Sport = Male… But Not All Sports: Investigating the Gender Stereotypes of Sport Activities at the Explicit and Implicit Levels
Abstract The main objectives of the present studies were to update the explicit gender stereotypes linked to sport activities and examine whether they are associated with gender, age, personal practice, and general feminization rates of participation (Study 1, N = 690), as well as to investigate the potential effects of implicit gender sport stereotypes on the categorization of gendered names (Study 2, N = 53) and on perceptions of feminine, neutral, and masculine silhouettes (Study 3, N = 42). Study 1 indicated that explicit gender stereotypes are still attached to sport ...
Source: Sex Roles - June 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Empathic Sadness towards Persons of the Same versus Opposite Sex during Adolescence
Abstract Although gender differences in affective empathy are well established, evidence of gender differences in the development of affective empathy is inconsistent. Consideration of same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy may assist in elucidating these inconsistencies. Gender differences were investigated in the experience of empathic sadness towards same- versus other-sex targets. The relationships were studied cross-sectionally (N = 730) and longitudinally (N = 318) with Dutch adolescents using the empathic sadness scale of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA; Brya...
Source: Sex Roles - June 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Essentialism in Children and Parents: Implications for the Development of Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Typed Preferences
Abstract Psychological essentialism is a set of lay beliefs about categories, according to which certain categories are seen as natural and arising from an inborn, causal force or “essence.” Social categories, including gender, are often essentialized by both adults and children. The current study examines how gender essentialism relates to other gender-relevant beliefs and preferences, in both a child sample (5- to 7-year-olds) and an adult sample (the children’s parents). Children’s and parents’ essentialism predicted children’s gender-typed preferences, but not children&rsquo...
Source: Sex Roles - June 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Why Having a Family-Supportive Culture, Not Just Policies, Matters to Male and Female Job Seekers: An Examination of Work-Family Conflict, Values, and Self-Interest
Abstract A common strategy to recruit job seekers, particularly women, is to develop and market a family-supportive workplace. We conducted two studies to investigate whether family-supportive policies and/or culture influenced organizational attractiveness, whether gender differences exist, and three theoretically based reasons why they might exist: (a) women anticipating or experiencing greater work-to-family conflict, (b) women having stronger family values, and (c) women expecting to benefit more from family-supportive practices than do men. In Study 1, 195 undergraduate students rated their attraction to a fi...
Source: Sex Roles - June 20, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender Roles and Stereotypes about Science Careers Help Explain Women and Men’s Science Pursuits
Abstract Diverse perspectives in science promote innovation and creativity, and represent the needs of a diverse populace. However, many science fields lack gender diversity. Although fewer women than men pursue careers in physical science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (pSTEM), more women than men pursue careers in behavioral science. The current work measured the relationship between first-year college students’ stereotypes about science professions and course completion in science fields over the next 3 years. pSTEM careers were more associated with self-direction and self-promotion (i.e.,...
Source: Sex Roles - June 20, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Who Counts as Human? Antecedents to Androcentric Behavior
Abstract People view men as typically human, although some conditions may make this more or less likely. Language has been implicated as one factor, with masculine generic language (e.g., he used neutrally) leading to more androcentrism relative to its alternatives. However, the influence of two types of alternatives (e.g., they vs. he or she) remains unclear. The present study asked 297 male and female online participants from the United States to select typical representations of humanity from a set of White and Black male and female faces. The wording for the concept humanity was manipulated to be either a typi...
Source: Sex Roles - June 17, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Getting to the Core of Curriculum—and the Community
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - June 9, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Nation and the Family: The Impact of National Identification and Perceived Importance of Family Values on Homophobic Attitudes in Lithuania and Scotland
We examined how national identity definition can influence the extent of individuals’ homophobia with 159 Lithuanian and 176 Scottish university students who completed a questionnaire which measured their national identification, homophobia, and the extent to which they felt traditional family values were central to their nation’s identity. Consistent with nation-wide differences in the significance given to the family, Lithuanian participants perceived family values to be more important for their national identity and expressed higher levels of homophobia than did Scottish participants. Moreover, the relations...
Source: Sex Roles - June 4, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Religious Beliefs, Gender Consciousness, and Women’s Political Participation
Abstract Organized religion affords the faithful a variety of civic skills that encourage political participation. Women are more religious than are men by most measures, but religious women do not participate in politics at elevated rates. This discrepancy suggests a puzzle: religion may have a different effect on the political mobilization of men and women. In the present paper, we explore the effect of biblical literalism—a widespread belief that the Bible is the actual word of God, to be taken literally—on political participation. Using the 2012 American National Election Study, we find support for...
Source: Sex Roles - June 2, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Feminist Perspectives Advance Four Challenges to Transform Family Studies
Abstract Family is an excellent potential arena to challenge gender norms and change power structures in society because of its pivotal role in socializing generations on gender and other axes of power and oppression. This commentary examines interdisciplinary feminist perspectives on family relationships and discusses the ways in which feminist scholarship challenges traditional approaches to family studies. Specifically, feminist researchers have challenged scholarship on families to: (a) redefine family by un-othering non-conforming families, (b) bring gender consciousness to family research, (c) model intersec...
Source: Sex Roles - June 2, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Role of Ambivalent Sexism and Religiosity in Predicting Attitudes Toward Childlessness in Muslim Undergraduate Students
Abstract The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism, specifically hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS), religiosity, and attitudes toward childlessness in Muslim undergraduate students. The sample consisted of 157 (79 women, 78 men) Turkish Islamic undergraduate students studying in North Cyprus, aged between 17 and 30 years-old and originating from various regions in Turkey. Participants completed measures of ambivalent sexism and attitudes toward childlessness as well as rated their level of religiosity. It was expected that due to its emphasis of tr...
Source: Sex Roles - May 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Having and Doing Gender: Young Adults’ Expression of Gender when Resolving Conflicts with Friends and Romantic Partners
Abstract A communal orientation focusing on others is consistent with stereotypes of women’s social roles and personality traits, whereas an agentic orientation focusing more exclusively on oneself is consistent with men’s roles and traits. Using survey methods, we drew from Sandra Bem’s ideas to investigate whether gender differences in endorsement of communal and agentic conflict-management strategies varied depending on the peer relationship context. When gender differences were found, we investigated whether they were accounted for by masculine and feminine personality traits. College student...
Source: Sex Roles - May 28, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

“She Might be Afraid of Commitment”: Perceptions of Women Who Retain Their Surname After Marriage
Abstract The tradition of the wife adopting her husband’s surname continues to be widely endorsed within the U.S. and many other nations. The current research focuses on perceptions of heterosexual women who violate this tradition. Specifically, we examined how women who retain their surname are evaluated with respect to their marriage commitment and personality attributes. We also tested for sources of individual variation in these evaluations. Three studies were carried out with a total of 1201 undergraduates (912 women and 289 men) at two U.S. universities. Participants in Study 1 rated a woman who retain...
Source: Sex Roles - May 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Touchy Subjects: Sex in the Workplace on Broadcast, Cable, and Internet Television
Abstract A content analysis of workplace sexual interactions, informed by past research on sexual harassment in televised workplaces, was conducted of 100 U.S. broadcast, cable, and Internet television programs that featured work or a workplace as a prominent setting. Although sexual interactions were relatively common, they were generally depicted in ways that did not clearly communicate harassment. Sexual talk and behavior in the workplace were generally met with either reciprocation or no response. Workplace sexual behavior was more frequent in situation comedies than in other genres of entertainment television...
Source: Sex Roles - May 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

African American Maternal Power and the Racial Socialization of Preschool Children
Abstract In the present qualitative study, we applied an integrated Black feminist-child development theoretical framework to examine how 12 African American mothers engaged the racial socialization process with their preschool-age girls and boys in the U.S. state of South Carolina. We specifically examined (a) the strategies and messages that mothers use during the racial socialization process and (b) mothers’ perceptions of external sources that influenced their children’s racial socialization experiences. Two major themes emerged from data analyses: Motherwork as Conscientization and Doing African A...
Source: Sex Roles - May 25, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Doing Gender Online: New Mothers’ Psychological Characteristics, Facebook Use, and Depressive Symptoms
Abstract Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to “do motherhood.” Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers’ experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood. Using survey data from a sample of 127 new mo...
Source: Sex Roles - May 21, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Where Are All the Pippis?: The Under-representation of Female Main and Title Characters in Children’s Literature in the Swedish Preschool
Abstract Female under-representation in children’s literature is a recurring topic of exploration in gender research. The present content analysis examines the literature to which children are being exposed in six preschools in southern Sweden, focusing on the prevalence of female versus male main and title characters in the literature that both children and teachers are choosing to read in group story times. Chi-square tests of the data (618 times that books were read in class) reveal a significant under-representation of female main and title characters in the books being read. A correlation is also found ...
Source: Sex Roles - May 20, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Feminist Perspectives on Family Relationships: Part 3
Abstract In Part 3 of the three-part collection on feminism and families, we revisit the 13 articles that appeared in two previous issues of Sex Roles, and then present the six additional articles published in the current issue. We address the ways in which these articles examine feminist perspectives on family relationships from various interdisciplinary lenses and the ways in which all the articles link various intersections among gender, race, ethnicity, social class, sexual orientation, and embodiment to deal with key feminist family topics such as motherhood and fatherhood, work and family, families and viole...
Source: Sex Roles - May 18, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Contextual Specificity of Gender: Femininity and Masculinity in College Students’ Same- and Other-Gender Peer Contexts
Abstract Social constructivist models of gender suggest that gendered attitudes and behaviors, such as femininity and masculinity, are context-dependent (Deaux and Major 1987). If this is the case, femininity and masculinity may be better conceptualized as variable states rather than as stable traits. In the present study, we used Ecological Momentary Assessment to investigate variations in femininity and masculinity according to the gender of peers in female and male college students’ real-life social contexts. Cisgender participants were recruited from a small liberal arts college in the northeastern regio...
Source: Sex Roles - May 17, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Postpartum Depression in Mothers and Fathers: The Role of Parenting Efficacy Expectations During the Transition to Parenthood
Abstract Research demonstrates that belief in one’s effectiveness as a parent (parenting efficacy) is linked to numerous positive outcomes for new parents. Conversely, the perceived inability to meet expectations is associated with negative mental health consequences for mothers and fathers. In the present paper we examine the impact of parenting efficacy expectations on the mental health statuses of new parents. Using three waves of data spanning from the prenatal period to the 4-months postpartum period from a sample of 150 first-time mothers and fathers in the Midwestern United States, we find that parent...
Source: Sex Roles - May 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Heterosexual Dating Double Standards in Undergraduate Women and Men
Abstract Traditional heterosexual dating and courtship scripts (e.g., men pay for date, women take partner’s last name in marriage) reflect different standards of desirable behavior for women and men. Analogous to sexual double standards, dating double standards reflect the greater agency and power traditionally accorded to men in society. In the present study, we investigated factors related to young heterosexual adults’ endorsement of dating double standards. Participants were 330 female and male U.S. undergraduates at a California public university (57 % female, ages 18–25 years-old)...
Source: Sex Roles - May 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Psychological Androgyny and Children’s Mental Health: A New Look with New Measures
Abstract We evaluated Bem’s (1981, 1993) thesis that psychological androgyny—perceiving the self to possess characteristics of both genders—is associated with healthy adjustment and minimal gender-polarizing cognition. Prior studies testing Bem’s ideas have yielded ambiguous results, mainly because self-perceptions of gender-typed attributes have been inferred narrowly from self-perceptions of expressive and instrumental personality traits. We administered measures of gender identity (self-perceived similarity to a gender) that more clearly capture self-perceptions of attributes typical of ...
Source: Sex Roles - May 10, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Cognitive Construction of Gender Stereotypes: Evidence for the Dual Pathways Model of Gender Differentiation
Abstract The dual pathways model of gender differentiation suggests two possible pathways that examine the relationships between gender-typed interests and gender stereotypes: (a) an attitudinal pathway model, which suggests that stereotypes may shape interests for gender-schematic children, and (b) a personal pathway model, which suggests that personal interests may lead to the construction of stereotypes that are in line with one’s interests (Liben and Bigler 2002). In Study 1, the personal pathway model was tested by presenting children in the United States (N = 51, M ...
Source: Sex Roles - May 3, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Cognitive and Personality Characteristics of Masculinity and Femininity Predict Wayfinding Competence and Strategies of Men and Women
Abstract Bem (1974) reconceptualized masculinity and femininity as independent and orthogonal constructs that both men and women possess to varying degrees. This perspective was used as a starting point to investigate whether the contributions of gender-typed characteristics can help to account for commonly observed gender differences in wayfinding (the ability to identify one’s current location and successfully navigate to an unseen location in the environment) favoring men. We further divided gender-typed characteristics into cognitive and personality characteristics to assess their separate influence on w...
Source: Sex Roles - April 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Masculine and Feminine Traits on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, 1993–2012: a Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis
Abstract The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) is one of Sandra Bem’s most notable contributions to feminist psychology, measuring an individual’s identification with traditionally masculine and feminine qualities. In a cross-temporal meta-analysis of U.S. college students’ scores on the BSRI (34 samples, N = 8,027), we examined changes in ratings on the Bem masculinity (M) and femininity (F) scales since the early 1990s. Additional analyses used data collected in a previous meta-analysis (Twenge 1997) to document changes since the BSRI’s inception in 1974. Our results reveal that...
Source: Sex Roles - April 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across the Globe
Abstract Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and the working role of the primary character, we concluded that gender stereotypes in TV advertising can be found arou...
Source: Sex Roles - April 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Impact of Family Economic Structure on Dual-Earners’ Career and Family Satisfaction
Abstract The present study builds on the explanatory power of the “doing gender” perspective to understand the effects of family economic structure on the family and career satisfaction of husbands and wives. Using data from a two-panel, couple-level survey of full-time employed middle-class families in the Northeastern United States, we find that when wives’ earnings increase relative to their husbands’, their career satisfaction significantly increases whereas their husbands’ is significantly depressed. In contrast, family economic structure has little effect on women’ and men...
Source: Sex Roles - April 14, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Beyond a Paycheck: The Influence of Workforce Participation on Women’s Cancer Screening in Turkey
Abstract The present study investigates the influence of workforce participation on women’s cancer screening behaviors in Turkey. In cultures with predominantly Muslim populations like Turkey, emphasis is typically placed on a woman’s traditional role as a child bearer. Although the impact of workforce participation on women’s welfare has been studied in various contexts, the relationship between workforce participation and health protective behavior has received scant attention. Using quantitative data from a survey of women aged 40 and above from 33 urban cities in Turkey (N = 483...
Source: Sex Roles - April 14, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Mars, Venus, or Earth? Sexism and the Exaggeration of Psychological Gender Differences
Discussion highlights the proposed connection between sexism and the belief that “men are from Mars and women are from Venus”. (Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - April 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Parenting Stress and Sexual Satisfaction Among First-Time Parents: A Dyadic Approach
Abstract The present paper reports on longitudinal associations between parenting stress and sexual satisfaction among 169 heterosexual couples in the first year after the birth of a first child. Actor Partner Interdependence Modeling (APIM) was used to model the effects of the mother’s and father’s parenting stress at 6 months after birth on sexual satisfaction at 1 year after birth. Based on social constructivist theory and scarcity theory, two hypotheses were posed: (a) mothers’ parenting stress will predict their own later sexual satisfaction whereas fathers’ parenting stress ...
Source: Sex Roles - April 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sexually Objectifying Restaurants and Waitresses’ Burnout and Intentions to Leave: The Roles of Power and Support
Abstract The present study examined the relationships between experiences of working in sexually objectifying restaurants and job-related outcomes in a sample of 313 waitresses working in restaurants located in the United States. In addition, we investigated the potential mediating roles of unwanted sexual advances, power, and support in these links. Supporting our hypotheses, results indicated that sexually objectifying restaurants were positively correlated with waitresses’ feelings of burnout and intentions to leave their job. Our findings also supported a theorized multiple mediation model in which highe...
Source: Sex Roles - April 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Endorsement of the Sexual Double Standard and Sexual Cognitions and Emotions
Abstract Sexual gender norms promoting sexual prowess for men, but sexual modesty for women have been shown to negatively affect sexual and mental health in both men and women. Knowledge about the relationship between gender norms and sexual cognitions and emotions might further the understanding of continued gender-norm conformity. In the present study, we investigated whether and how gendered sexual attitudes are related to (positive and negative) sex-related emotions, via sexual cognitions (autonomy, body esteem, and approach/avoidance motives for sex). A survey was submitted to 293 heterosexually identified, s...
Source: Sex Roles - April 8, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Feminist Perspectives on Family Relationships: Part 2
Abstract In Part 2 of the three-part collection about feminism and families, we bring together five different articles demonstrating the diversity of this field of study. This issue includes authors from six different disciplines and three national backgrounds. Studies in this issue include data collected from participants in different continents (Asia, Europe, North America), with different family roles (e.g., daughters, intimate partners, families), through different moments in time (e.g., longitudinal studies). Participants in the studies are also diverse in their sexual orientation, religious background, and s...
Source: Sex Roles - April 7, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Double Standard at Sexual Debut: Gender, Sexual Behavior and Adolescent Peer Acceptance
Abstract A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11–16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of re...
Source: Sex Roles - April 6, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Physical Appearance and Sexual Activity Mediate the Link Between Early Puberty and Sexual Harassment Victimization in Male Adolescents
Abstract Contrary to common belief, research shows that male adolescents are frequent targets of sexual harassment. According to some prior studies, early puberty puts male adolescents at a particular risk for being sexually harassed. In this cross-sectional study, we tested two competing explanations of the link between male pubertal timing and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The explanations were based on evolutionary and feminist theories. The sample included 704 seventh-grade Swedish male adolescents (M age  = 13.37, SD = .59). We found th...
Source: Sex Roles - April 6, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

How Public Displays of Heterosexual Identity Reflect and Reinforce Gender Stereotypes, Gender Differences, and Gender Inequality
Abstract Heterosexual marking occurs when people behave in ways that are interpreted by others as evidence of heterosexuality. In an exploratory comprehensive study of this phenomenon, we conducted 12 focus groups with 57 individuals: four groups composed of heterosexual women, four composed of heterosexual men, and four composed of mixed-gender sexual minorities. In this article, we present our findings on participant conceptions of heterosexual marking that are related to gender stereotypes, gender differences, and gender inequality. Much of the heterosexual marking described by our participants reflects and rei...
Source: Sex Roles - April 2, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Erratum to: Chivalry’s Double-edged Sword: How Girls’ and Boys’ Paternalistic Attitudes Relate to Their Possible Family and Work Selves
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - April 2, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Caught in a Bad Romance? The Negative Effect of Normative Dating and Marital Ideologies on Women’s Bodies
Abstract A growing body of recent research has linked romantic relationships, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating. Exploring these linkages in the present study by using a broader framing than in previous research, we investigated the influence of normative romantic ideologies on college women’s bodies. Drawing on post-structural feminism, we examined effects of gendered dating and marital scripts and “singlism” (investing in romance as a primary life goal) on investment in thinness/appearance and disordered eating among 496 undergraduate women attending a large U.S. Southwestern universi...
Source: Sex Roles - April 1, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sandra Bem’s Gender Schema Theory After 34 Years: A Review of its Reach and Impact
Abstract One of Sandra Bem’s important contributions was the development of gender schema theory (GST; Bem 1981a). Through an analysis of journal articles referencing GST, we explored the breadth of the theory’s reach and the ways in which its use has changed over time. More specifically, we analyzed how often GST reached journals outside psychology as well as journals and research populations outside the United States, even though Bem was a U.S. psychologist whose empirical work was primarily with U.S. populations. We also assessed the range of research topics that have used a GST framework. We found ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 29, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Roles of Fathers’ Involvement and Coparenting in Relationship Quality among Cohabiting and Married Parents
Abstract Relationship quality often declines following the birth of child, likely reflecting in part the shift towards role traditionalization that occurs through gender specialization. The current study used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, an urban birth cohort in 2000 consisting of structured interviews of mothers and fathers who were followed over 5 years (n = 1275), to examine whether low levels of fathers’ involvement and coparenting, two indicators of role traditionalization, were linked to negative trajectories of mothers’ and fathers&rs...
Source: Sex Roles - March 28, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

“Where are Your Women?” The Challenge to Care in the Future of Sport
Abstract In this paper, a vision for the future of U.S. NCAA Division I university sport is presented. It is argued that this context could serve as the place where performance “excellence” is rooted in caring. However, U.S. sport at this level must become purposefully structured to include educational components related to moral thinking, feeling, and behaving. Otherwise, it will continue to foster a type of disconnected or “game reasoning” mentality, building “characters” vs. character (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995). Using U.S.-focused feminism as the necessary first interv...
Source: Sex Roles - March 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Developmental Changes in the Link Between Gender Typicality and Peer Victimization and Exclusion
Abstract The present study takes a broad and nuanced view of gender typicality in normative populations and suggests that this aspect of children’s gender identity might be a fundamental aspect of vulnerability to peer maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional sample from the Southwestern United States, developmental differences were examined in the relations between kindergarten (n = 210, M age = 5.81, 52 % female), second (n = 205, M age = 7.62, 50 % female), and fourth (n = 205, M age&thin...
Source: Sex Roles - March 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

“Boys Don’t Cry”—or Do They? Adult Attitudes Toward and Beliefs About Transgender Youth
Abstract The present survey study examined the attitudes of U.S. adults toward transgender children and adolescents, as well as their behavioral intentions, in two hypothetical scenarios involving gender variant youth. Participants recruited online (N = 281) reported generally favorable attitudes toward transgender minors, but expressed some hesitation to allow a transgender child to use the restroom aligned with their gender as opposed to their birth sex or to share a room with same gender peers on a school trip, possibly due to conflating gender identity with sexual orientation in these situations....
Source: Sex Roles - March 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Why Do Women Still Not Make It to the Top? Dominant Organizational Ideologies and Biases by Promotion Committees Limit Opportunities to Destination Positions
Abstract Prior studies have made important strides in understanding the drivers of gender bias facing women at the top. Yet, relatively little is known about the intra-organizational power dynamics of how and why these patterns still persist despite plethora initiatives to redress the phenomenon over the last several decades. This paper develops an intra-organizational power perspective on the dynamics of promotion bias to destination positions. We propose that social dominance emerges as social categorization based on a candidate’s visible and invisible markers leads to distorted perceptions and stereotypin...
Source: Sex Roles - March 16, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Division of Household and Childcare Labor and Relationship Conflict Among Low-Income New Parents
Abstract We examine the relationships among the division of housework and childcare labor, perceptions of its fairness for two types of family labor (housework and childcare), and parents’ relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Perceived fairness is examined as a mediator of the relationships between change in the division of housework and childcare and relationship conflict. Working-class, dual-earner couples (n = 108) in the U.S Northeast were interviewed at five time points from the third trimester of pregnancy and across the first year of parenthood. Research questions a...
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Same-Gender Peer Interaction and Preschoolers’ Gender-Typed Emotional Expressiveness
Abstract The present study was guided by hypotheses derived from peer-socialization models of gender development that suggest preschool children’s time spent interacting with same-gender peers would be linked to gender-typed emotional expressiveness. Specifically, I predicted that girls who engaged in high levels of same-gender peer interaction would express more happiness, sadness, and fear, whereas boys who engaged in more same-gender peer interaction would express more anger. To address these hypotheses, a longitudinal study was conducted in which video recordings were made of 122 preschool children (57 b...
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Parenthood as a Moral Imperative? Moral Outrage and the Stigmatization of Voluntarily Childfree Women and Men
Abstract Nationally representative data indicate that adults in the United States are increasingly delaying the decision to have children or are forgoing parenthood entirely. Although some empirical research has examined the social consequences of adults’ decision to be childfree, few studies have identified explanatory mechanisms for the stigma this population experiences. Based on the logic of backlash theory and research on retributive justice, the present research examined moral outrage as a mechanism through which voluntarily childfree targets are perceived less favorably than are targets with children ...
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

What Did He Mean by that? Humor Decreases Attributions of Sexism and Confrontation of Sexist Jokes
Abstract Sexist humor may be more difficult to confront than serious expressions of sexism because humor disguises the biased nature of the remark. The present research investigated whether delivering a sexist remark as a joke, compared to a serious statement, tempered perceptions that the speaker was sexist which, in turn, made women less likely to confront. Using a computer-mediated instant messaging paradigm, women were randomly assigned to receive the same sexist remark phrased either in a serious manner or as a joke. We recorded how women actually responded to the sexist remark and coded for confrontation. In...
Source: Sex Roles - March 11, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Reviving Androgyny: A Modern Day Perspective on Flexibility of Gender Identity and Behavior
Abstract Bem’s conceptualization of psychological androgyny introduced a new way of thinking in which crossing gender boundaries was seen as an adaptive form of flexibility that promoted better psychological adjustment. However, the research linking androgyny and adjustment was mixed, and unfortunately, flexibility was not adequately measured and was seldom investigated. Because of the failure to assess flexibility, the underlying issue remains unresolved—is flexibility healthy or not? In the first section, we review Bem’s original idea of psychological androgyny and then describe how assessing c...
Source: Sex Roles - March 10, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Daughters’ Anger towards Mothers and Fathers in Emerging Adulthood
We examined young women’s anger towards mothers and fathers in emerging adulthood using a qualitative methodology and a feminist theoretical framework. To achieve this objective, we interviewed 16 young women (18–25 years-old) residing in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region about their relationship with fathers and mothers and their anger within these relationships. The qualitative analysis revealed four types of relationships between young adult women and their fathers and mothers: challenging conflictual, challenging mutual, accepting authoritarian, and accepting authoritative. Our analysis also demonstrated th...
Source: Sex Roles - March 9, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research