Did I Cross the Line?: Gender Differences in Adolescents ’ Anonymous Digital Self-Reports of Wrongdoing in an Online Anonymous Context
AbstractYoung people spend substantial and increasing quantities of time communicating on and through digital platforms. Online contexts can be frontiers for communication and disclosure unbounded from offline life. The present study explores how U.S. teens position themselves in anonymous digital posts that pertain to wrongdoing. Do adolescents ’ posts reproduce social norms and popular gendered narratives about wrongdoing—or, conversely, do anonymous platforms allow for a departure from gendered scripts? The authors draw on 780 online stories (390 written by self-reported young men, 390 by self-reported young...
Source: Sex Roles - October 4, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Discovering Disenfranchased and Invisible Women in Prison
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - October 1, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Boys Don ’t Work? On the Psychological Benefits of Showing Low Effort in High School
AbstractMale students show less academic effort and lower academic achievement than do female students. The present study aimed to shed more light on the reasons for why male students show low academic effort despite the finding that this undermines their academic achievement. We explored whether students experience psychological benefits from showing low effort or “effortless” achievement in school and whether these benefits are greater for male than for female students. In two experimental vignette studies with independent samples of German ninth graders (N = 210) and teachers (N =&thinsp...
Source: Sex Roles - September 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women)
AbstractIntergroup contact —(positive) interactions with people from different social groups—is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also red uce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lo...
Source: Sex Roles - September 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Associations Between Gender Segregation and Gender Identity in College Students
AbstractWe investigated associations between gender segregation and the two traditions of gender identity identified by Wood and Eagly (2015): gender-typed personality traits and gender reference group identity. We also investigated whether one of these traditions was associated with gender segregation to a greater extent than the other. Our sample consisted of 73 male (and 93 female undergraduate students aged 18 –24 attending a university in the northeastern United States of America. In support of our hypotheses we found that male and female college students reported a greater proportion of same-gender than cross-g...
Source: Sex Roles - September 28, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Does Gender Matter? Testing the Influence of Presumed Media Influence on Young People ’s Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery
AbstractThe present study examined gender differences in young people ’s attitudes toward cosmetic surgery as well as the joint effects of media and peers on their attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. A survey of 555 university students in Singapore showed that young people of both sexes generally held positive attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. We observed no signifi cant gender disparities in their acceptance of cosmetic surgery or intention to undergo cosmetic surgery. We tested the influence of the presumed media influence model, and our findings supported direct and indirect models of media influence on young peop...
Source: Sex Roles - September 19, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Impact of Family Economic Structure on Dual-Earners ’ Career and Family Satisfaction
AbstractThe present study builds on the explanatory power of the “doing gender” perspective to understand the effects of family economic structure on the family and career satisfaction of husbands and wives. Using data from a two-panel, couple-level survey of full-time employed middle-class families in the Northeastern United States, we find that when wives’ earnings increase relative to their husbands’, their career satisfaction significantly increases whereas their husbands’ is significantly depressed. In contrast, family economic structure has little effect on women’ and men’s l...
Source: Sex Roles - September 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sexually Objectifying Restaurants and Waitresses ’ Burnout and Intentions to Leave: The Roles of Power and Support
AbstractThe present study examined the relationships between experiences of working in sexually objectifying restaurants and job-related outcomes in a sample of 313 waitresses working in restaurants located in the United States. In addition, we investigated the potential mediating roles of unwanted sexual advances, power, and support in these links. Supporting our hypotheses, results indicated that sexually objectifying restaurants were positively correlated with waitresses ’ feelings of burnout and intentions to leave their job. Our findings also supported a theorized multiple mediation model in which higher levels ...
Source: Sex Roles - September 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Difficult Dialogues Made Easier: An Updated Look at the Future of Girl ’s Studies
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Birthing Paradox: Understanding the C-Section Epidemic in America
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - September 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

What is a True Gamer? The Male Gamer Stereotype and the Marginalization of Women in Video Game Culture
AbstractWomen and men play video games in approximately equal numbers. Despite this similarity, video gaming is still strongly associated with men. A common justification for this stereotype is that, although women might play games, they should not be considered “true” or “hard-core” gamers because they play more casually and less skillfully compared to their male counterparts. In this contribution, we review the existing literature on gender and gaming to investigate the male gamer stereotype in terms of its accuracy, persistence, effects, and futu re perspective. We conclude that the stereotype va...
Source: Sex Roles - September 10, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Personal, Political, and Professional Life of Sandra Bem
AbstractThe contributions of Sandra Bem, a pioneer in feminist psychology, are reviewed in the context of her life. From childhood and her early years as a second wave feminist activist in Pittsburgh, Bem challenged established gender conventions including dress codes, segregated employment ads, workplace discrimination, and marital roles. We follow the trajectory of Bem ’s education and academic career, highlighting her three main contributions to feminist psychology: (a) psychological androgyny and the BSRI, (b) gender schema theory, and (c) the reproduction of sexual inequality via the lenses of gender. We also re...
Source: Sex Roles - September 7, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Construction of Physics as a Quintessentially Masculine Subject: Young People ’s Perceptions of Gender Issues in Access to Physics
AbstractThe present article investigates explanations for gendered trends in Physics and Engineering access, reporting findings from a large-scale study funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council and drawing primarily on data from interviews with 132 15 –16 year-old adolescents and their parents. Survey results in our study and elsewhere show strong gender disparities in anticipated pursuit of Physics after completion of compulsory education. In order to explore the constructions of gender and Physics underlying these trends, we focus on qualita tive interview data, applying Foucaultian analysis of di...
Source: Sex Roles - September 6, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Promoting Theory-Based Perspectives in Sexual Double Standard Research
AbstractThe sexual double standard (SDS) has been a focus of research for several decades. Numerous anecdotal accounts of the double standard exist, detailing its consequences and impact on women ’s, as well as men’s, sexual behavior and identities. Empirical research, however, has yet to completely corroborate the degree to which the double standard pervades everyday life. The disparity between anecdotal accounts and empirical evidence related to the SDS may be the result of the partial ly atheoretical approach with which the SDS has traditionally been examined. The goal of the present paper is to encourage re...
Source: Sex Roles - September 2, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Preschool Teachers ’ Facilitation of Gender-Typed and Gender- Neutral Activities during Free Play
AbstractUnderstanding how preschool teachers facilitate children ’s engagement in gender-typed and gender-neutral activities is important given that engagement in gender-typed activities is differentially linked to the development of skills connected to later academic achievement. Thus, facilitation of children’s engagement in gender-typed activities may cont ribute to emergence of gender differences in later educational outcomes. The current study used a teacher-focal observational coding system to investigate research questions about the frequency with which teachers facilitated feminine, masculine, and gende...
Source: Sex Roles - August 23, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Materialism Predicts Young Chinese Women ’s Self-Objectification and Body Surveillance
AbstractPrevious research on antecedents of women ’s self-objectification mainly focuses on situational factors whereas our study examined whether women’s values on materialism would predict their self-objectification and body surveillance in a sample of 218 undergraduate women in south China. Specifically, we proposed that materialism would in crease women’s tendency to regard sexual attractiveness as capital for them to gain positive life outcomes (i.e., capitalization of sexual attractiveness, CSA), and the tendency to have appearance-contingent self-worth (i.e., appearance CSW), which would in turn pr...
Source: Sex Roles - August 19, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Predicting Attitudes toward the Masculine Structure of the Military with Turkish Identification and Ambivalent Sexism
AbstractWhy do people support the masculine structure of the Turkish military? Why do women hold inferior positions in the military? How are sexism and Turkish identification relevant to attitudes toward the masculine structure of the military? Focusing on these questions, the current study explored the associations among Turkish identification, ambivalent sexism (including hostile and benevolent sexism), and attitudes toward the masculine structure of the military in Turkey after controlling for gender, political views, and military affiliation. University students (316 women; 262 men;Mage = 22.02,SD = ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 19, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Effect of Occupational Gender Stereotypes on Men ’s Interest in Female-Dominated Occupations
AbstractA great deal of research has sought to explain women ’s lower interest in male-dominated occupations, but relatively little attention has been given to explaining men’s disinterest in female-dominated occupations. Examining factors that affect men’s interest in female-dominated occupations has both theoretical and practical implications. Two fac tors hypothesized to alter the gender-stereotype salience of an occupation were examined: occupation titles and gender-stereotyped occupation descriptions. We hypothesized that men who reported higher levels of stereotypical feminine attributes would be mo...
Source: Sex Roles - August 18, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Girl in a Country Song: Gender Roles and Objectification of Women in Popular Country Music across 1990 to 2014
AbstractAlthough content analyses have examined the portrayal of women in objectifying and demeaning ways in many forms of media, including several genres of music, little research has explored the portrayal of women in country music. The current study content analyzed the lyrics of 750 country songs popular in the United States across almost three decades (1990 –2014) for their portrayal of female gender roles and objectification of women. Findings revealed that country songs from 2010 to 2014 were less likely to portray women in traditional roles, non-traditional roles, family roles, and as empowered than songs tha...
Source: Sex Roles - August 18, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Not Feeling Good in STEM: Effects of Stereotype Activation and Anticipated Affect on Women ’s Career Aspirations
AbstractDespite great efforts to increase women ’s participation in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), relatively few women choose careers in these fields. We argue that women might expect to feel less good in contexts where unfavorable gender stereotypes are activated in their minds (e.g., by strong underrepresentation) and, co nsequently, are less likely to aspire to STEM careers. In two pilot studies (Ns = 28/61), we confirmed that undergraduate women expect more negative and less positive affect (i.e., generally (un)pleasant emotions) and a heightened sense of threat in a stereotype-...
Source: Sex Roles - August 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Sandra Bem: Naming the Impact of Gendered Categories and Identities
AbstractAs revealed through the papers in the current issue, the impact of Sandra Bem ’s interrogation and analysis of the process and impact of gender categorization is discussed. An important consequence of Bem’s work has been to bring invisible but pervasive processes of gender categorization into focus, and then to use that new visibility to drive social change. Themes that e merge in these papers building on Bem’s work include more nuanced approaches to identity, investigation of the role of immediate social context in the performance of gender, attention to gender development, and exploration of mea...
Source: Sex Roles - August 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Same-Gender Peer Interaction and Preschoolers ’ Gender-Typed Emotional Expressiveness
AbstractThe present study was guided by hypotheses derived from peer-socialization models of gender development that suggest preschool children ’s time spent interacting with same-gender peers would be linked to gender-typed emotional expressiveness. Specifically, I predicted that girls who engaged in high levels of same-gender peer interaction would express more happiness, sadness, and fear, whereas boys who engaged in more same-gender p eer interaction would express more anger. To address these hypotheses, a longitudinal study was conducted in which video recordings were made of 122 preschool children (57 boys, 65 ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Getting to the Core of Curriculum —and the Community
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - August 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Frequency and Perceived Impact of Engaging in In-Person and Cyber Unwanted Pursuit after Relationship Break-Up among College Men and Women
AbstractThe present study examined the extent of cyber and in-person unwanted pursuit behaviors (UPBs) reported by undergraduate men and women who pursued former partners and the pursuer ’s perceptions of the impact of their pursuit on their targets. Among a sample of 1167 undergraduates (66.8 % women; 95.4 % heterosexual) approximately 80 % of men and women reported engaging in UPBs toward former partners, with cyber pursuit endorsed by a subset of those who engaged in in-pers on UPBs. Despite few gender differences in overall pursuit, men endorsed engaging in a number of specific behaviors more than ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Retrospective Accounts of Sexual Peer Victimization in Adolescence: Do Social Status and Gender-Conformity Play a Role?
AbstractIn popular media, the degree to which adolescents possess social power and conform to gender norms appears to dictate experiences and perpetrations of peer victimization that are sexual in nature. Therefore, the hypothesis that high-status gender conforming adolescents sexually victimize low-status gender nonconforming peers was examined using retrospective accounts of social status, gender-conformity, and sexual and nonsexual forms of peer victimization in high school as reported by 209 participants, ages 18 –23 years old. Although these hypotheses were not fully supported, popularity and gender-conform...
Source: Sex Roles - August 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Dark Side of Heterosexual Romance: Endorsement of Romantic Beliefs Relates to Intimate Partner Violence
AbstractRomance and control are often conflated by the media, and individuals may believe that certain controlling or jealous behaviors by men toward women are romantic and can be a sign of love and commitment in heterosexual relationships. The current study explored three types of romantic beliefs among women: endorsement of the ideology of romanticism, highly valuing romantic relationships, and the belief that jealousy is good. The goal was to determine whether these beliefs would be related to finding controlling behaviors romantic as well as to reported experiences of both physical and psychological intimate partner vi...
Source: Sex Roles - August 11, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Not a Woman, but a Soldier: Exploring Identity through Translocational Positionality
AbstractRecent debate over integrating women into U.S. military combat units presents an opportunity to examine the gender identities and experiences of women in the military. Here, we examine the context-dependent prominence of intersecting identities including work role and gender ascribed to female soldiers in Special Operations. Using a mixed methods approach, based on 28 focus groups with 198 soldiers and a survey conducted with 1701 men and 214 women, we argue that female soldiers ’ experiences refute their male colleagues’ assumptions regarding their ability to serve in combat units. The experience of id...
Source: Sex Roles - August 9, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

“Totally in Love”: Evidence of a Master Narrative for How New Mothers Should Feel About Their Babies
AbstractMaster narratives, or prevailing cultural storylines, of motherhood provide a framework for new mothers to make sense of their experiences and to develop a coherent maternal identity. The present mixed methods study developed a theory-driven methodology to systematically identify a master narrative and examined whether one is present in 32 U.S. first-time mothers ’ accounts of developing feelings for, and connection to, their newborns. In coding these mothers’ 95 episodes, we found that just over half of the mothers exclusively described positive feelings/connection toward their babies that were present...
Source: Sex Roles - August 6, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Women Attorneys and the Changing Workplace: High Hopes, Mixed Outcomes
(Source: Sex Roles)
Source: Sex Roles - August 5, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Farm Families: Gendered Perceptions of Youth Safety and Injury Vulnerability
This study examined mothers ’ and fathers’ work and family roles on family commodity farms, as well as risk-taking propensity, safety perceptions, and perceptions of youth injury vulnerability. Participants were 248 farm parents (124 married couples) with a youth aged 9–19 yrs. Mothers were less likely than fathers to o perate tractors, less confident and self-efficacious related to keeping their youth safe, and less knowledgeable about farm safety. Off-farm employment of mothers had little effect on their home or farm responsibilities. Fathers, but not mothers, believed boys could safely operate equ...
Source: Sex Roles - August 4, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Objectification and System Justification Impact Rape Avoidance Behaviors
AbstractThere is little recent research on women ’s adoption of rape avoidance behaviors, and there has been no known investigation into how adoption of these behaviors relates to various system justification beliefs or experiences of sexual objectification. We surveyed 294 U.S. women aged 18 to 40 to assess experiences of objectification, beli ef in a just world, gender-specific system justification, benevolent sexism, rape myth acceptance, and engagement in rape avoidance behaviors. Belief in a just world, gender-specific system justification, and benevolent sexism were conceptualized and analyzed as a “...
Source: Sex Roles - August 1, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Description and Evaluation of a Measurement Technique for Assessment of Performing Gender
Abstract The influence of masculinity and femininity on behaviors and outcomes has been extensively studied in social science research using various measurement strategies. In the present paper, we describe and evaluate a measurement technique that uses existing survey items to capture the extent to which an individual behaves similarly to their same-gender peers. We use data from the first four waves of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents (age 12 –18) in the United States who were re-interviewed at ages 13–19, 18–2...
Source: Sex Roles - July 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

S. Shaming in a School Bullying Case: Evaluators Ignore Level of Harm When the Victim Self-Presents as Sexually Available
Abstract To investigate s. shaming (condemnation aimed at presumably sexually active females) as a form of bullying, we asked 142  U.S. college students acting as disciplinary committee members to decide a case involving two female high school students. We manipulated the victim’s self-presentation (sexually available, control) and the level of harm she suffered (mild anxiety, PTSD). Although evaluators typically make more pro-victim judgments when the level of harm is higher rather than lower, we expected participants to ignore harm when the victim self-presented as sexually available. As predicted, participan...
Source: Sex Roles - July 25, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

But You Don ’t Look Like A Scientist!: Women Scientists with Feminine Appearance are Deemed Less Likely to be Scientists
Abstract Two studies examined whether subtle variations in feminine appearance erroneously convey a woman ’s likelihood of being a scientist. Eighty photos (half women) of tenured/tenure-track science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) faculty at elite research universities were selected from the Internet. Participants, naïve to the targets’ occupations, rated the photos on femininity and li kelihood of being a scientist and an early childhood educator. Linear mixed model analysis treated both participants and stimuli as random factors, enabling generalization to other samples of participants and o...
Source: Sex Roles - July 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Media and Modern Manhood: Testing Associations Between Media Consumption and Young Men ’s Acceptance of Traditional Gender Ideologies
Abstract Content analyses of popular media have consistently documented the narrow and stereotypical ways in which women and men are frequently depicted. Despite growing evidence that these media images impact viewers ’ attitudes towards women and gender relations, less is known about how specifically media impact men’s beliefs about masculinity. Thus, the purpose of our paper was to explore the association between media use and beliefs about manhood among a sample of undergraduate men from a U.S. Midwestern university. In Study 1 ( N  = 488), we examine the relation between young men’s med...
Source: Sex Roles - July 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Gendered Culture of Scientific Competence: A Study of Scientist Characters in Doctor Who 1963 –2013
Abstract The present study examines the relationship between gender and scientific competence in fictional representations of scientists in the British science fiction television program Doctor Who . Previous studies of fictional scientists have argued that women are often depicted as less scientifically capable than men, but these have largely taken a simple demographic approach or focused exclusively on female scientist characters. By examining both male and female scientists ( n  = 222) depicted over the first 50 years of Doctor Who , our study shows that, although male scientists significantly outnu...
Source: Sex Roles - July 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

The Protective Role of Commitment to Social Change in the Relationship Between Women ’s Sexist Experiences and Self-Silencing
Abstract Sexism is a stressor for many women and is related to a host of harmful psychosocial outcomes, including silencing oneself in social relationships. The present study examined the relationships among sexist experiences, endorsement of traditional feminine gender roles, commitment to social change, and self-silencing among a sample of 261 women. Results revealed that recent sexist experiences and endorsement of traditional feminine gender roles significantly and positively predicted self-silencing, whereas a commitment to social change significantly and negatively predicted self-silencing. In addition, lifetime sex...
Source: Sex Roles - July 22, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Emerging Adults ’ Expectations and Preferences for Gender Role Arrangements in Long-Term Heterosexual Relationships
Abstract Using vignettes as a data collection tool, the main purpose of this randomized, mixed-method study was to examine U.S. emerging adults ’ ( N  = 451) expectations and preferences for five different gender role relationship (GRR) types: (a) male-head/female-complement, (b) male-senior/female-junior partner, (c) partner-equal, (d) female-senior/male-junior partner, and (e) female-head/male-complement. Respondents’ perceptions about thei r personal satisfaction if they were in such GRRs in the future also were examined, as were their perceptions of the effects of marital status and parental stat...
Source: Sex Roles - July 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Gender, Fear, and Public Places: How Negative Encounters with Strangers Harm Women
Abstract Research repeatedly shows that women are frequent targets of sexual harassment in public, ranging from catcalls to sexual assault. However, we know very little about the impacts of less obviously gendered rude behavior. Using nationally representative survey data from Australia (N = 1621), we investigated gender differences in the experience of generic public incivilities such as tailgating, pushing in crowded spaces, and yelling or cursing. We employed a series of logistic regression models to assess the relationship between gender and stranger incivility and to adjust for key demographic and e...
Source: Sex Roles - July 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Emerging Adults’ Expectations and Preferences for Gender Role Arrangements in Long-Term Heterosexual Relationships
Abstract Using vignettes as a data collection tool, the main purpose of this randomized, mixed-method study was to examine U.S. emerging adults’ (N = 451) expectations and preferences for five different gender role relationship (GRR) types: (a) male-head/female-complement, (b) male-senior/female-junior partner, (c) partner-equal, (d) female-senior/male-junior partner, and (e) female-head/male-complement. Respondents’ perceptions about their personal satisfaction if they were in such GRRs in the future also were examined, as were their perceptions of the effects of marital status and parental ...
Source: Sex Roles - July 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Perceptions, Emotions, and Behaviors toward Women Based on Parental Status
Abstract In previous research, women without children are perceived more negatively than are mothers (Kopper and Smith 2001; LaMastro 2001; Lampman and Dowling-Guyer 1995). The present study investigated perceptions, emotions, and behaviors toward women based on parental status. Undergraduate students (N = 299) rated women described as mothers, involuntarily childless, or permanently childfree-by-choice, then completed measures of competence, warmth, status, competition, emotions, and behaviors. Mothers and childless women were rated as warmer than competent, and childfree women were rated more compe...
Source: Sex Roles - July 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Early Risk Predictors of Girls ’ Indirect Aggression from Childhood to Early Adolescence in an At-Risk Sample
Abstract The present study aimed first to examine the trajectories of indirect aggression among girls from disadvantaged neighborhoods from childhood ( M age  = 8.38, SD  = .91, range = 6.58–10.25) to early adolescence ( M age  = 11.28, SD  = .93, range = 9.33–13.83), after controlling for physical aggression. Second, it aimed to identify possible individual, family, and peer risk factors, assessed in the early school years, which predispose subgroups of girls to use indirect aggression in an intense and persistent way. Thre ...
Source: Sex Roles - July 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Early Risk Predictors of Girls’ Indirect Aggression from Childhood to Early Adolescence in an At-Risk Sample
Abstract The present study aimed first to examine the trajectories of indirect aggression among girls from disadvantaged neighborhoods from childhood (M age = 8.38, SD = .91, range = 6.58–10.25) to early adolescence (M age = 11.28, SD = .93, range = 9.33–13.83), after controlling for physical aggression. Second, it aimed to identify possible individual, family, and peer risk factors, assessed in the early school years, which predispose subgroups of girls to use indirect aggression in an inten...
Source: Sex Roles - July 13, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Contextualizing Students ’ Alcohol Use Perceptions and Practices within French Culture: An Analysis of Gender and Drinking among Sport Science College Students
Abstract Although research has examined alcohol consumption and sport in a variety of contexts, there is a paucity of research on gender and gender dynamics among French college students. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining alcohol use practices by men and women among a non-probability sample of French sport science students from five different universities in Northern France. We utilized both survey data ( N  = 534) and in-depth qualitative interviews ( n  = 16) to provide empirical and theoretical insight into a relatively ubiquitous health concern: the culture of into...
Source: Sex Roles - July 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Contextualizing Students’ Alcohol Use Perceptions and Practices within French Culture: An Analysis of Gender and Drinking among Sport Science College Students
Abstract Although research has examined alcohol consumption and sport in a variety of contexts, there is a paucity of research on gender and gender dynamics among French college students. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining alcohol use practices by men and women among a non-probability sample of French sport science students from five different universities in Northern France. We utilized both survey data (N = 534) and in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 16) to provide empirical and theoretical insight into a relatively ubiquitous health concern: the culture of ...
Source: Sex Roles - July 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

“I Don’t Need Help”: Gender Differences in how Gender Stereotypes Predict Help-Seeking
Abstract Although self-report and correlational studies suggest that gender stereotypes are related to men’s health behavior, particularly in relation to seeking help, there is minimal research that has tested this hypothesis experimentally. The present study examined how two stereotype pathways, personally endorsed gender stereotypes and gender stereotyped attitudes, predicted help-seeking behavior among U.S. undergraduate women (n = 68) and men (n = 72) when they worked on challenging puzzles and recalled previous health help-seeking behavior for physical or psychological problems. Resu...
Source: Sex Roles - July 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Daughters ’ Anger towards Mothers and Fathers in Emerging Adulthood
We examined young women ’s anger towards mothers and fathers in emerging adulthood using a qualitative methodology and a feminist theoretical framework. To achieve this objective, we interviewed 16 young women (18–25 years-old) residing in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region about their relationship with fathers and mothers and their anger within these relationships. The qualitative analysis revealed four types of relationships between young adult women and their fathers and mothers: challenging conflictual, challenging mutual, accepting authoritarian, and accepting authoritative. Our analysis also demonstrated t...
Source: Sex Roles - July 1, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Caught in a Bad Romance? The Negative Effect of Normative Dating and Marital Ideologies on Women ’s Bodies
Abstract A growing body of recent research has linked romantic relationships, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating. Exploring these linkages in the present study by using a broader framing than in previous research, we investigated the influence of normative romantic ideologies on college women ’s bodies. Drawing on post-structural feminism, we examined effects of gendered dating and marital scripts and “singlism” (investing in romance as a primary life goal) on investment in thinness/appearance and disordered eating among 496 undergraduate women attending a large U.S. Southwestern u niversity. We...
Source: Sex Roles - July 1, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

When Women ’s Gains Equal Men’s Losses: Predicting a Zero-Sum Perspective of Gender Status
Abstract Believing that reduced discrimination against women directly corresponds to increased discrimination against men, referred to as a zero-sum perspective (ZSP), may inhibit further attempts toward gender equality. Based on a sample of 313 men and women, we developed and tested both a general measure and a domain-specific measure of the ZSP of gender status then examined sociodemographics (age, education, political orientation, religious beliefs, and past experience with discrimination) and social dominance orientation as predictors of the ZSP of shifts in gender status. Hostile and modern sexism were examined as po...
Source: Sex Roles - July 1, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

When Women’s Gains Equal Men’s Losses: Predicting a Zero-Sum Perspective of Gender Status
Abstract Believing that reduced discrimination against women directly corresponds to increased discrimination against men, referred to as a zero-sum perspective (ZSP), may inhibit further attempts toward gender equality. Based on a sample of 313 men and women, we developed and tested both a general measure and a domain-specific measure of the ZSP of gender status then examined sociodemographics (age, education, political orientation, religious beliefs, and past experience with discrimination) and social dominance orientation as predictors of the ZSP of shifts in gender status. Hostile and modern sexism were examin...
Source: Sex Roles - July 1, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research