“There I am”: A Grounded Theory Study of Young Adults Navigating a Transgender or Gender Nonconforming Identity within a Context of Oppression and Invisibility
Abstract The primary aim of the present study is to extend discussions of navigating an emerging transgender or gender nonconforming (TGNC) identity during youth and young adulthood in a society in which TGNC identities remain invisible and marginalized. Participants include 13 racially/ethnically diverse TGNC young adults ages 18–29 in the United States. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used to collect, analyze, and interpret data. Navigating a TGNC Identity in the Dark emerged as a journey from initial recognition of an existing, but unidentifiable, difference toward awareness and acceptance of ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 4, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Gendered Culture of Scientific Competence: A Study of Scientist Characters in Doctor Who 1963–2013
Abstract The present study examines the relationship between gender and scientific competence in fictional representations of scientists in the British science fiction television program Doctor Who. Previous studies of fictional scientists have argued that women are often depicted as less scientifically capable than men, but these have largely taken a simple demographic approach or focused exclusively on female scientist characters. By examining both male and female scientists (n = 222) depicted over the first 50 years of Doctor Who, our study shows that, although male scientists significantly o...
Source: Sex Roles - March 2, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Job Insecurity and Turnover Intentions: Gender Differences and the Mediating Role of Work Engagement
Abstract The present study tests an integrative model that considers differential gender effects for the mediating role of work engagement on the relationship between job insecurity and turnover intentions in a predominantly Muslim country. Job insecurity was divided into two aspects: general concerns about losing one’s job and concerns about losing the privileges (such as career advancement, stimulating work, competence, and pay development) that come from one’s specific job. Data were collected from 309 private banking employees (107 women, 202 men, with a mean age of 33.58) in Marmara region, Turkey...
Source: Sex Roles - February 29, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Protective Role of Commitment to Social Change in the Relationship Between Women’s Sexist Experiences and Self-Silencing
Abstract Sexism is a stressor for many women and is related to a host of harmful psychosocial outcomes, including silencing oneself in social relationships. The present study examined the relationships among sexist experiences, endorsement of traditional feminine gender roles, commitment to social change, and self-silencing among a sample of 261 women. Results revealed that recent sexist experiences and endorsement of traditional feminine gender roles significantly and positively predicted self-silencing, whereas a commitment to social change significantly and negatively predicted self-silencing. In addition, life...
Source: Sex Roles - February 29, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Influence of Romantic Partners on Women in STEM Majors
Abstract It has been widely suggested that women are under-represented in STEM fields because careers in these fields are perceived as incompatible with other traditionally feminine roles and life goals such as helping others or maintaining a marriage and family. Although a number of studies of women in STEM have examined the importance of the communal goal of helping others, few studies have examined another communal goal, maintaining a romantic relationship. To address this gap, we designed a two-part study to explore the impact of romantic relationships on relationship and career goals of college STEM majors. F...
Source: Sex Roles - February 29, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender, Sexism, Sexual Prejudice, and Identification with U.S. Football and Men’s Figure Skating
Abstract Prejudice against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals can affect a number of attitudes and behaviors relevant to sports; however, there is comparatively little focus on sexual prejudice among sport fans. As such, the purpose of the present study was to examine the associations among sexual prejudice, sexism, gender, and identification with two sports: men’s figure skating and U.S. football. To examine these associations, we draw from multiple perspectives, including Robinson and Trail’s (2005) work on identification, Herek’s (2007, 2009) sexual stigma and prejudice...
Source: Sex Roles - February 24, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Stereotypes Influence How People Explain Gender Disparities in the Workplace
Abstract Gender stereotypes provide viable explanations for why women are underrepresented and men are overrepresented in senior leadership positions and STEM occupations, typically by attributing gender disparities to the dispositions of women and men. The present research examined whether stereotypes also influence attributions to discrimination. Consistent with predictions, undergraduate participants who strongly vs. weakly endorsed gender stereotypes, either chronically (Study 1, N = 147) or when situationally primed (Study 2, N = 258), were less likely to attribute gender dispariti...
Source: Sex Roles - February 23, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Media and Modern Manhood: Testing Associations Between Media Consumption and Young Men’s Acceptance of Traditional Gender Ideologies
Abstract Content analyses of popular media have consistently documented the narrow and stereotypical ways in which women and men are frequently depicted. Despite growing evidence that these media images impact viewers’ attitudes towards women and gender relations, less is known about how specifically media impact men’s beliefs about masculinity. Thus, the purpose of our paper was to explore the association between media use and beliefs about manhood among a sample of undergraduate men from a U.S. Midwestern university. In Study 1 (N = 488), we examine the relation between young men’...
Source: Sex Roles - February 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

When Sexuality Goes to School: Queer Possibilities and Tensions
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - February 20, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Objectification in Popular Music Lyrics: An Examination of Gender and Genre Differences
Abstract Our study investigates the presence of verbal objectification in Rap, Country, Adult Contemporary, Rock, Rhythm & Blues (R&B)/Hip-Hop, and Pop music lyrics through a content analysis of the top 20 U.S. Billboard songs in each category from 2009 to 2013. Using objectification theory, we assessed the inclusion of body objectification, gaze, and attractiveness themes in music lyrics, genre and gender differences in the prevalence of objectification, and self-objectification. In support of previous research on objectification, our findings document clear genre and gender differences. Rap and R&B/H...
Source: Sex Roles - February 19, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Undoing Gender in Housework? Participation in Domestic Chores by Italian Fathers and Children of Different Ages
Abstract The present article questions whether and to what extent daughters and sons learn how to “do gender” in housework in Italy, a country with low levels of societal gender equality. Using nationally representative time use survey data from Italy (Italian National Institute of Statistics, 2014, waves 2002–2003 and 2008–2009), where daily time use diaries are collected for entire households, logistic models investigate to what extent children (age 6–12), teenagers (age 13–19), and young adults (ages 20–25) participate in domestic chores and whether paternal involvement...
Source: Sex Roles - February 18, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender-Typed Play and Social Abilities in Boys and Girls: Are They Related?
Abstract In the present study, we tested whether children’s play with feminine toys is related to social abilities in which girls typically excel. We measured gender-typed toy play, empathy, and comforting skill in 80 Grade 1 children (about 6 years-old) in Hong Kong, China. Toy play was assessed with a standard observational paradigm; empathy, with the Empathy Quotient-Child Questionnaire; and comforting skill, with an infant-cry paradigm requiring the generation of comforting strategies. As predicted, boys and girls differed in their preferences for play with masculine and feminine toys, but not for g...
Source: Sex Roles - February 17, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Stepping Through the Looking Glass: the Future for Women in Sport
Abstract Although the opportunities for women in sport in the USA have grown exponentially since Title IX became a law, there are areas of significant loss and persistent stalls in women’s advancement in sport as the papers in this issue further discuss. Our title, Stepping Through the Looking Glass, suggests that we need to go beyond conventional discussions of female athletes and uncover new directions for women in sport and physical activity in countries around the world. Only then can we discover the future for women’s sport. The papers in this special issue presented a variety of topics including ...
Source: Sex Roles - February 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Multidimensional Gender Identity and Gender-Typed Relationship Styles in Adolescence
Abstract The present study was designed to examine the evidence for Bem’s (1981) proposal that strong identification with gender (felt typicality, felt contentedness, felt pressure) promotes restrictive gender-typing (i.e., a preoccupied relationship style for girls; avoidant relationship style for boys). Per a dimension-specific model, I hypothesized that felt typicality and felt contentedness discourage negative gender-atypical attributes, whereas felt pressure encourages gender-typical attributes and discourages gender-atypical ones, without regard for the valence of the attribute. Early adolescents (N&th...
Source: Sex Roles - February 10, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Emotional Support from Parents and In-Laws: the Roles of Gender and Contact
Abstract After the birth of a child, new mothers and fathers commonly have a substantial amount of contact with their parents and in-laws. However, this contact may not always result in emotional support. We tested if contact, rather than geographical distance, influenced emotional support received from parents and in-laws and whether there were gender differences in these associations. Online questionnaire data were collected in 2008 from a community sample of U.S. first-time mothers (n = 93) and fathers (n = 93) who were in a heterosexual relationship and living together. Results indi...
Source: Sex Roles - February 10, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

But You Don’t Look Like A Scientist!: Women Scientists with Feminine Appearance are Deemed Less Likely to be Scientists
Abstract Two studies examined whether subtle variations in feminine appearance erroneously convey a woman’s likelihood of being a scientist. Eighty photos (half women) of tenured/tenure-track science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) faculty at elite research universities were selected from the Internet. Participants, naïve to the targets’ occupations, rated the photos on femininity and likelihood of being a scientist and an early childhood educator. Linear mixed model analysis treated both participants and stimuli as random factors, enabling generalization to other samples of participants...
Source: Sex Roles - February 5, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Men’s Coercive Control, Partner Violence Perpetration, and Life Satisfaction in Bangladesh
Abstract In patriarchal settings like Bangladesh, men’s use of coercive control to sustain male dominance may increase their life satisfaction if such behavior is widely accepted and internalized. Yet, the influence of men’s perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) on their life satisfaction is unknown. We assess the associations of controlling behavior and IPV perpetration with life satisfaction using data from the Bangladesh component of the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence. This survey was conducted from January to June, 2011 in a multistage, random sample of men from urban Dhaka an...
Source: Sex Roles - February 4, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Is the Stay-At-Home Dad (SAHD) a Feminist Concept? A Genealogical, Relational, and Feminist Critique
This article is a critical examination of the stay-at-home dad (SAHD) as a concept and set of practices in Canada and the United States (U.S.). It is informed by a feminist relational approach to practices of work and care, a genealogical approach to concepts, and by case study material from a 14-year qualitative and longitudinal research program on stay-at-home fathers and breadwinning mothers primarily in Canada, but more recently in both Canada and the U.S. I take up three theoretical and conceptual issues. First, I explicate the concepts of work, care, and choice that underpin the SAHD concept and I explore how these a...
Source: Sex Roles - February 1, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Exposure to Sexualized Advertisements Disrupts Children’s Math Performance by Reducing Working Memory
Abstract Despite the recommendations from the American Psychological Association’s (APA, 2007) task force on the sexualization, no known research has shown the effects of sexualized advertisements on children’s cognitive abilities. The present experiments address this question with a sample of 8–10 year-olds. Primary school children were exposed to advertisements that portrayed sexualized vs. non-sexualized children and then were asked to complete a math test (Study 1 and Study 2) preceded by a working memory test (Study 2). As predicted, exposure to sexualized images of girls hampered girls&rsqu...
Source: Sex Roles - January 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Work-Family Guilt in Parents of Young Children
Abstract The transition to parenthood is a watershed moment for most parents, introducing the possibility of intra-individual and interpersonal growth or decline. Given the increasing number of dual-earner couples in the United States, new parents’ attitudes towards employment (as well as the ways in which they balance employment and personal demands) may have an impact on their overall well-being. Based on anecdotal accounts, guilt about the conflict between employment and family (termed work-family guilt) appears particularly pervasive among U.S. mothers of young children; specifically, mothers, but not fa...
Source: Sex Roles - January 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Do They Stay or Do They Go? The Switching Decisions of Individuals Who Enter Gender Atypical College Majors
Abstract Drawing on prior theoretical and empirical research on gender segregation within educational fields as well as occupations, we examine the pathways of college students who at least initially embark on a gender-atypical path. Specifically, we explore whether women who enter fields that are male-dominated are more likely to switch fields than their female peers who have chosen other fields, as well as whether men who enter female-dominated majors are more likely to subsequently switch fields than their male peers who have chosen a more normative field. We utilize a sample of 3702 students from a nationally ...
Source: Sex Roles - January 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Inequality Within the Ivory Tower
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

#Gendertrolling: A (New) Virtual Iteration of Everyday Misogyny
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Three Decades of State Feminism and Gender Equality Policies in Multi-governed Spain
This article aims to present a consolidated policy area which has enough elements to survive and to keep on developing, although in an increasingly fragmented manner, among regions, despite the ongoing economic crisis and the conservative political turn. Based on theories of state feminism and discursive politics, this article analyzes four important elements for understanding this claim and the evolution of national and regional Spanish gender policies and institutions during the last three decades: women’s machinery, the relations between that machinery and women’s and feminist movements, the policy discourse...
Source: Sex Roles - January 16, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Perception of Honour-Related Violence in Female and Male University Students from Morocco, Cameroon and Italy
Abstract The study investigates the perception of honour-related violence against women in female and male university students from three countries - Morocco, Cameroon, Italy – all considered honour cultures but different in terms of various other sociocultural factors, such as family structure and gender roles. One hundred fourteen Moroccan (47 females, 67 males), 106 Cameroonian (41 females, 65 males) and 103 Italian (51 females, 52 males) students attending Turin University and currently living in Turin, answered a questionnaire to evaluate an act of honour-related violence by a father against his daughte...
Source: Sex Roles - January 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Maternal and Paternal Influences on Young Swedish Women’s and Men’s Cosmetic Surgery Acceptance
In this study, we hypothesized that stronger parental pressure concerning appearance would be related to more cosmetic surgery acceptance in both women and men. We further expected that the link between parental attitudes toward appearance and acceptance of cosmetic surgery would be mediated by body ideal internalization and appearance-related social comparison. Participants included 277 male and female undergraduates in West Sweden (38 % men, mean age = 22.42, SD ± 2.81). Results indicated that the hypothesized relationships were generally supported for men: Multiple mediational analyses showed t...
Source: Sex Roles - January 9, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Inequality in Housework Across 20 European Nations: Lessons from Gender Stratification Theories
Abstract The gendered division of housework is the linchpin in a broader system of gender inequality. Consistent with pioneering feminist theories of gender stratification, this cross-national study demonstrates this approach with multi-level models that consider individual as well as cultural and structural variables that are associated with the absolute time men and women spend doing housework. Building on research relating national gender ideology to the husband-wife shares of housework, this paper asks how gender ideology relates to the absolute amount of time that men and women spend doing housework. Compleme...
Source: Sex Roles - January 9, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Competition, Coping, and Closeness in Young Heterosexual Adults’ Same-Gender Friendships
Abstract We investigated young adults’ experiences with competition in same-gender friendships. Participants were 494 heterosexual undergraduates (M = 19 years; 76% female) from a variety of self-identified ethnic backgrounds who were attending a California, U.S. public university. They completed an online survey about their relationship with their closest same-gender friend. Measures included evaluations of friendship quality as well as perceptions of friendship competition in four domains: peer relations (shared friendships), romance, academics, and sports. Also, individuals rated their level...
Source: Sex Roles - January 8, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Where are the Women in Wikipedia? Understanding the Different Psychological Experiences of Men and Women in Wikipedia
Abstract A comprehensive survey conducted in 2008 found that only 13 % of Wikipedia contributors are women. We proposed that masculine norms for behavior in Wikipedia, which may be further exacerbated by the disinhibiting nature of an online, anonymous environment, lead to different psychological experiences for women and men, which, in turn, explain gender differences in contribution behavior. We hypothesized that, among a sample of individuals who occasionally contribute to Wikipedia, women would report less confidence in their expertise, more discomfort with editing others’ work, and more negative re...
Source: Sex Roles - January 4, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Predicting Attitudes Toward Gay Men with Ambivalence Toward Men, Questioning Religion, and Gender Differences
Abstract Prejudicial attitudes and discrimination toward gay men is a common social problem in Turkey as it is in many other countries. It is important to understand the reasons behind the prejudice against gay men in a sexist and Muslim country, Turkey. The purpose of the study was to predict attitudes toward gay men with ambivalent attitudes toward men (hostility toward men, and benevolence toward men), questioning religion, and gender differences. Three hundred seventy-two (91 male and 281 female) heterosexual Muslim students from several universities in Ankara completed Attitudes toward Gay men Scale, Ambivale...
Source: Sex Roles - December 18, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gay Men’s (Non)Monogamy Ideals and Lived Experience
Abstract The current qualitative study uses a queer-feminist lens to examine variations in ideals and lived experience related to (non)monogamy among a convenience sample of 43 gay men in the U.S., primarily from the southeast. Data were collected in 2003 using in-person and online interviews and focus groups. The specific research questions were: (1) how is (non)monogamy characterized as an ideal?; and (2) what are the lived experiences of gay men doing (non)monogamy in their relationships? Results demonstrated (non)monogamy practices were differentiated by levels of emotional closeness, sex/physical contact, and...
Source: Sex Roles - December 14, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Some Guidelines for Publishing Quantitative Research in Sex Roles
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - December 4, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sex Roles : An Up-to-Date Gender Journal with an Outdated Name
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - December 4, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Inquiry Approaches: Some Loose Guidelines for Publishing in Sex Roles
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - December 4, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Research in Spanish Psychology, Part II: Progress and Complexities in the European Context
Abstract Extending the first Special Issue about gender research in the European country of Spain (Gartzia and Lopez-Zafra 2014), this Special Issue presents a new collection of original studies conducted in Spain that address some of the reasons for the maintenance of gender inequalities in this cultural context. Our approach is to capture the complexities that accompany changes toward gender equality in Spain as in other nations, whereby subtle forms of discrimination coexist with gender awareness-raising policies that ultimately allow for women’s steadily advancement. With the view of providing background...
Source: Sex Roles - December 3, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sex and the Single (Neoliberal) Girl: Perspectives on Being Single Among Socioeconomically Diverse Young Women
Discussion, we reflect on and summarize the thematic patterns found in participants’ responses, with affluent undergraduates seeming to characterize being single as positive and self-enhancing, the low-SES undergraduates seeing it as a strategy for self-advancement, and the low-SES non-students framing it in defensive, self-protective terms. Despite these differences, all participants seemed to draw on common neoliberal tenets. We argue that participants’ predominantly positive perspectives on being single may be at least partially attributed to commercialized feminism and an agency imperative that requires you...
Source: Sex Roles - November 26, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Disrupted Transition to Parenthood: Gender Moderates the Association Between Miscarriage and Uncertainty About Conception
Abstract Miscarriage is a devastating yet common experience shared by women and their partners. Doctors often recommend that couples attempt to conceive again after the experience of a miscarriage, yet little is known about the emotional toll of conception following miscarriage. In the current study, we addressed two primary research questions: (a) How does experiencing a miscarriage relate to recalled emotional experiences of uncertainty surrounding efforts to conceive again? and (b) does gender moderate the association between miscarriage and retrospective accounts of emotions surrounding efforts to conceive? An...
Source: Sex Roles - November 26, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Bodies After Babies: The Impact of Depictions of Recently Post-Partum Celebrities on Non-Pregnant Women’s Body Image
Abstract The present study investigated the notion that the scrutiny of post-partum celebrity bodies by gossip media reinforces the message to all women that their bodies are vulnerable to close, critical scrutiny and that their value is contingent upon their appearance (e.g., Gentile 2011). Using objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts 1997) and the media priming framework (Roskos-Ewoldsen and Roskos-Ewoldsen 2009), the present study examined the impact of depictions of post-partum celebrities on never-pregnant young women. College women (N = 127) were randomly assigned to view full-body ima...
Source: Sex Roles - November 25, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

School Gender Culture and Student Subjective Well-Being
This study explores the impact of school gender culture in the United States on boys’ and girls’ attachment to school and symptoms of depression. We consider multiple dimensions of school gender culture and hypothesize that student subjective well-being is lower in schools with a lower percentage of females, stronger orientations toward marriage, more prevalent contact sports, and a student body that engages more often in fighting and drinking. xThe hypotheses are derived from theories of gendered organizations, heteronormativity, and hypermasculinity. Analyses of a national sample of middle and high school stu...
Source: Sex Roles - November 25, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Crossover, Degendering, or…? A Multidimensional Approach to Life-Span Gender Development
Abstract Inspired by Sandra Bem and subsequent theorists, we examine gender as a multidimensional construct that differs across adulthood to test claims made by two different theories of life-span gender development—that men and women cross over and become more like the other gender with age, and that aging involves degendering or viewing gender as a less central aspect of the self. Self-report survey data from a U.S. sample of men and women recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (25–89 years, M age = 47.38, SD = 14.05) were used to investigate the extent to whic...
Source: Sex Roles - November 23, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Housework as Non-Normative Gender Display Among Lesbians and Gay Men
Abstract I develop a theoretical extension of gender display through housework by incorporating a predicted aversion toward stereotypical gender displays with a tendency toward egalitarianism among lesbians and gay men. I hypothesized that women who express higher levels of stereotypically masculine traits would take on a smaller share of housework than women who express lower levels of masculinity, and that men with higher levels of stereotypically feminine traits would contribute a greater share of housework relative to men with lower levels of these traits, illustrating the display of non-normative gender. Amon...
Source: Sex Roles - November 23, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Enjoyment of Sexualisation and Positive Body Image in Recreational Pole Dancers and University Students
Abstract The study aimed to investigate the construct of enjoyment of sexualisation and how it relates to positive body image. In addition to undergraduate university students, a sample of recreational pole dancers was included to demonstrate how results might generalise to an activity identified as representing both the potentially negative and positive aspects of enjoying sexualisation. Participants were 162 heterosexual Australian women aged 17–30 years from Adelaide, South Australia. They comprised 71 recreational pole dancers recruited from local recreational pole dance schools, and a group of 91 u...
Source: Sex Roles - November 23, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Chivalry’s Double-edged Sword: How Girls’ and Boys’ Paternalistic Attitudes Relate to Their Possible Family and Work Selves
Abstract Paternalism refers to the ideology that women need men’s protection (Glick and Fiske 2001), which is associated with greater acceptance of the gender status quo (Jost and Kay 2005) and lower feelings of agency and competence among women (Dumont et al. 2010). To consider the potential impact of paternalistic attitudes during adolescence, we investigated girls’ and boys’ paternalistic attitudes in relation to their possible family and career selves. The sample comprised 201 U.S. adolescents from California high schools (M age  = 17.49 ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 20, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Boys Act and Girls Appear: A Content Analysis of Gender Stereotypes Associated with Characters in Children’s Popular Culture
We examined popular Halloween costumes (90 female costumes and 90 male costumes) from popular retail websites, 79 popular dolls and 71 popular action figures from national store websites, and Valentines found at two national stores (portraying 54 female and 59 male characters). The coding system was adapted from several different studies. Female characters were far more likely than male characters to be depicted with traditional feminine stereotyped cues (e.g., decorative clothing) and sexually submissive, hyper-feminine cues (e.g., revealing clothing). Male characters were far more likely to be portrayed with traditional ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 20, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Relationship between Mother-Daughter Self-Objectification: Identifying Direct, Indirect, and Conditional Direct Effects
Abstract Grounded in aspects of objectification theory, social learning theory, and attachment theory, we investigated the extent to which mothers’ and daughters’ self-objectification were related to one another’s and also identified three potential intervening factors. Specifically, we hypothesized a (statistical) direct effect of mothers’ self-objectification on that of their daughters’ (H1), as well as investigated a conditional direct effect (i.e., maternal care) (H2) and two indirect effects (i.e., co-rumination and mothers’ weight concerns) (H3) as intervening factors that...
Source: Sex Roles - November 11, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Final Editorial
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - November 7, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Authors’ Reply: Commentaries on Wood & Eagly’s (2015) “Two Traditions of Research on Gender Identity”
Abstract We are pleased that the thoughtful commentaries on Wood and Eagly’s (2015) review accepted our distinction between gender identity research involving personality traits and research involving self-categorization into female or male groups. Although Schmader and Block (2015) argued that self-categorization is the clearer, more fundamental approach, we maintain instead that gender identities encompass both explicit categorization of self and the less explicit endorsement of gender-typical traits. In essence, the trait and categorization analyses are two sides of the same gender identity coin. We also ...
Source: Sex Roles - November 2, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Acknowledgments
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Source: Sex Roles - October 31, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Guest Editor Acknowledgments: 2008–2016
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - October 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Why Do Women Endorse Honor Beliefs? Ambivalent Sexism and Religiosity as Predictors
Abstract Cultures of honor, such as Turkey, prioritize defending individual and family reputations, but in gender-specific ways (Nisbett and Cohen 1996). Men maintain honor via reputations for toughness, aggression, control over women, and avenging insults. Women maintain honor through obedience to men, sexual modesty, and religious piety. Honor beliefs support women’s subordination, justifying violence against them (Sev’er and Yurdakul, Violence against Women, 7, 964–998, 2001) and therefore should be challenged. Understanding honor beliefs’ ideological correlates may inform such efforts. ...
Source: Sex Roles - October 24, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research