (n = 158). Mothers were more likely to endorse gender-typed activities (e.g., “Boys shouldn’t play with dolls”) than gender-typed values (e.g., “Men should make the important decisions in the family”). We found that Chinese American and L...
Source: Sex Roles - May 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Felt Pressure to Conform to Cultural Gender Roles: Correlates and Consequences
AbstractMany children feel obligated by their parents and peers to behave in ways that are consistent with traditional gender roles of their culture, an obligation referred to as “felt pressure to conform to gender roles” (abbreviated asfelt pressure) (Egan and Perry2001). The current research was designed to examine links between children ’s felt pressure and (a) their own responses to other peers’ “gender policing” and (b) their parents’ reports of gender socialization attitudes. U.S. children (6–12-years-old; 37 girls; 40 boys) completed self-report measures assessing (a) ...
Source: Sex Roles - May 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Joking for Gender Equality: Subversive Humor Against Sexism Motivates Collective Action in Men and Women with Weaker Feminist Identity
AbstractSubversive humor has historically been considered a way of protesting, raising awareness, and seeking change. However, to date, no known empirical research has explored the consequences of exposure to humor that criticizes, confronts, and questions sexism (i.e., subversive humor against sexism or feminist humor). In the present research, we conducted two experiments to analyze the impact of exposure to subversive humor against sexism (vs. neutral humor) on the degree of involvement in collective action for gender equality, taking into account the feminist identity of participants. The results of Study 1 (n =...
Source: Sex Roles - May 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Is a Reasonable Woman Different from a Reasonable Person? Gender Differences in Perceived Sexual Harassment
We examined whether perceived sexual harassment would vary depending on observers’ gender, on gender of the harasser and of the victim, and on whether and what type of sexual harassment definition was provided to observers. In doing so, we attempted to update and clarify inconsistent results from prior studies. Results from 413 young adult U.S. MTurk participants responding to an online survey revealed fairly large effects for participants’ gender, such that women perceived a wider range of situations as sexual har assment than did men. In addition, the dyad of a man harassing a woman was construed as more...
Source: Sex Roles - May 1, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Seeing What ’s Possible: Videos are more Effective than Written Portrayals for Enhancing the Relatability of Scientists and Promoting Black Female Students’ Interest in STEM
AbstractAlthough interactions with Black female scientists can alter beliefs about STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) and encourage Black female students ’ interest in these fields, this strategy may overburden the few Black women working in STEM. To address this issue, we explored whether a brief video presentation of a Black female computer scientist would be an effective intervention compared to an identical written transcript. We found that par ticipants from the general U.S. population (Experiments 1,n = 201, and 2,n = 745) and Black women U.S. students (Experiment 3...
Source: Sex Roles - April 30, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Wonderful but Weak”: Children’s Ambivalent Attitudes Toward Women
AbstractAccording to ambivalent sexism theory, prejudice toward women has two forms: hostile (i.e., antipathy toward women) and benevolent (i.e., patronizing and paternalistic attitudes toward women). We investigated whether 5- to 11-year-old children ’s gender attitudes exhibit this bipartite, ambivalent structure. Consistent with this possibility, latent variable modeling on a new developmentally appropriate instrument revealed that children’s (n = 237) hostile and benevolent attitudes were two distinct but positively associated factors. Using this instrument, we then explored age and U.S. regio...
Source: Sex Roles - April 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Sum Is Greater than its Parts: Intersectionality and Measurement Validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in Latinx Undergraduates in the United States
AbstractPrevious research has demonstrated disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders for men and ethnic minorities. The current study sought to investigate differences in eating pathology and measurement validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) at the intersection of gender and ethnicity in a nonclinical sample of undergraduates. A total sample of 1173 undergraduates (177 Latino men, 133 non-Latino White men, 554 Latina women, 309 non-Latina White women) completed the EDE-Q as part of a larger study on eating habits. A series of ANOVAs indicated a similar pattern of effects for...
Source: Sex Roles - April 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexualized and Athletic: Viewers ’ Attitudes toward Sexualized Performance Images of Female Athletes
AbstractUsing an experimental methodology, the present study investigated college students ’ attitudes toward media images of female athletes. We are particularly focused on how viewers perceive media images of female athletes that have both an appearance and athleticism focus, such as those found in ESPN’sThe Body Issue. An aim of our study was to assess viewers ’ attitudes toward these images that are not purely objectified, thereby contributing to the objectification literature and providing empirical data relevant to theorizing on the social impact of these images. U.S. college students (n =&th...
Source: Sex Roles - April 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When Gender Stereotypes Get Male Adolescents into Trouble: A Longitudinal Study on Gender Conformity Pressure as a Predictor of School Misconduct
We examined the role of felt pressure to conform to gender stereotypes in predicting school misconduct among male and female adolescents. Data were provided by a three-wave panel study encompassing more than 4200 Flemish e arly adolescents (ages 12–14). Three-level growth curve models showed that male adolescents misbehaved more in school than female adolescents did. Male adolescents also demonstrated a steeper increase in school misconduct than female adolescents. Furthermore, greater felt gender conformity pressur e predicted an increase in school misconduct in male adolescents but not in female adolescents. We con...
Source: Sex Roles - April 16, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Seeing the World in Pink and Blue: Developing and Exploring a New Measure of Essentialistic Thinking about Gender
AbstractEssentialism, or the belief that certain categories have fundamental, intrinsic, and stable essences, pervasively influences social judgments. Among the many groupings that describe people, gender is the most essentialized category yet relatively little is known about individual differences in gender essentialism. To explore this construct in Study 1 with 2996  U.S. participants, we developed a new measure, named the Gender Essentialism Measure (GEM), that offers two advantages over prior measures: (a) we used Item Response Theory to optimize the measure’s psychometrics and (b) we adopted a multidimensio...
Source: Sex Roles - April 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Bias in Student Evaluations of Teaching: Students ’ Self-Affirmation Reduces the Bias by Lowering Evaluations of Male Professors
AbstractStudents evaluate male professors higher than female professors. In a study that we presented to participants as a test of a new form for student evaluations of teaching (SETs), we examined if self-affirmation (contemplating elements that positively contribute to one ’s self-image) reduced the gender bias. Belgian students (n = 568), who were randomly assigned to self-affirm (through either a value-affirmation task or self-superiority priming) or not, read a vignette prompting them to imagine that they had received a good or a bad grade from a male or a female professor. They evaluated the cours...
Source: Sex Roles - April 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Objectification Theory among Black Women in the United States: The Role of Protective Factors
AbstractRecent studies find that Black women experience rates of eating pathology and body dissatisfaction comparable to those of White women. Abundant research suggests that objectification theory could help explain the development and maintenance of eating disorder (ED) symptoms among diverse women. However, research on the applicability of objectification theory to ED symptoms in Black women is equivocal. Specifically, some have suggested that body surveillance might operate differently for Black women. Thus, the current study examined ethnic-racial identity (ERI) commitment and body appreciation as moderators of the me...
Source: Sex Roles - April 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Importance of Perceived Body-Inclusiveness among Physically Active Women in Larger Bodies
AbstractDespite the many benefits of physical activity, women participate less frequently than men do, and this is particularly the case among women in larger bodies. The purpose of the present study was to examine one factor that might influence this pattern: the presence of perceived body-inclusive physical activity spaces. The authors collected data from 253  U.S. women, all of whom were active in some form of physical activity over the past year. Results show that as perceived body-inclusiveness increased, so too did women’s identification with the physical activity. Further analyses showed the relationship ...
Source: Sex Roles - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“We Stand up for Each Other!” An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Collective Action among U.S. College Women
AbstractIn 2018, more women than ever have run for and been elected to public office in the United States. Moreover, there has been an increase in women ’s collective actions aimed at improving the welfare of women. In this social and political context, we examined the motivational mechanisms of collective action among college women in response to gender inequality and discrimination. Little work has addressed how collective action among college w omen emerges in the context of their lives. Based on data from 20 interviews with U.S. college women and using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), we developed ...
Source: Sex Roles - April 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Heteronormativity, Disgust Sensitivity, and Hostile Attitudes toward Gay Men: Potential Mechanisms to Maintain Social Hierarchies
AbstractWithin a social hierarchy based on sexual orientation, heteronormative ideology serves as a social force that maintains dominant group members ’ status (e.g., heterosexual men). Disgust may be an emotional reaction to gay men’s violation of heteronormativity (i.e., same-sex sexual behavior) and motivate hostile attitudes toward gay men to promote interpersonal and intergroup boundaries. Based on this theoretical framework, we hypothesi zed that sexual disgust—compared to pathogen or moral disgust—would be most strongly associated with antigay hostility and would statistically mediate its rel...
Source: Sex Roles - March 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“You Can Catch More Flies with Honey than Vinegar”: Objectification Valence Interacts with Women’s Enjoyment of Sexualization to Influence Social Perceptions
AbstractAlthough objectification is a common experience for women (Fredrickson& Roberts,1997), little is understood about how women perceive sources of objectifying commentary and behaviors. The current work provides a novel integration of objectification and consistency theories to understand how valence of sexual objectification and women ’s feelings about sexual attention interact to predict perceptions of objectifying sources. In two online vignette studies with 121 and 110 U.S. women recruited through MTurk, female participants were asked to recall an experience of complimentary or critical objectificat...
Source: Sex Roles - March 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexual Identification in the United States at the Intersections of Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Immigration, and Education
AbstractSexual identification is shaped by social processes that vary across multiple axes of marginalization and social position —including gender, race/ethnicity, immigration status, and education. However, to date quantitative findings on sexual identity formation have been inconsistent and most existing studies do not use intersectional frameworks. Drawing on intersectional theory and using an innovative multilevel metho d for measuring intersectional effects, we address this gap in our understanding of sexual identification by examining how the likelihood to adopt an exclusively heterosexual sexual identity vari...
Source: Sex Roles - March 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Recruiting (Dis)Advantage: Men ’s Versus Women’s Evaluations of Gender-Based Targeted Recruitment
AbstractOrganizations use targeted recruitment to attract applicants with specific demographic characteristics to diversify the workforce. Research reports mixed findings regarding the extent to which beneficiaries (i.e., those specifically targeted) are attracted to organizations. We explore this inconsistency by investigating how U.S. college men and women (in Studies 1a,n = 239, and 1b,n = 223) and working adults (in Study 2,n = 128) respond to recruitment materials targeted toward members of the traditionally underrepresented gender—a police department that recruits women...
Source: Sex Roles - March 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Adolescents ’ Body Shame and Social Networking Sites: The Mediating Effect of Body Image Control in Photos
AbstractAdolescents ’ social networking site (SNS) use has dramatically grown in the past few years and has increasingly become focused on pictures and visual self-presentation. Attention directed toward online physical appearance appears to trigger some body-related behaviors (e.g., body image monitoring) which pote ntially are related to self-objectification and problematic SNS use. Indeed, the use of social media platforms (including the active creation of content and peer interactions) provides a highly accessible medium for socializing with self-objectification. The present study evaluated the previously un expl...
Source: Sex Roles - March 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Cheers to Equality! Both Hostile and Benevolent Sexism Predict Increases in College Women ’s Alcohol Consumption
AbstractBased on research suggesting that alcohol consumption can be used as a means of coping with negative affect (Cooper et al.1995), the current study examines sexism as a factor in college women ’s alcohol consumption. Despite being more prevalent than hostile sexism, benevolent sexism is often viewed as less sexist (Oswald et al.2018) and having a less aversive impact on women (Bosson et al.2010). To increase understanding of the negative effects of both hostile and benevolent sexism, the current study experimentally manipulated sexism during a lab session and measured 176  U.S. college women’s actua...
Source: Sex Roles - March 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Examination of Daily Experiences of Sexism and Reactivity among Women in U.S. Male-Dominated Academic Majors Using Experience Sampling Methodology
This study utilized experience sampling methodology, which involves participants reporting current experiences multiple times per day, to better understand the unique daily experiences of sexism and reac tivity among women in MDMs compared to both men in MDMs and women in gender-neutral majors (GNMs). For 2 weeks, four times a day, 120 U.S. college students (40 women in MDMs, 40 men in MDMs, 40 women in GNMs) were signaled to report sexist events that occurred in the last hour, current attitudes t oward fit with their major, and academic motivation. Although a majority experienced at least one sexist event during...
Source: Sex Roles - March 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Investigating the Relation between Gender Typicality and Pressure to Conform to Gender Norms
AbstractPrevious research suggested that gender typicality and pressure to conform to gender norms were unrelated; however, this may have been due to how gender typicality was assessed (i.e., by only comparing the self to one ’s own gender collective). In the present study, we used a dual identity approach (comparing oneself to both gender collectives: to own-gender and other-gender individuals) to create typologies of gender typicality to examine how similarity to own and other gender collectives might differentially associate with pressure to conform to gender norms. The potentially unique influence of pressure sou...
Source: Sex Roles - March 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Associations between Physical Self-Concept and Anticipated Guilt and Shame: The Moderating Role of Gender
AbstractBody-related emotions have been identified as important predictors of mental and physical health. Evaluations of the physical self are inextricably linked with body-related emotions. However, little research has addressed how physical self-concept is associated with anticipated emotions and how associations may differ between men and women. The current study examined associations between physical self-concept and anticipated guilt and shame and examined gender as a moderator of these associations. The sample consisted of 353 Canadian undergraduate students (55% female;Mage = 21.94. range =&thin...
Source: Sex Roles - March 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research