The Role of Gender Role Attitudes and Immigrant Generation in Ethnic Minority Women ’s Labor Force Participation in Britain
AbstractAlthough substantial research shows that in Britain some ethnic minority women have significantly lower labor force participation (LFP) rates than White British women, even after controlling for demographic characteristics and education levels, little is known about the reasons underlying the remaining ethnic differences. Using nationally representative data (2010 –2011), I investigate the role of gender role attitudes in explaining the ethnic as well as generational differences in women’s LFP rates. The results show that after controlling for demographic characteristics and education levels, LFP rates ...
Source: Sex Roles - April 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Will They Listen to Me? An Examination of In-Group Gender Bias in Children ’s Communication Beliefs
AbstractWe assessed developmental and gender differences in children ’s beliefs about their peers’ communication styles. We hypothesized that children hold more favorable beliefs (i.e., more responsiveness and less interruption) about communicating with same-gender peers than with other-gender peers. We also explored whether these beliefs related to children’s friendships and expectations that they will feel included or discomfort with their peers. Participants (n = 311) were 159 U.S. third-graders (Mage = 7.13,SD = .49, 52% girls) and 152 U.S. fifth-gra...
Source: Sex Roles - April 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Short-Term Longitudinal Exploration of the Impact of TV Exposure on Objectifying Attitudes Toward Women in Early Adolescent Boys
AbstractThe present study aimed to examine the relationships over time between television viewing (music and tween TV) and boys ’ endorsement of sexualized gender roles, that is, views of women as sex objects and men as sexually dominant, as well as a tendency to objectify women’s bodies. As an additional question, we were interested in how parental socialization to gender roles related to these pathways. A sample of 496 Belgian boys aged 11.18 years (SD = 1.06, range = 9–13), participated in a longitudinal study and completed measures three times at 6-month intervals. Fin...
Source: Sex Roles - April 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Test of the Three-Component Model of Gender-Based Prejudices: Homophobia and Transphobia Are Affected by Raters ’ and Targets’ Assigned Sex at Birth
AbstractThe present study tested a three-component model of homophobia and transphobia that differentiates between general and specifically gender-based social threats that motivate these prejudices. A sample of 187 female and 107 male heterosexual U.S. college undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete survey measures of homophobia and transphobia with either born-female (lesbian and female-to-male transgender, respectively) or born-male (gay man and male-to-female transgender, respectively) targets, as well as measures of religious fundamentalism, right wing authoritarianism, aggression, and ambivalent sexism. The...
Source: Sex Roles - April 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Responding to Sexual Objectification: The Role of Emotions in Influencing Willingness to Undertake Different Types of Action
AbstractWomen may respond to being sexual objectified in different ways, such as confronting the perpetrator, ignoring the action, blaming oneself or considering the action as flattering. However, there has been little research looking at what predicts each of these different responses. The present research assessed the role of emotions in promoting and deterring different anticipated responses to sexual objectification. In both Studies 1 (n = 189) and 2 (n = 187), female participants were asked to imagine themselves in a situation where they received an inappropriate sexual comment. Participant...
Source: Sex Roles - April 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Her/His Ethics? Managerial Ethics in Moral Decision-Making from a Contextual, Gendered, and Relational Perspective
AbstractFor the last decades, the question of differences in the moral judgments of women and men and the role of an “ethics of care” versus an “ethics of justice” have been debated. The aim of the present study was to explore the gendered aspects of leaders’ moral judgments and how they interact with more communal (health/welfare services) versus agentic (banking) organizational contexts. Using qualitat ive-interpretative analysis, 50 men and women Israeli managers participated in in-depth interviews focused on the ways they construct, understand, and react to ethical work dilemmas. Results s...
Source: Sex Roles - April 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Narratives of Israeli Women in Retirement: Rewriting the Gender Contract
AbstractIn the present study, we analyze how older Israeli women narrate, make sense of, and negotiate their lives after retirement. By center-staging women in their life periods of after-care work and paid work, we join emerging feminist research that aims at correcting the middle-age bias in gender studies and the gender bias in retirement studies. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 20 Israeli Jewish heterosexual women of varied class backgrounds who retired in the last 10  years. Conceptualizing retirement as an embedded experience and using the concept of gender contract as an analytical tool, w...
Source: Sex Roles - April 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Empowering Mimicry: Female Leader Role Models Empower Women in Leadership Tasks Through Body Posture Mimicry
AbstractIn two studies we investigated the behavioral process through which visible female leader role models empower women in leadership tasks. We proposed that women tend to mimic the powerful (open) body postures of successful female role models, thus leading to more empowered behavior and better performance on a challenging leadership task, a process we calledempowering mimicry. In Study 1, we experimentally manipulated the body posture of the male and female role models and showed that 86 Swiss college women mimicked the body posture of the female (ingroup) but not the male (outgroup) role model, thus leading to more ...
Source: Sex Roles - April 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Examining the Roles of Self-Objectification and Appearance Expectations in Young Women ’s Indoor Tanning Behavior
AbstractIndoor tanning among U.S. young women is a major public health concern that increases risk for skin cancer. Many young women engage in indoor tanning despite the risks, and prior evidence suggests that appearance-related motivations for tanning may outweigh health concerns. The present study examined appearance expectations as a mediator of the association between young women ’s self-objectification and indoor tanning behavior. Emerging adult college women (n = 332, 18–19-years-old; 66.9% White) provided reports of their self-objectification (operationalized as body surveillance), appearan...
Source: Sex Roles - April 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender, Masculinity Threat, and Support for Transgender Rights: An Experimental Study
AbstractWe explore how gender, attitudes about traditional gender roles, and threats to masculinity and femininity affect U.S. participants ’ support for transgender rights. First, we present analyses using data from the 2016 pilot survey of the American National Election Survey (ANES) showing how men and women differ in their attitudes toward transgender people as measured by thermometer ratings toward transgender people and question s about perceptions of whether they are victims of discrimination. Next, we describe our randomized laboratory experiment, testing three hypotheses/predictions: (a) that men are less su...
Source: Sex Roles - April 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Addressing the Horizontal Gender Division of Labor: A Case Study of Support and Obstacles in a Heavy Industry Plant in Iceland
AbstractIn the present article, we analyze a project in a heavy industry plant in Iceland in which the management aims to hire an equal number of women and men and, thereby, to work against the gender segregation of work. For their efforts, called the 50/50 strategy, the plant has received national and international awards. Observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted during five visits to the plant, including 85 interviews with 72 individuals, 49 women and 23 men. We found extensive support for the policy. The managers saw business opportunities in it, but although the employees supported the policy because ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Lay (Mis)Perceptions of Sexual Harassment toward Transgender, Lesbian, and Gay Employees
AbstractLGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identified) employees commonly experience sexual harassment at work. The perceptions of lay observers of this harassment, such as their coworkers and managers, likely influence beliefs about appropriate individual and organizational responses to harassment. Thus, we conducted an experiment (n = 279 U.S. college students) to examine (a) whether four motivations (power, prejudice, gender policing, and sexual attraction) were perceived to underlie harassment toward LGT individuals; (b) how these motivations were related to perceived acceptability...
Source: Sex Roles - March 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Does Yoga Help College-Aged Women with Body-Image Dissatisfaction Feel Better About Their Bodies?
AbstractA majority of U.S. college-aged women experience body-image dissatisfaction, which puts them at heightened risk for the development of an eating disorder. However, evidence-based psychological interventions for body-image dissatisfaction in this population are not broadly available due to the limited number of trained counselors. We evaluated the efficacy of yoga as a novel treatment for body-image dissatisfaction in otherwise healthy U.S. college-aged women. Female participants between the ages of 18 –30 were randomly assigned to twice weekly yoga classes for 12 weeks or to a wait-listed control conditi...
Source: Sex Roles - March 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Agents, Virgins, S.s, and Losers: The Sexual Typecasting of Young Heterosexual Women
AbstractIn a 2015 contribution toSex Roles’s Feminist Forum, Bay-Cheng argued that contemporary social evaluations of young women hinge not only on their apparent adherence to gendered moralist norms of sexual activity, but also on their performance of a neoliberal script of sexual agency. We used a mixed method approach to test this prop osal, specifically its alignment with the evaluative dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM; Fiske2013). We asked 186  U.S. adults (aged 19–64) to imagine four “sexual types” of young heterosexual women: sexually active and agenticAgents; sexually abs...
Source: Sex Roles - March 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Not “With Her”: How Gendered Political Slogans Affect Conservative Women’s Perceptions of Female Leaders
We examined whether conservative U.S. women would respond in this unfavorable manner toward Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton during the 2016  U.S. Presidential Election. Female undergraduates (n = 140) were randomly assigned to watch a set of three campaign ads that included either no slogan, a gender-neutral slogan (“Stronger Together”), or a gendered slogan (“I’m with Her”). Afterwards, they rated Clinton on dimensions related to interpersonal hostility, competency, and ove rall support. Given its adherence to traditional values and gender roles, we hypothesized that pol...
Source: Sex Roles - March 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Influence of Marriage on Women ’s Participation in Medicine: The Case of Doctor Brides of Pakistan
AbstractDespite the difficulties women in Pakistan face in their access to education, their numbers have been increasing consistently in medical colleges. However, most of the women medical graduates do not go on to practice medicine after graduation. One of the reasons suggested by Pakistani media and society for this increase in the number of women medical graduates is the desirability of women doctors in Pakistan ’s marriage market. Based on an ethnographic study of Pakistani women doctors, I examine why women doctors are considered desirable as spouses and how this influences women’s access to medical educa...
Source: Sex Roles - March 13, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Dancing on the Razor ’s Edge: How Top-Level Women Leaders Manage the Paradoxical Tensions between Agency and Communion
AbstractResearch documents a heightened need for women leaders to be perceived as both agentic and communal and to deal with the incongruity between communal gender-role expectations and agentic leader-role expectations. However, paradoxical tensions exist between agency and communion because they are associated with distinct, and at times conflictual, cognition, behavior, and motivation. How women leaders manage these tensions remains under-explored. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted an inductive study based on interviews with 64 U.S. women executives from various industries. Drawing from a paradox lens,...
Source: Sex Roles - March 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Cross-Cultural Sexism and the Effectiveness of Gender (Non)Traditional Advertising: A Comparison of Purchase Intentions in Poland, South Africa, and the United Kingdom
AbstractFindings regarding the effectiveness of (non)traditionally gendered advertisements are mixed and largely emanate from the United States. We tested the stereotype content model and ambivalent sexism theory cross-nationally in an advertising context and predicted that paternalistic (vs. envious) female stereotypes will trigger higher purchase intent (PI) irrespective of country (Hypothesis 1), viewers ’ benevolent sexism will positively predict PI for paternalistic housewife advertisements (Hypothesis 2a), viewers’ hostile sexism will negatively predict PI for envious businesswoman advertisements (Hypothe...
Source: Sex Roles - March 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Increased Cognitive Load during Video Game Play Reduces Rape Myth Acceptance and Hostile Sexism after Exposure to Sexualized Female Avatars
AbstractThe present study investigated how task demand (cognitive load and interactivity) and avatar sexualization in a video game influenced rape myth acceptance (RMA), hostile sexism, and self-objectification. In a between-subjects design, 300  U.S. college students either played or watched someone else play a videogame as either a sexualized or non-sexualized female avatar under high (memorize 7 symbols) or low (memorize 2 symbols) cognitive load. Hypotheses were derived from the limited capacity model of motivated mediated message proc essing (LC4MP) and perspectives on stereotype processing. Results contradicted ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexual Perfectionism and Women ’s Sexual Assertiveness: Understanding the Unique Effects of Perfectionistic Expectations about Sex Originating from and Directed toward the Sexual Partner
AbstractWe investigated how dimensions of sexual perfectionism (i.e., self-directed, partner-directed, partner-prescribed, and socially-prescribed), which reflect expectations to be a perfect sexual partner, related to sexual assertiveness in women. Women (n = 202) in the United States recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk, who self-reported having previously engaged in sexual activity, served as participants and completed the Multidimensional Sexual Perfectionism Questionnaire and the Sexual Assertiveness Scale. Results revealed that all four dime nsions of sexual perfectionism related to lower levels of ass...
Source: Sex Roles - February 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Both Gender and Cohort Affect Perceptions of Forenames, but Are 25-Year-Old Standards Still Valid?
AbstractForenames signify considerable information, not only about a person ’s gender, but also about that person’s age, social class, and ethnicity, as well as characteristics such as attractiveness and intellectual competence. Kasof (1993) found that research (almost all done in the U.S.) often used gender-typed forenames to identify individuals ’ sex or gender in studies of potential gender bias. However, because these forenames signified other traits unrelated to gender, results were confounded in ways often favoring male stimulus persons. To remedy this situation, Kasof identified pairs of female and...
Source: Sex Roles - February 24, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Beyond Safety: The Plight of Incarcerated Women
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - February 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Importance of Knowing your History: Perceiving Past Women as less Agentic than Contemporary Women Predicts Impaired Quantitative Performance
AbstractResearch on dynamic stereotypes of women has shown that women perceive large differences between contemporary women and women who lived in the past in terms of agentic (or masculine) traits. This temporal discrepancy in agentic attributes of women may suggest that agency is not a stable trait of women and may result in impaired performance in domains associated with agency, such as quantitative reasoning. We propose that women who think that agency has always characterized their gender group would perform better in quantitative tasks. Indeed, we found that as the difference between agency attributed to present and ...
Source: Sex Roles - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Online Commenting About a Victim of Female-on-Male Rape: The Case of Shia LaBeouf ’s Sexual Victimization
AbstractThe present study explored social responses toward male victims of female-perpetrated rape by analyzing 505 comments posted onwww.theGuardian.com in response to the report that Shia LaBeouf, an American actor and director, was raped by a woman. Using inductive thematic analysis, three themes were generated: Victim ’s Character, Victim’s Behavior and Victim’s Story. In addition, each comment was rated regarding its general attitude toward the victim: negative, positive, or mixed. We found that 55% of the comments expressed negative, blaming attitudes toward the victim, 35% were positive and support...
Source: Sex Roles - February 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Linking Job Work Hours to Women ’s Physical Health: The Role of Perceived Unfairness and Household Work Hours
AbstractAlthough the relationship between job work hours and women ’s physical health has been examined, limited empirical research examines the family demand conditions that explain this relationship. Given the challenge of integrating work and family demands, we examine the boundary conditions under which job hours relate to women’s physical health by integra ting the influences of household work hours, perceived unfairness of division of household labor, and traditional gender ideology. Using a large, multi-national archival dataset, our results show that women working long job hours are more likely to repor...
Source: Sex Roles - February 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Talking Politics, Performing Masculinities: Stories of Hong Kong Men Before and After the Umbrella Movement
AbstractThe present paper addresses the under-explored issue of the role of politics in the construction of masculinity, focusing specifically on political Confucianism and men ’s doing of gender in the context of Hong Kong’s recent turbulent history. Between 2014 and 2016 we conducted a series of paired interviews and focus groups with 10 Hong Kong men from differing social backgrounds. Through cooperative grounded inquiry, we demonstrate how political events and figu res provided points of reference for these men in the construction and performance of masculinities. We emphasize the importance of Confucian hi...
Source: Sex Roles - February 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Bias Produces Gender Gaps in STEM Engagement
AbstractWe explored whether the existence of gender bias causes gender gaps in STEM engagement. In Experiment 1 (n = 322), U.S. women projected less sense of belonging, positivity toward, and aspirations to participate in STEM than did men when exposed to the reality of STEM gender bias. These gender differences disappeared when participants were told that STEM exhibits gender equality, suggesting that gend er bias produces STEM gender gaps. Experiment 2 (n = 429) explored whether results generalized to a specific STEM department, and whether organizational efforts to mitigate gender bias might ...
Source: Sex Roles - February 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

How Masculinity Impacts Workplace Experiences
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - February 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Sexualized Appearance and Perceptions of Women ’s Competence and Electability
AbstractWomen do not have a uniform or standardized “suit” to wear in the workplace so they must make daily decisions about what to wear. Some propose that women should dress in a sexualized way to gain power and influence, but sexy attire is related to lower perceptions of competence for women in leadership positions. We explored the effect of r evealing or conservative attire on perceptions of women’s leadership competence. We also used eye-tracker technology to determine whether looking at sexualized body parts (i.e., breasts, hemline) was related to lower perceptions of leadership competence and elect...
Source: Sex Roles - February 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Madonna-Whore Dichotomy: Men Who Perceive Women's Nurturance and Sexuality as Mutually Exclusive Endorse Patriarchy and Show Lower Relationship Satisfaction
AbstractThe Madonna-Whore Dichotomy (MWD) denotes polarized perceptions of women in general as either “good,” chaste, and pure Madonnas or as “bad,” promiscuous, and seductive whores. Whereas prior theories focused on unresolved sexual complexes or evolved psychological tendencies, feminist theory suggests the MWD stems from a desire to reinforce patriarchy. Surveying 108 heterosexual Israel i men revealed a positive association between MWD endorsement and patriarchy-enhancing ideology as assessed by Social Dominance Orientation (preference for hierarchical social structures), Gender-Specific System...
Source: Sex Roles - February 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sexual Orientation and Leadership Suitability: How Being a Gay Man Affects Perceptions of Fit in Gender-Stereotyped Positions
This study provided participants with conflicting information on targets’ agency and communion, and it assessed the same dependent variables of targets’ agency, commu nion, and leadership suitability for various positions. Study 2 again found that ratings of communion significantly mediated the relationship between male targets’ sexuality and perceived suitability for feminine managerial roles. These findings extend previous research on perceptions of gay men i n the workplace and have practical implications for being “out” at work. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What Rights Are Human Rights and Who Gets to Choose?
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Thin Is In? Think Again: The Rising Importance of Muscularity in the Thin Ideal Female Body
AbstractResearch has documented an increased emphasis on fitness in media targeting women. However, it is unclear whether this emphasis has resulted in increased muscularity in the perceived ideal female body shape. We sought to evaluate whether the ideal female figure has incorporated increased muscularity into the existing ideal body type that already emphasizes thinness. In Study 1, 78 female undergraduates evaluated images of U.S. beauty pageant winners over the past 15  years on dimensions of thinness, muscularity, and attractiveness. Results indicated that muscularity and thinness ratings of pageant winners sign...
Source: Sex Roles - January 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Peer Toy Play as a Gateway to Children ’s Gender Flexibility: The Effect of (Counter)Stereotypic Portrayals of Peers in Children’s Magazines
AbstractExtensive evidence has documented the gender stereotypic content of children ’s media, and media is recognized as an important socializing agent for young children. Yet, the precise impact of children’s media on the endorsement of gender-typed attitudes and behaviors has received less scholarly attention. We investigated the impact of stereotypic and counter-stereotypic peers pictured in children’s magazines on children’s gender flexibility around toy play and preferences, playmate choice, and social exclusion behavior (n = 82, age 4–7 years-old). British children we...
Source: Sex Roles - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Exploring Sexuality, Gender Diversity, and Intersectionality with Sexual Minorities and Transgender or Gender Nonconforming Clients
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Balancing the Books: Working Toward Equality in Schools
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Parents ’ Judgments about the Desirability of Toys for Their Children: Associations with Gender Role Attitudes, Gender-typing of Toys, and Demographics
AbstractParental toy selection and responses to toy play are important factors in children ’s gender socialization. Reinforcing play with same-gender-typed toys guides children’s activities and limits their action repertoires in accordance with gender stereotypes. A survey of 324 Austrian parents of three- to six-year-old children was conducted to investigate parents’ judgments abou t the desirability of different types of toys for their children and how these judgements relate to parents’ gender-typing of toys, gender role attitudes, and demographics (age, education, gender). Results show that pare...
Source: Sex Roles - January 13, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

When Job Ads Turn You Down: How Requirements in Job Ads May Stop Instead of Attract Highly Qualified Women
AbstractQualification-based targeted recruitment strategies aim to increase the number of qualified applicants from certain social groups, such as women. Typically, such strategies assume that individuals are more likely to apply for a job when they possess the requirements needed for that job. However, how job seekers react to requirements in job ads is not often considered and is explored in the present study. In two experimental studies with Belgian university students we investigated whether person requirements about which women have negative meta-stereotypes (like the trait of emotionality) and the way such requiremen...
Source: Sex Roles - January 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

LGBTQ Adolescents ’ Positive and Negative Emotions and Experiences in U.S. High Schools
We examined differences in emotions and school experiences across gender identities, sexual identities, and their intersections. LGBTQ adolescents reported significantly more frequent negative emotions and bullying, consistent with previous research. LGBTQ students also reported less frequent experiences of positive emotions at school and less frequent positive school experiences (i.e., positive peer and teacher relationships, subjective task value, and persistence support). Students who were both gender and sexual identity minority reported the most frequent negative and least frequent positive experiences at school, comp...
Source: Sex Roles - January 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Leadership Aspirations and Job and Life Attribute Preferences among U.S. Undergraduate Students
AbstractThe purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in constructs associated with leadership aspirations in a sample of 467 undergraduate students because these might contribute to the gender gap in leadership attainment. The results demonstrated that female participants perceived themselves as having less leadership ability than male participants, and viewed their attainment of leadership roles as less likely than male participants did, which could reflect anticipated discrimination. Female participants reported less interest than male participants in elite leadership positions (e.g., CEO, senator),...
Source: Sex Roles - January 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Changing Versus Protecting the Status Quo: Why Men and Women Engage in Different Types of Action on Behalf of Women
AbstractWe investigate women ’s and men’s willingness to engage in action on behalf of women, and we identify two distinct categories of behavior: action that aims to challenge gender inequality (feminist action) and action that aims to protect women from violence (protective action). Three online studies were conducted. Fo r each study, a U.S. community sample was recruited. In Study 1 (n = 602), women reported greater intentions to engage in feminist action than men did. Men, however, were just as willing as women to participate in protective action. In Study 2 (n = 726), we replic...
Source: Sex Roles - January 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Stroppy Bitches Who Just Need to Learn How to Settle”? Young Single Women and Norms of Femininity and Heterosexuality
AbstractThe (older) single woman has evoked numerous negative sociocultural stereotypes in recent (Western) history, with “being single” a fraught position for (heterosexual) women. Have shifts toward gendered equality changed this stereotype? We interviewed 21 young heterosexual women in Aotearoa (New Zealand) about their experiences of being single. We focused on young adulthood (ages 25–35), a time when having children might be a particularly salient concern. Women’s experiences of being single were inextricable from their wider experiences of heterosexuality and pressures to enact a “desir...
Source: Sex Roles - January 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Beliefs about Sexual Assault in India and Britain are Explained by Attitudes Toward Women and Hostile Sexism
AbstractAs many as one in five women worldwide will be sexually assaulted over the course of her lifetime (United Nations2008), yet myths that downplay the prevalence and severity of sexual assault are still widely accepted. Are myths about sexual assault (rape myths) more likely to be accepted in cultures that endorse more traditional gender roles and attitudes toward women? To explore the relationships among rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward women, and hostile and benevolent sexism, data were collected from 112 Indian and 117 British adults, samples from two cultures differing widely in their gender role traditional...
Source: Sex Roles - January 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What Threatens, Defines: Tracing the Symbolic Boundaries of Contemporary Masculinity
AbstractA robust literature ties emasculation to a range of compensatory behaviors. The present study shifts focus away from the effects of masculinity threat toward an understanding of young adult men ’s experiences of emasculation in their own words. Drawing on 42 in-depth interviews with undergraduate men attending a selective U.S. university, we examine the behaviors, situations, and narratives—both experienced and hypothetical—that privileged young men perceive as threatening. We use th ese data not only to contribute to the empirical literature on masculinity threat, but also as a novel approach for...
Source: Sex Roles - January 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender Labels on Gender-Neutral Colors: Do they Affect Children ’s Color Preferences and Play Performance?
AbstractGender-typed color preferences are widely documented, and there has been increasing concern that they affect children ’s play preferences. However, it is unclear whether such color preferences exist across cultures, how they have emerged, and how gender color-coding affects performance. Chinese preschoolers (n = 126) aged 59 to 94 months were tested. First, we assessed their gender-typed color preferences using forced-choice tasks with color cards and pictures of neutral toys in gender-typed colors. Second, we tested if gender labels could affect color preferences by labeling two gender-neu...
Source: Sex Roles - January 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Dancing Backwards in High Heels: Female Professors Experience More Work Demands and Special Favor Requests, Particularly from Academically Entitled Students
We examined whether students may consequently request more special favors from female professors. In a survey of professors (n = 88) across the United States, Study 1 found that female (versus male) professors reported getting more requests for standard work demands, special favors, and friendship behaviors, with the latter two mediating the professor gender effect on professors ’ self-reported emotional labor. Study 2 utilized an experimental design using a fictitious female or male professor, with college student participants (n = 121) responding to a scenario in which a special favor request might be made of the p...
Source: Sex Roles - January 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Beauty Is in the Eye of the Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation of the Effects of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, and Competence on the Objectifying Gaze in Men
AbstractDespite literature revealing the adverse consequences of objectifying gazes for women, little work has empirically examined origins of objectifying gazes by perceivers. Integrating alcohol myopia and objectification theories, we examined the effects of alcohol as well as perceived female attractiveness, warmth, and competence on objectifying gazes. Specifically, male undergraduates (n = 49) from a large U.S. Midwestern university were administered either an alcoholic or placebo beverage. After consumption, participants were asked to focus on the appearance or personality (counterbalanced) of pictured ...
Source: Sex Roles - December 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Cultural Divide and Changing Beliefs about Gender in the United States, 1974 –2010
AbstractThe present paper examines claims of a growing cultural divide in the United States. We analyze social change in beliefs about gender over a period of 36  years (from 1974 to 2010) in the United States using data from the nationally representative General Social Survey (GSS). We find evidence of growing gender egalitarianism until the mid-1990s, with a reversal between 1996 and 2000, and a decline in state differences in beliefs about gender over ti me in our decomposition analysis and multilevel models. Although we find significant differences in gender beliefs among states in the 1970s based on their voting ...
Source: Sex Roles - December 18, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

More Property, Better Sex? The Relationship Between Property Ownership and Sexual Satisfaction Among Married Vietnamese Women
AbstractSince the first sexuality research in Vietnam was conducted in the late 1980s, scholarship on this field has proliferated and the topic is now less of a taboo in public discourse. Nevertheless, little is known about the area of sexual satisfaction as well as factors determining a satisfying sexual life for Vietnamese women. Using data from 2783 married women collected from a national survey, we explore the relationships among their sexual satisfaction, socio-demographic factors, and sexual experiences with a focus on their association with ownership of property. Results demonstrated that income, ethnicity, living r...
Source: Sex Roles - December 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Brief Primer to Feminist Supervision
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - December 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research