Moving out of the Shadows: Accomplishing Bisexual Motherhood
Abstract Our qualitative study explored the ways in which bisexual mothers came to identify as such and how they structured their relationships and parenting within hetero-patriarchal society. The experiences of seven self-identified White bisexual women (aged from 28 to 56-years-old) from across England and the Republic of Ireland were investigated through semi-structured interviews. Participants’ children were aged 8 months to 28 years old at the time of their interviews. A thematic narrative analysis highlighted the following issues that participants had encountered in constructing their self-id...
Source: Sex Roles - June 21, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

U.S. Television’s “Mean World” for White Women: The Portrayal of Gender and Race on Fictional Crime Dramas
Abstract A quantitative content analysis examined gender and racial stereotypes concerning victim and offender status in fictional crime-based dramas from the 2010–2013 seasons of basic cable television programming in the U.S. Coders documented variables for 983 characters across 65 episodes of television. The study predicted male television characters would stand greater chance than female television characters of being perpetrators of violence and crime. Meanwhile, female television characters would stand greater chance than male television characters of being victims of crime and violence. A z-test of pro...
Source: Sex Roles - June 20, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Revisiting Choice and Victimization: A Commentary on Bay-Cheng’s Agency Matrix
Abstract This commentary explores questions raised by Bay-Cheng’s “Agency Matrix” regarding girls’ and young women’s sexual agency. Focusing primarily on victimization and agency, I explore past attempts in the field to understand victim’s agency from my own work (Lamb, 1996) and the work of Janoff-Bulman and Frieze (1983) in the 80s and 90s to more recent work directly addressing girls’ sexual expression and its relationship to empowerment in the U.S. In this essay I also address problems inherent in feminist conceptualizations of girls and young women as both agents and ...
Source: Sex Roles - June 20, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Two Traditions of Research on Gender Identity
Abstract Gender identity reflects people’s understanding of themselves in terms of cultural definitions of female and male. In this article, we identify two traditions of research on gender identity that capture different aspects of masculine and feminine gender roles. The classic personality approach to gender identity differentiates communal from agentic traits and interests. The gender self-categorization approach comprises identification with the social category of women or men. Based on the compatibility principle, each approach should predict behaviors within the relevant content domain. Thus, personal...
Source: Sex Roles - June 19, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

“Demonstrating Masculinity” Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking
Abstract The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use...
Source: Sex Roles - June 16, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

(Hetero)sexual Compliance with Unwanted Casual Sex: Associations with Feelings about First Sex and Sexual Self-Perceptions
Abstract Sexual compliance involves willing consent to unwanted sex. The current study examined experiences and correlates of compliant sex with casual partners. Guided by sexual script theory, feelings about first partnered sex and sexual self-perceptions were identified as possible correlates of compliance. Potential moderating effects of gender also were explored. Sexually active heterosexual undergraduates (N = 258) in the northeastern U.S. responded to self-report measures of desire, pleasure, and emotional discomfort associated with first partnered sex, sexual self-awareness, sexual refusal eff...
Source: Sex Roles - June 12, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Defining the “Sweet Spot”: A Research Based Primer for Navigating Work and Parenting
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - June 12, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender, Emotion Work, and Relationship Quality: A Daily Diary Study
We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals’ average levels) and state (individuals’ daily fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of daily relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, daily fluctuations, and volatility (overall daily variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of c...
Source: Sex Roles - June 8, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Pursuing Desires Rather Than Duties? The Motivational Content of Gender Stereotypes
Abstract In the current research we provide initial documentation of the motivational content of gender stereotypes. Drawing from regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1987, 1997), we distinguish between whether traits are perceived to be motivated by ideals, including hopes, dreams, and aspirations, and oughts, including responsibilities, duties, and obligations. In two studies of U.S. Midwestern undergraduates, participants rated the extent to which the traits of men or women are motivated by ideals or oughts. Study 1 included 137 introductory psychology students who rated gender stereotypic traits (e.g., competitiv...
Source: Sex Roles - June 8, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Current Intimate Relationship Status, Depression, and Alcohol Use Among Bisexual Women: The Mediating Roles of Bisexual-Specific Minority Stressors
Abstract Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one’s visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these out...
Source: Sex Roles - June 5, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Leaders as Males?: The Role of Industry Gender Composition
In this study, industry gender composition moderated the relationship (a) between leader gender and self-ratings of leadership effectiveness dimensions as well as (b) between leader gender and other-ratings. This was particularly true when looking at perceptions of leaders’ abilities to promote adaptability in their organizations. Overall, this paper provides insight into the role of contextual factors on leadership effectiveness ratings and highlights the importance of considering industry gender composition when utilizing feedback for the purposes of leadership development. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - June 1, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

‘Bout Time! Renegotiating the Body in Roller Derby
In this study, we examined the relation of participation in an alternative sport (i.e., Roller Derby) in the U.S. to women’s body image, gender role and self-esteem. Roller Derby (n = 64) and non-Roller Derby (n = 129) women participated; the majority of the women (59.4 to 77.7 %) were from Texas though participants also were drawn from 14 other states across the U.S. All the women completed quantitative measures of body esteem, self-esteem, and gender characteristics; the athletes also provided qualitative responses to questions about their Roller Derby persona, self-esteem, dress, a...
Source: Sex Roles - May 30, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Justification of Social Inequality in Response to Masculinity Threats
Abstract Research suggests that threatening men’s masculinity can lead to negative attitudes and aggressive behaviors. The current research expands on these findings by examining the effects of masculinity threats on attitudes about social inequality regarding women and gay men. Across studies, we predicted that men whose masculinity was threatened (compared to non-threatening controls) would be more accepting of social inequities that disadvantage women and gay men. Three hundred forty-four male students at a large northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to either (a) take a test about gend...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Constructing a Feminist Reorganization of the Heterosexual Breadwinner/Caregiver Family Model: College Students’ Plans for their Own Future Families
Abstract Although feminist scholars have been criticizing the breadwinner-caregiver model of family division of labor for decades (Ferree 1990, 2010; Friedan 1963) and women are earning a substantial portion of families’ income (Wang et al. 2013) change in family care has been slow. Families are a cultural system that may serve to constrain parents’ behaviors by gender. Although most women are employed, they are also responsible for a bulk of the housework, an examination of men’s behavior can reveal how changes can occur in the breadwinner-caregiver model. Drawing on the social-cognitive theory ...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Planning to Have It All: Emerging Adults’ Expectations of Future Work-Family Conflict
This study assessed college students’ anticipated work-family conflict (family-impacting-work and work-impacting-family), and the family-altering and work-altering strategies they plan to employ to relieve that conflict. Undergraduates (N = 121) from two universities in the southeastern U.S. were surveyed and differences between the genders were tested. There were no significant gender differences in total conflict, but women anticipated more family-impacting-work conflict, while men anticipated greater work-impacting family conflict. Women planned to employ conflict-relieving strategies more than men d...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Bystander Intervention During College Women’s Experiences of Gender Prejudice
Abstract Gender prejudice is a common occurrence that takes place throughout one’s life and in many arenas (i.e., school, work, public settings, etc.). Recent research has explored how targets respond to such experiences, but few studies examine bystander reactions to this type of event. The current study examined four factors (social norms, cost-effectiveness, distress, and feminist activism) that might influence how bystanders respond when witnessing gender prejudice. Male and female college students (n = 291) from the Western United States completed online surveys in which they described the...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Isolating the Gendered Component of Men’s Physical Aggression
Abstract Conformity to masculine norms and gender role conflict have each been linked to male-perpetrated aggression. However, these constructs have been critiqued for their assumption that gender can be reducible to the individual. Despite the excellent psychometric properties and multidimensionality of modern masculinity measures, their positivistic epistemological framework may render them insufficient for predicting the socially constructed gendered component of male aggression. The current study sought to empirically evaluate this critique by analyzing the extent to which gender norm adherence and gender role...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Exonerating Effect of Sexual Objectification: Sexual Objectification Decreases Rapist Blame in a Stranger Rape Context
Abstract A blossoming body of research documents the effect of sexual objectification on social perception, but little is known about the consequences of sexual objectification. This paper examines how sexual objectification influences men and women’s rape perceptions in case of a stranger rape. We hypothesized that victims’ sexual objectification might diminish rapist blame and increase victim blame in cases of stranger rape. Fifty-eight male and 57 female Belgian undergraduate students were assigned to either a sexual objectifying (i.e., body focus) or to a personalized portrayal (i.e., face focus) o...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Images of Sports Women: A review
Abstract Despite the steady increase in volume and quality of women’s sport participation over the last century, female athletes continue to be underrepresented across all platforms of the media. A range of mechanisms have been shown to contribute to media constructions of women’s sport, including the low volume of media attention, narrative focus, prominence of placement or scheduling, linguistic choices and visual representations of women’s sport. This review paper examines scholarly research on the role of print media images in the construction of attitudes towards and perceptions of women&rsq...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Challenges in Evaluating Single-Sex Education
Abstract As a conclusion to the two-part special issue on single-sex education in Sex Roles (Signorella and Bigler 2011, 2013a), this Feminist Forum opens with a concluding commentary by Liben (2015), followed by commentaries on Liben’s paper from three different perspectives. Liben provides an historical overview of gender and education in the U.S. to the present and identifies different approaches to the role of gender in cognition and behavior (essentialist, environmentalist, constructivist). She also reviews evidence on the impact of single-sex education in the U.S. in the context of these and other diff...
Source: Sex Roles - May 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

One Size May Not Fit All: The Need for a More Inclusive and Intersectional Psychological Science on Stigma
Abstract In their review, Remedios and Snyder (2015) articulated how models of stigma fall short of explaining stigmatization of women of color, because they do not consider intersectionality of multiple stigmatized identities. Using the example of the intersection of race and gender, they reviewed literature on how targets of stigma detect and respond to prejudice (making prejudice attributions, the role of identity processes such as centrality), highlighting the complexity of these processes once multiple identities (namely non-prototypical categories of race and gender) are considered. In response, we provide m...
Source: Sex Roles - May 26, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

From the Agency Line to the Picket Line: Neoliberal Ideals, Sexual Realities, and Arguments about Abortion in the U.S.
Abstract Bay-Cheng’s (2015) paper on the Agency Line provides a much-needed articulation of how neoliberal ideals are used in the U.S. to evaluate young women’s sexuality. Our commentary extends her important work in two specific ways. First, we describe the Agency Line as it relates to the concept of hegemonic masculinity. Although young women in the U.S. are not afforded the same entitlement to sexual desire or behavioral freedom as young men, we suggest that the Agency Line is used to evaluate women’s sexuality against traditional masculine norms. Second, we explore how neoliberal ideals are u...
Source: Sex Roles - May 24, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Anecdotal and Essentialist Arguments for Single-Sex Educational Programs Discussed by Liben: a Legal Analysis
Abstract This commentary responds to Liben’s (2015) “Probability Values and Human Values in Evaluating Single-Sex Education” by analyzing the values she discusses through a legal framework. As Liben correctly points out, many single-sex education programs are animated by claims regarding “hard wired” biological sex difference, and proponents tend to value personal experience and anecdote over scientific approaches to data. This commentary recognizes the contribution Liben makes in situating supporters of single-sex education within a particular historical tradition and illuminating th...
Source: Sex Roles - May 17, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Faculty Member Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Male Counselors in Training: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Perspective
Abstract The purpose of this qualitative content analysis was to describe the attitudes and behaviors of U.S. university faculty members (N = 168) who recruit, educate, and develop male students in female-dominated graduate counseling programs. Drawing on social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, and Hackett 1994), we identified three factors (i.e., opportunities, barriers, supports) that potentially influence vocational persistence for U.S. male students planning to enter a female-dominated occupation. The results highlight four distinct educational experiences for male students: leader, st...
Source: Sex Roles - May 15, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

A Review of Bridegroom, The Loving Story, and Bachelorette, 34 : Challenging Cultural Expectations of Marriage
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 15, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Looking at Same-sex Marriage Through a Legal Consciousness Lens
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 12, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Reactions Toward Men Who Have Taken Parental Leave: Does the Length of Parental Leave Matter?
Abstract There is some evidence from research in the US that the work-related characteristics of men who take parental leave may be evaluated negatively. In 2007, Germany introduced a new law that encourages men to take parental leave by granting 2 extra months for the second parent to stay home. Since the introduction of this law, the proportion of fathers taking parental leave has increased substantially, but the majority of men take only the minimum of 2 months. We investigated how taking a parental leave affected perceptions of men who applied for a job that required high qualifications and whether a long...
Source: Sex Roles - May 10, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Expanding the Role of Gender Essentialism in the Single-Sex Education Debate: A Commentary on Liben
Abstract In this commentary we expand on Liben’s exploration of the effects of differing gender conceptualizations – gender essentialism and gender constructivism – on the single-sex education debate within the United States. We examine these conceptualizations in the context of current behavioral and neuroscientific research, which we argue undermines an essentialist view of males and females, while supporting an expanded constructivist version of the account endorsed by Liben. We then extend Liben’s work to argue that gender essentialism has indirectly facilitated popularization of neuros...
Source: Sex Roles - May 9, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Tough Guise: Teaching Violent Masculinity as the Only Way to Be a Man
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 7, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Erratum to: Not the Sum of Its Parts: Decomposing Implicit Academic Stereotypes to Understand Sense of Fit in Math and English
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 6, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Crossing Over: Interdisciplinary Research on “Men who do Women’s Work”
Abstract This commentary discusses three themes that are addressed by this collection of articles on men in female-dominated occupations: (1) the characteristics of men who cross over into female-dominated occupations; (2) how men fare in university programs where they are in the minority; and (3) the on-the-job advantages and disadvantages that accrue to men who do women’s work. Suggestions are made for additional research, and the importance of interdisciplinary approaches is emphasized. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - May 1, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Men in Female-Dominated Vocations: a Rationale for Academic Study and Introduction to the Special Issue
Abstract This introduction to the special issue on men in female-dominated vocations provides a rationale for examining this topic. To date, this topic has garnered relatively little research attention even though work is often identified as a central aspect of men’s identity. Although millions of men perform “women’s work” in a broad range of fields, the extant database around the world focuses primarily on male nurses and teachers and tends to focus on ways to recruit and retain men in these professions. We argue that studying men in female-dominated vocations is important because it furt...
Source: Sex Roles - April 21, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Women: Spotlighting the Relationship with the Self and Relationships with Men
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - April 9, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Re:Cycling the World of Menstruation
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - April 2, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Thoughts on “Probability Values and Human Values in Evaluating Single-Sex Education”
Abstract In her commentary on single-sex instruction in the United States, Liben (2015) puts the research on gender-segregated instruction in the context of values and the larger social and political processes affecting decisions about schooling. In this paper, I elaborate on her history of the research and social issues surrounding gender and achievement. In response to her point that educational decisions involve more than empirical evidence, I describe investigations of knowledge utilization that illuminate the processes by which policymakers and practitioners make school policy decisions, and I offer guidance ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 28, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Increasing our Understanding of Women’s Sexuality
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 19, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender and Bullying: Application of a Three-Factor Model of Gender Stereotyping
Abstract The Three-Factor Model (Choi, Fuqua & Newman, 2008, 2009), which consists of a feminine factor and two masculine ones, seems especially appropriate for explaining the influence of gender-stereotypic traits on bullying, since it specifically differentiates between “social masculinity”, the first masculine factor, dealing with behaviors toward others, and “personal masculinity”, the second masculine factor, tapping the personal dimension. Our study aims at examining the relation between social masculinity and bullying, the prediction being that bullying will be more strongly rela...
Source: Sex Roles - March 14, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Male-Male Advising Relationships in Graduate Psychology: A Diminishing Dyad
Abstract In this article, we seek to advance the study of vocational gender dynamics by exploring a profession in the midst of a marked shift in gender composition – applied professional psychology. Although this field has historically been dominated by men, the ratio of men to women has drastically shifted (Levant 2011; Willyard 2011). It is within this vocational context that we examine the interplay between masculinity and applied psychological training; specifically, within the student-professional relationships formed by males in U.S. graduate psychology programs. Towards this larger goal, we present a ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 13, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Types of Combined Family-to-Work Conflict and Enrichment and Subjective Health in Spain: A Gender Perspective
This study examines how Spanish women and men experience conflict and enrichment concurrently in different types and the consequences to their subjective health. First, in line with social role theory and the gendered division of household labor, we hypothesized on gender differences in the types of combined conflict and enrichment experiences. Second, incorporating theory on conservation of resources and identity, we hypothesized on the consequences of the specific types of combined conflict and enrichment to subjective health from a gender perspective. Using chi-square test on a sample of 236 women and 165 men, we confir...
Source: Sex Roles - March 12, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

How Healthy are Health Magazines? A Comparative Content Analysis of Cover Captions and Images of Women ’ s and Men ’ s Health Magazine
Abstract The current study investigated how “health” messages are marketed to men and women on the newsstand covers of two magazines published under the same brand name and by the same company in the United States (Rodale, Incorporated). Fifty-four covers of Men’s Health and Women’s Health magazine, published between 2006 and 2011, were content analyzed. All captions were coded for message theme, and prominent captions (the caption that covered the greatest amount of surface area on the page) were categorized for type of frame used. The number of objectifying phrases (phrases emphasizing th...
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Re-assessing the Role of Gender-Related Cognitions for Self-Esteem: The Importance of Gender Typicality for Cisgender Adults
Abstract Gender-related cognitions have been central to accounts of well-being in children and adults in the United States. Yet, the child and adult literatures are currently not aligned in how they measure these experiences, creating an asymmetry in scientific understanding. The current investigation aligns these literatures by using the short-form of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem 1981) (adult literature) and a modified version of Egan and Perry’s (2001) Gender Typicality Scale (child literature) with cisgender (i.e., those whose current gender identity is the same label as their birth-assigned cate...
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Empowering (Super) Heroine? The Effects of Sexualized Female Characters in Superhero Films on Women
This study utilized social cognitive and objectification theory frameworks to experimentally examine the short-term effects of exposure to sexualized female characters in superhero films on 83 female viewers’ gender role beliefs, body esteem, and self-objectification. Results show that exposure to the sexualized-victim images of women in superhero films decreased egalitarian gender role beliefs. Exposure to the sexualized-heroine images resulted in lower body esteem. Additionally, a positive effect emerged with a greater belief in the importance of body competence to the self-concept for women who were exposed to the...
Source: Sex Roles - March 10, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Defiantly Fat, Gay, and Sexual: Negotiating Shame of Size and Sexuality
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - March 10, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Nonverbal and Verbal Expressions of Men’s Sexism in Mixed-Gender Interactions
This study examined the nonverbal and verbal expressions of hostile and benevolent sexism. Hostile sexism is sexist antipathy and benevolent sexism is a chivalrous belief that women are warm yet incompetent. We predicted that hostile sexist men would display less affiliative expressions but benevolent sexist men would display more affiliative expressions during mixed-gender interactions. Twenty-seven pairs of U.S. male and female undergraduates from a private university in New England participated in this study. These mixed-gender dyads participated in two social interactions: a structured trivia game followed by an unstru...
Source: Sex Roles - March 7, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Anything but Real: Body Idealization and Objectification of MTV Docusoap Characters
Abstract Women and men featured in U.S. based MTV docusoaps were analyzed to explore body ideal and body exposure norms in a television genre highly popular among young people. Results from a quantitative content analysis of five popular docusoaps from 2004 to 2011 demonstrated that, although these shows were labeled as reality-based, the bodies displayed in them were highly idealized. Close to half of women’s bodies were coded as curvaceously thin and more than half of men’s bodies were coded as muscularly lean. Over two-thirds of women’s bodies and close to three-quarters of men’s bodies ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 6, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Agency Line: A Neoliberal Metric for Appraising Young Women’s Sexuality
Abstract Young women’s sexuality traditionally has been marked along a gendered moralist continuum of sexual activity, ranging from virtuous (virgins) to licentious (s.s). However, this one-dimensional model cannot easily accommodate substantive changes in the norms that influence girls’ sexualities. Contemporary scholarship generated across the Anglophone West includes many signs that such a shift has occurred, ushered in by the cultural and ideological suffusion of neoliberalism. I enlist interdisciplinary and international evidence of neoliberalism’s influence on constructions of girls’ ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 5, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Perceptions of Dating Behavior: The Role of Ambivalent Sexism
Abstract This research investigates whether ambivalent sexism impacts individuals’ perceptions of what is appropriate and valued dating behavior, as these perceptions may contribute to the perpetuation of traditional dating scripts. Two hundred seventeen undergraduate students from the Midwestern United States read a gender-stereotypic, gender-counter stereotypic, or egalitarian heterosexual dating vignette. Participants made judgments of appropriateness, warmth, and competence separately for the man and woman on the date. Overall, gender stereotypic dates were evaluated most positively, consistent with prev...
Source: Sex Roles - February 28, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

How Women of Color Detect and Respond to Multiple Forms of Prejudice
Abstract The processes by which women of color and White women living in the United States detect and respond to prejudice may differ because women of color experience racism, sexism and intersectional bias. This review builds on past research by articulating how existing process models of stigmatization, when applied to the stigmatization of women of color, leave important research questions unanswered. Stigmatized individuals’ interpretations of and responses to others’ behaviors are continuously shaped by the possibility that they will be targeted by prejudice. In each interaction in which prejudice...
Source: Sex Roles - February 26, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Reciprocal Relationships Between Music Television Exposure and Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviors: The Role of Perceived Peer Norms
Abstract A three-wave panel study (2010–2011) was conducted among 515 adolescents in Belgium (Flanders) (mean age = 14.07) to examine the role of perceived male and female peer norms in the reciprocal relationship between music television exposure and sexual behavior. Structural equation models revealed several unexpected findings. First, the previously reported reciprocal relationships between sexual behavior and sexual media use appears to be dependent on the gender of the adolescent. It was found that music television exposure directly affected sexual behavior in boys, while, the reverse eff...
Source: Sex Roles - February 24, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Ready for Anything the World Gives Her? : A Critical Look at Sports-Based Positive Youth Development for Girls
Abstract Girl-centered sport and physical activity programs that are grounded in a positive youth development approach have grown tremendously in the United States since the 1990s. While research on the efficacy of sports-based positive youth development is limited, recent studies conducted in the United States suggest these programs yield benefits. Our assessment of the literature and programming efforts however highlight a significant gap in the theoretical assumptions of girl-centered, sports-based positive youth development: an understanding of the complexity of sport and physical activity within a gendered co...
Source: Sex Roles - February 20, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research