Antiplexin D1 Antibodies Relate to Small Fiber Neuropathy and Induce Neuropathic Pain in Animals
Conclusions Plexin D1-IgG is pathogenic but with low prevalence and is a potential biomarker for immunotherapy in SFN. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Fujii, T., Lee, E.-J., Miyachi, Y., Yamasaki, R., Lim, Y.-M., Iinuma, K., Sakoda, A., Kim, K.-K., Kira, J.-i. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Peripheral neuropathy, Neuropathic pain Article Source Type: research

Nodular Pachymeningitis Associated With Relapsing Polychondritis and Crohn Disease Responsive to Adalimumab and Prednisone
Conclusions Although exceptionally rare, pachymeningitis may occur as a neuroinflammatory complication of CD and RP. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hutto, S. K., Maher, M. D., Miloslavsky, E. M., Venna, N. Tags: Article Source Type: research

Aggressive Herpes Zoster in Young Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Under Dimethyl Fumarate: Significance of CD8+ and Natural Killer Cells
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Anagnostouli, M. C., Velonakis, G., Dalakas, M. C. Tags: Multiple sclerosis Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Gene-Environment Interactions in Multiple Sclerosis: A UK Biobank Study
Conclusions This study provides novel evidence for an interaction between childhood obesity and a high burden of autosomal genetic risk. These findings may have significant implications for our understanding of MS biology and inform targeted prevention strategies. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jacobs, B. M., Noyce, A. J., Bestwick, J., Belete, D., Giovannoni, G., Dobson, R. Tags: Multiple sclerosis, All Genetics Article Source Type: research

Kappa-Free Light Chains in CSF Predict Early Multiple Sclerosis Disease Activity
Conclusion High -FLC index predicts early MS disease activity. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with early MS, high -FLC index is an independent risk factor for early second clinical attack. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Berek, K., Bsteh, G., Auer, M., Di Pauli, F., Grams, A., Milosavljevic, D., Poskaite, P., Schnabl, C., Wurth, S., Zinganell, A., Berger, T., Walde, J., Deisenhammer, F., Hegen, H. Tags: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Class II, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Association of Retinal Layer Thickness With Cognition in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusion In patients with MS, at less advanced disease stages, RLT was especially associated with cognitive flexibility promoting OCT as a potential marker advocating further extensive neuropsychological examination. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Baetge, S. J., Dietrich, M., Filser, M., Renner, A., Stute, N., Gasis, M., Weise, M., Lepka, K., Graf, J., Goebels, N., Hartung, H.-P., Aktas, O., Meuth, S., Albrecht, P., Penner, I.-K. Tags: Neuropsychological assessment, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Inhibition of Maternal-to-Fetal Transfer of IgG Antibodies by FcRn Blockade in a Mouse Model of Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita
Conclusions FcRn blockade is a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent the occurrence of AMC and other human maternal autoantibody-related diseases in the offspring. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Coutinho, E., Jacobson, L., Shock, A., Smith, B., Vernon, A., Vincent, A. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Myasthenia, Developmental disorders Article Source Type: research

Single-Dose Pembrolizumab Treatment for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Beudel, M., Rövekamp, F., van de Beek, D., Brouwer, M. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, All Infections, Viral infections, Class IV Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Systemic Inflammation Is Associated With Neurologic Involvement in Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Associated With SARS-CoV-2
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Anti-CD20 Depletes Meningeal B Cells but Does Not Halt the Formation of Meningeal Ectopic Lymphoid Tissue
Conclusions These results demonstrate that, in CNS autoimmune disease, meningeal inflammatory infiltrates may form and persist in the absence of B cells. Together with the finding that aCD20 mAb does not ameliorate spontaneous chronic EAE with mELT, our data suggest that mELT may have yet unknown capacities that are independent of B cells and contribute to CNS autoimmunity. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Brand, R. M., Friedrich, V., Diddens, J., Pfaller, M., Romana de Franchis, F., Radbruch, H., Hemmer, B., Steiger, K., Lehmann-Horn, K. Tags: Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Use of Disease-Modifying Therapies in Pediatric Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in the United Kingdom
Objectives To compare the real-world effectiveness of newer disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) vs injectables in children with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods In this retrospective, multicenter study, from the UK Childhood Inflammatory Demyelination Network, we identified children with RRMS receiving DMTs from January 2012 to December 2018. Clinical and paraclinical data were retrieved from the medical records. Annualized relapse rates (ARRs) before and on treatment, time to relapse, time to new MRI lesions, and change in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score were calculated. Results Of 103...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Abdel-mannan, O. A., Manchoon, C., Rossor, T., Southin, J.-C., Tur, C., Brownlee, W., Byrne, S., Chitre, M., Coles, A., Forsyth, R., Kneen, R., Mankad, K., Ram, D., West, S., Wright, S., Wassmer, E., Lim, M., Ciccarelli, O., Hemingway, C., Hacohen, Y., on Tags: MRI, All Pediatric, Class IV, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Network Damage Predicts Clinical Worsening in Multiple Sclerosis: A 6.4-Year Study
Conclusions Integration of MRI network measures helped determining the relative contributions of global/local GM damage and functional reorganization to clinical deterioration in MS. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rocca, M. A., Valsasina, P., Meani, A., Pagani, E., Cordani, C., Cervellin, C., Filippi, M. Tags: fMRI, Volumetric MRI, Prognosis, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Autoimmune Global Amnesia as Manifestation of AMPAR Encephalitis and Neuropathologic Findings
Conclusion AMPAR antibodies usually associate with limbic encephalitis but may also present with immune responsive, acute-to-subacute, isolated hippocampal dysfunction without overt inflammatory CSF or MRI changes. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ricken, G., Zrzavy, T., Macher, S., Altmann, P., Troger, J., Falk, K. K., Kiefer, A., Fichtenbaum, A., Mitulovic, G., Kubista, H., Wandinger, K.-P., Rommer, P., Bartsch, T., Berger, T., Weber, J., Leypoldt, F., Höftberger, R. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Memory Article Source Type: research

COVID-19 Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review
Conclusion Our study suggested that MS did not significantly increase the mortality rate from COVID-19. These data should be interpreted with caution as patients with MS are more likely female and younger compared with the general population where age and male sex seem to be risk factors for worse disease outcome. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Barzegar, M., Mirmosayyeb, O., Gajarzadeh, M., Afshari-Safavi, A., Nehzat, N., Vaheb, S., Shaygannejad, V., Maghzi, A.-H. Tags: COVID-19, Multiple sclerosis Views [amp ] Reviews Source Type: research

Long-term Follow-up and Muscle Imaging Findings in Brachio-Cervical Inflammatory Myopathy
Conclusion BCIM is an inflammatory myopathy with a peculiar clinical and radiologic presentation and a relatively broad spectrum of severity. Long-term follow-up data suggest that appropriate and early treatment can prevent chronic muscle function impairment. MRI characterization can be helpful in reducing diagnostic and treatment delay with positive consequence on clinical outcome. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Lucchini, M., Bortolani, S., Monforte, M., Papacci, M., Ricci, E., Mirabella, M., Tasca, G. Tags: MRI, Autoimmune diseases, Muscle disease, EMG Article Source Type: research

Updated Diagnostic Criteria for Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes
Conclusions The proposed criteria and recommendations should be used to enhance the clinical care of patients with PNS and to encourage standardization of research initiatives addressing PNS. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Graus, F., Vogrig, A., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Antoine, J.-C. G., Desestret, V., Dubey, D., Giometto, B., Irani, S. R., Joubert, B., Leypoldt, F., McKeon, A., Prüss, H., Psimaras, D., Thomas, L., Titulaer, M. J., Vedeler, C. A., Verschuuren, J. J., D Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Encephalitis, Peripheral neuropathy, All Oncology, Paraneoplastic syndrome Article Source Type: research

Exosomes From Subjects With Multiple Sclerosis Express EBV-Derived Proteins and Activate Monocyte-Derived Macrophages
Conclusion Exosomes expressing EBV proteins correlate with disease activity and induce an inflammatory response in MDMs that is compounded by the origin of the responder cells. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mrad, M. F., Saba, E. S., Nakib, L., Khoury, S. J. Tags: Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Allogeneic BK Virus-Specific T-Cell Treatment in 2 Patients With Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Conclusions We demonstrate that this optimized allogeneic BKV-CTL treatment paradigm represents a promising, innovative therapeutic option for PML and should be investigated in larger, controlled clinical trials. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with PML, allogeneic transplant of BKV-CTL improved symptoms, reduced MRI changes, and decreased viral load. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hopfner, F., Möhn, N., Eiz-Vesper, B., Maecker-Kolhoff, B., Gottlieb, J., Blasczyk, R., Mahmoudi, N., Pars, K., Adams, O., Stangel, M., Wattjes, M. P., Höglinger, G., Skripuletz, T. Tags: All Imaging, All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases, Viral infections, Class IV Article Source Type: research

Can Systemic Anti-CD20 B Cell-Depleting Antibodies Eliminate Meningeal Follicles in Multiple Sclerosis?
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Gupta, S., Zamvil, S. S. Tags: All Demyelinating disease (CNS), Multiple sclerosis Editorial Source Type: research

The Pursuit of Precision in Paraneoplastic Neurologic Disease
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Abbatemarco, J. R., Clardy, S. L. Tags: All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases, Paraneoplastic syndrome Editorial Source Type: research

Delayed Benefit From Aggressive Immunotherapy in Waxing and Waning Anti-IgLON5 Disease
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Shambrook, P., Hesters, A., Marois, C., Zemba, D., Servan, J., Gaymard, B., Pico, F., Delorme, C., Lubetzki, C., Arnulf, I., Psimaras, D., Honnorat, J., Gales, A., Meneret, A. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Encephalitis, All Movement Disorders, All Sleep Disorders Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Anti-Adenylate Kinase 5 Encephalitis With Histologic Evidence of CNS Vasculitis
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Vicino, A., Loser, V., Salvioni Chiabotti, P., Brouland, J. P., Du Pasquier, R. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Vasculitis, All Clinical Neurology Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Perturbed Microbiota/Immune Homeostasis in Multiple Sclerosis
Objective Based on animal models and human studies, there is now strong suspicion that host/microbiota mutualism in the context of gut microbial dysbiosis could influence immunity and multiple sclerosis (MS) evolution. Our goal was to seek evidence of deregulated microbiota-induced systemic immune responses in patients with MS. Methods We investigated gut and systemic commensal-specific antibody responses in healthy controls (n = 32), patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n = 30), and individuals with clinically isolated syndromes (CISs) (n = 15). Gut microbiota composition and diversity were compared between controls and...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sterlin, D., Larsen, M., Fadlallah, J., Parizot, C., Vignes, M., Autaa, G., Dorgham, K., Juste, C., Lepage, P., Aboab, J., Vicart, S., Maillart, E., Gout, O., Lubetzki, C., Deschamps, R., Papeix, C., Gorochov, G. Tags: All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation's Acknowledgment to Reviewers
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Acknowledgment to Reviewers Source Type: research

Tissue Transglutaminase Expression Associates With Progression of Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusion PBMC-derived TG2 mRNA levels hold promise as biomarker for disease progression in patients with MS. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with MS, PBMC-derived TG2 mRNA levels are associated with disease progression. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sestito, C., Leurs, C. E., Steenwijk, M. D., Breve, J. J. P., Twisk, J. W. R., Wilhelmus, M. M. M., Drukarch, B., Teunissen, C. E., van Dam, A.-M., Killestein, J. Tags: MRI, Autoimmune diseases, Class II, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Serum Neurofilament Levels and PML Risk in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Treated With Natalizumab
Conclusions These results support the use of serum NFL levels in clinical practice to identify patients with relapsing-remitting MS at higher PML risk and to differentiate PML from clinical relapses in NTZ-treated patients. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class I evidence that serum NFL levels can identify NTZ-treated patients with MS who will develop PML with a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 80%. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Fissolo, N., Pignolet, B., Rio, J., Vermersch, P., Ruet, A., deSeze, J., Labauge, P., Vukusic, S., Papeix, C., Martinez-Almoyna, L., Tourbah, A., Clavelou, P., Moreau, T., Pelletier, J., Lebrun-Frenay, C., Bourre, B., Defer, G., Montalban, X., Brassat, D. Tags: Class I, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Pain, Depression, and Quality of Life in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study of 166 AQP4 Antibody-Seropositive Patients
Objectives To evaluate prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of pain, depression, and their impact on the quality of life (QoL) in a large neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) cohort. Methods We included 166 patients with aquaporin-4–seropositive NMOSD from 13 tertiary referral centers. Patients received questionnaires on demographic and clinical characteristics, PainDetect, short form of Brief Pain Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory–II, and Short Form 36 Health Survey. Results One hundred twenty-five (75.3%) patients suffered from chronic NMOSD-associated pain. Of these, 65.9% had ...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ayzenberg, I., Richter, D., Henke, E., Asseyer, S., Paul, F., Trebst, C., Hümmert, M. W., Havla, J., Kümpfel, T., Ringelstein, M., Aktas, O., Wildemann, B., Jarius, S., Häussler, V., Stellmann, J.-P., Senel, M., Klotz, L., Pellkofe Tags: All Clinical Neurology, All Pain, Central pain, Neuropathic pain, Devic's syndrome Article Source Type: research

Discontinuation of Immunosuppressive Therapy in Patients With Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder With Aquaporin-4 Antibodies
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Demyelinating Events Following Initiation of Anti-TNF{alpha} Therapy in the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Registry in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Conclusions Demyelination following anti-TNF therapy is uncommon. Patients receiving anti-TNFα therapy show a marginally increased SIR; this is lost in sensitivity analyses. Patients concerned about anti–TNFα-associated demyelination can be relatively reassured by these data. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Taylor, T. R. P., Galloway, J., Davies, R., Hyrich, K., Dobson, R. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, All Medical/Systemic disease, All Demyelinating disease (CNS) Article Source Type: research

Imaging Features of Susac Syndrome on High-Resolution Intracranial Vessel Wall MRI
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yahyavi-Firouz-Abadi, N., Kiczek, M., Zeiler, S. R., Wasserman, B. A. Tags: Stroke in young adults, MRI, Vasculitis, All Demyelinating disease (CNS) Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Systemic Inflammation Is Associated With Neurologic Involvement in Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Associated With SARS-CoV-2
Conclusions Broad neurologic features were found in 12% patients with PIMS-TS. By 3-month follow-up, half of these surviving children had recovered fully without neurologic impairment. Significantly higher systemic inflammatory markers were identified in children with neurologic involvement and in those who had not recovered fully. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sa, M., Mirza, L., Carter, M., Carlton Jones, L., Gowda, V., Handforth, J., Hedderly, T., Kenny, J., Lascelles, K., Lin, J.-P., Lumsden, D., McDougall, M., Miller, O., Rossor, T., Shivamurthy, V., Siddiqui, A., Singh, R., Tang, S., White, M., Byrne, S., L Tags: Childhood stroke, Encephalitis, Prognosis, All Neuropsychology/Behavior Article Source Type: research

Skin Reactions in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Receiving Cladribine Treatment
Conclusion Skin AEs are common in patients with MS treated with cladribine. Until risk management plans have been adjusted to include these phenomena, clinicians should perform a thorough clinical follow-up and in suspicious cases seek early interdisciplinary support. In light of the observed delayed skin reactions, we further emphasize the necessity of careful clinical surveillance of cladribine-treated patients for yet undescribed secondary autoimmune events. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class IV evidence that skin-related AEs are frequent in patients with MS following cladribine in a real-world settin...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rolfes, L., Pfeuffer, S., Hackert, J., Pawlitzki, M., Ruck, T., Sondermann, W., Korsen, M., Wiendl, H., Meuth, S. G., Kleinschnitz, C., Pul, R. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Class IV, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

The Calm Between Storms: Serum Biomarkers in Assessing Interattack Astrocytopathy in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Goldschmidt, C., Bermel, R. A. Tags: Devic's syndrome Editorial Source Type: research

Effect of Teriflunomide on Cells From Patients With Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Neurologic Disease
Conclusions These results suggest that teriflunomide inhibits abnormal T-cell proliferation associated with HTLV-1 infection and may have potential as a therapeutic option in patients with HAM/TSP. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Enose-Akahata, Y., Ngouth, N., Ohayon, J., Mandel, M., Chavin, J., Turner, T. J., Jacobson, S. Tags: All Immunology, Viral infections Article Source Type: research

Investigating the Presence of Interattack Astrocyte Damage in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: Longitudinal Analysis of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Conclusions Subclinical astrocyte damage represented by increasing sGFAP levels rarely occurred during interattack periods in individuals with NMOSD; however, a certain degree of astrocyte damage did occur at the time of clinical attacks without exception, but it was not evident within 3 months of the attack. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hyun, J.-W., Kim, Y., Kim, S. Y., Lee, M. Y., Kim, S.-H., Kim, H. J. Tags: Devic's syndrome Article Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus Encephalitis Under Fingolimod Mimicking Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy?
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Oel, D., Rigler-Hohenwarter, K., Trenkler, J., Topakian, R. Tags: MRI, Encephalitis, Viral infections, All Demyelinating disease (CNS), Multiple sclerosis Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Pembrolizumab-Associated CD8+ Vasculitic Mononeuritis Multiplex in a Patient With Mesothelioma
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Baldauf, M. C., Kapauer, M., Joerger, M., Flatz, L., Rodriguez, R., Frank, S., Felbecker, A., Hartmann-Fussenegger, S., Hundsberger, T. Tags: Ultrasound, Vasculitis, Peripheral neuropathy, All Oncology Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Vaccine Hesitancy in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Preparing for the SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Challenge
Conclusion Our study demonstrated that in our single-center cohort, 41.3% of patients with MS do not get the recommended pneumococcal vaccination. Future research should focus on vaccine hesitancy in the vulnerable cohort of patients with MS to improve the safety of MS immunotherapies. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Diem, L., Friedli, C., Chan, A., Salmen, A., Hoepner, R. Tags: Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Microglia Activation in Basal Ganglia Is a Late Event in Huntington Disease Pathophysiology
Conclusions Altogether, our data demonstrate that microglial activation is involved in HD pathophysiology and is associated with disease progression. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rocha, N. P., Charron, O., Latham, L. B., Colpo, G. D., Zanotti-Fregonara, P., Yu, M., Freeman, L., Furr Stimming, E., Teixeira, A. L. Tags: PET, Huntington's disease Article Source Type: research

Autoantibodies Against the Purkinje Cell Protein RGS8 in Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Syndrome
Conclusion Our results indicate that autoantibodies against the intracellular Purkinje cell protein RGS8 represent new markers for paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome associated with lymphoma. Classification of Evidence This study provided Class IV evidence that autoantibodies against the intracellular Purkinje cell protein RGS8 are associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome in lymphoma. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Miske, R., Scharf, M., Stark, P., Dietzel, H., Bien, C. I., Borchers, C., Kermer, P., Ott, A., Denno, Y., Rochow, N., Borowski, K., Finke, C., Teegen, B., Probst, C., Komorowski, L. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Gait disorders/ataxia, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Class IV Article Source Type: research

Exercise Diminishes Plasma Neurofilament Light Chain and Reroutes the Kynurenine Pathway in Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusion Future studies and clinical assessments of pNfL should consider acute exercise as confounding factor for measurement reliability. Moreover, exercise-induced KYN pathway rerouting might mediate neuroprotection, potentially underlying the benefits in rehabilitation for pwMS. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class II evidence that acute HIIT diminishes pNfL and increases KA levels, and 3 weeks of HIIT activate the KYN pathway in pwMS. Trial Registration Information Clinical trial registration number: NCT03652519. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Joisten, N., Rademacher, A., Warnke, C., Proschinger, S., Schenk, A., Walzik, D., Knoop, A., Thevis, M., Steffen, F., Bittner, S., Gonzenbach, R., Kool, J., Bloch, W., Bansi, J., Zimmer, P. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

A Case of CIDP Concurrent With MGUS IgG Kappa Responsive to Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Correction Source Type: research

CLIPPERS With Exclusive Extra Pontine Involvement
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Picarelli, H., Yamaki, V. N., Casal, Y. R., de Brito, M. H., de Lima, L. G. C. A., Ayres, A. S., de Oliveira, M. C. B. Tags: MRI, All Immunology, All Practice Management Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Disability Outcomes in the N-MOmentum Trial of Inebilizumab in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
Conclusions Disability outcomes were more favorable with inebilizumab vs placebo in participants with NMOSD. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with NMOSD, inebilizumab reduces the risk of worsening disability. N-MOmentum is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02200770. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Marignier, R., Bennett, J. L., Kim, H. J., Weinshenker, B. G., Pittock, S. J., Wingerchuk, D., Fujihara, K., Paul, F., Cutter, G. R., Green, A. J., Aktas, O., Hartung, H.-P., Lublin, F. D., Williams, I. M., Drappa, J., She, D., Cimbora, D., Rees, W., Smit Tags: Autoimmune diseases, All Clinical Neurology, Clinical trials Randomized controlled (CONSORT agreement), Class II, Devic's syndrome Article Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin Gallate in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Conclusion In RRMS, oral EGCG add-on to GA was not superior to placebo in influencing MRI and clinical disease activity over 18 months. The treatment was safe at a daily dosage up to 800 mg EGCG. It did not influence immune parameters, despite indication of EGCG being bioavailable in patients. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with RRMS, EGCG added to GA did not significantly affect the development of new hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted brain MRI. Trial Registration Information Clinical trial registration number: NCT00525668. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Bellmann-Strobl, J., Paul, F., Wuerfel, J., Dörr, J., Infante-Duarte, C., Heidrich, E., Körtgen, B., Brandt, A., Pfüller, C., Radbruch, H., Rust, R., Siffrin, V., Aktas, O., Heesen, C., Faiss, J., Hoffmann, F., Lorenz, M., Zimmerma Tags: MRI, Autoimmune diseases, Clinical trials Randomized controlled (CONSORT agreement), Class II, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Evolution of Brain Volume Loss Rates in Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusions The rate of BVL is relatively stable throughout the course of RRMS. The accelerated BVL is weakly associated with concurrent higher disease activity, and timely escalation to high-efficacy immunotherapy helps decrease the rate of BVL. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Uher, T., Krasensky, J., Malpas, C., Bergsland, N., Dwyer, M. G., Kubala Havrdova, E., Vaneckova, M., Horakova, D., Zivadinov, R., Kalincik, T. Tags: Volumetric MRI, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Rituximab-Induced Hypogammaglobulinemia and Infections in AQP4 and MOG Antibody-Associated Diseases
Objective To determine the potential association between infections and rituximab (RTX)-induced hypogammaglobulinemia among patients with CNS inflammatory diseases. Methods We included in a prospective observational study all consecutive adults with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody–positive disorders treated with RTX. Dosing schedule was adapted to memory B-cell measurement. Results We included 48 patients (mean age 47 [SD: 14] years; 77% females; 31 AQP4 positive and 17 MOG positive). The median follow-up was 3.6 years (range: 0.9–8.1 years). The median number of RTX i...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Avouac, A., Maarouf, A., Stellmann, J.-P., Rico, A., Boutiere, C., Demortiere, S., Marignier, R., Pelletier, J., Audoin, B. Tags: All Infections, Devic's syndrome Article Source Type: research

B-Cell Activity Predicts Response to Glatiramer Acetate and Interferon in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusion Measurement of brain-reactive B-cell activity by ELISPOT provides clinically meaningful predictive probabilities of individual patients' treatment response to GA or IFN-β. The assay has the potential to improve the selection of optimal first-line treatment for individual patients with RRMS. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with RRMS, the brain reactivity of their peripheral-blood B cells predicts clinical response to GA and IFN-β. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Tacke, S., Braune, S., Rovituso, D. M., Ziemssen, T., Lehmann, P. V., Dikow, H., Bergmann, A., Kuerten, S. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Class II, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Clinical and Prognostic Value of Immunogenetic Characteristics in Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis
Conclusions LE without CSF LGI1-Abs is clinically indistinguishable and likely reflects just a lesser LGI1-Ab production. HLA association is sex and age biased and presents clinical particularities, suggesting subtle differences in the immune response. Long-term outcome depends mostly on demographic characteristics and the intensity of the intrathecal synthesis. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Muniz-Castrillo, S., Haesebaert, J., Thomas, L., Vogrig, A., Pinto, A.-L., Picard, G., Blanc, C., Do, L.-D., Joubert, B., Berzero, G., Psimaras, D., Alentorn, A., Rogemond, V., Dubois, V., Ambati, A., Tamouza, R., Mignot, E., Honnorat, J. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Prognosis, Association studies in genetics Article Source Type: research

Potential Role of CHI3L1+ Astrocytes in Progression in MS
Conclusions Both CSF NfL and CHI3L1 augment during acute inflammation in demyelinating diseases. In MS, CHI3L1 may be associated with low-grade nonlymphocytic inflammation and active neurodegeneration and therefore linked to progressive disease. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class III evidence that CSF NfL and CHI3L1 levels increase in inflammatory brain diseases during acute inflammation. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cubas-Nunez, L., Gil-Perotin, S., Castillo-Villalba, J., Lopez, V., Solis Tarazona, L., Gasque-Rubio, R., Carratala-Bosca, S., Alcala-Vicente, C., Perez-Miralles, F., Lassmann, H., Casanova, B. Tags: All Immunology, All Demyelinating disease (CNS), Multiple sclerosis, Devic's syndrome, Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Article Source Type: research