CD59 Expression in Skeletal Muscles and Its Role in Myasthenia Gravis
Discussion CD59, which acts as a complement regulator, may protect the NMJ from complement attack. Our findings could provide a basis for further research that investigates the underlying pathogenesis in MG and the immunomodulating interactions of the muscle cells. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - November 17, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Iwasa, K., Furukawa, Y., Yoshikawa, H., Yamada, M., Ono, K. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Longitudinal Postvaccine SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin G Titers, Memory B-Cell Responses, and Risk of COVID-19 in Multiple Sclerosis Over 1 Year
Discussion Postvaccine anti-S IgG titers decrease over time regardless of MS treatment and are associated with breakthrough COVID-19. Both humoral and specific memory B-cell responses are diminished on S1P modulators. Within anti-CD20–treated patients, B-cell count at first vaccine determines anti-S IgG production, whereas postvaccine anti-CD20 infusions negatively affect spike-specific memory B cells. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - November 17, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Disanto, G., Galante, A., Cantu', M., Sacco, R., Mele, F., Eisler, J. J., Keller, F., Bernasconi, E., Sallusto, F., Zecca, C., Gobbi, C. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Serum GFAP and NfL Levels Differentiate Subsequent Progression and Disease Activity in Patients With Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Discussion Higher levels of sGFAP correlated with subsequent progression, particularly in nonactive patients, whereas sNfL reflected acute disease activity in patients with MS at high risk of underlying progressive pathology. Thus, sGFAP and sNfL levels may be used to stratify patients with progressive MS for clinical research studies and clinical trials and may inform clinical care. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - November 14, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Barro, C., Healy, B. C., Liu, Y., Saxena, S., Paul, A., Polgar-Turcsanyi, M., Guttmann, C. R. G., Bakshi, R., Kropshofer, H., Weiner, H. L., Chitnis, T. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Kappa Free Light Chain Biomarkers Are Efficient for the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis: A Large Multicenter Cohort Study
This study provides Class III evidence that KFLC index or IF can be used to differentiate patients with MS from nonselected controls and from patients with other autoimmune CNS disorders. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - November 14, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Levraut, M., Laurent-Chabalier, S., Ayrignac, X., Bigaut, K., Rival, M., Squalli, S., Zephir, H., Alberto, T., Pekar, J.-D., Ciron, J., Biotti, D., Puissant-Lubrano, B., Camdessanche, J.-P., Tholance, Y., Casez, O., Toussaint, B., Marion, J., Moreau, T., Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Recurrent Optic Neuritis and Perineuritis Followed by an Unexpected Discovery: From the National Multiple Sclerosis Society Case Conference Proceedings
We describe a woman with a history of relapsing acute optic neuritis and perineuritis. Testing failed to confirm a specific diagnosis; hence, she was diagnosed with seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and treated with the immunotherapy rituximab, later in conjunction with mycophenolate mofetil. She achieved a durable remission for 9 years until she presented with paresthesia affecting her left fifth digit, right proximal thigh, and left foot, while also reporting a 25-pound weight loss over the prior 3 months. New imaging demonstrated a longitudinally extensive and enhancing optic nerve, in conjunction with...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - November 10, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Pimentel Maldonado, D. A., Lisak, R., Galetta, S., Balcer, L., Varkey, T., Goodman, A., Graves, J., Racke, M., Zamvil, S. S., Newsome, S., Frohman, E. M., Frohman, T. C. Tags: Diagnostic [amp ] Treatment Challenges Source Type: research

Senescent-like Blood Lymphocytes and Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Discussion Our data suggest that a systemic elevation of senescent and late memory T and B lymphocytes is a feature of faster progressing ALS and of ALS individuals with bulbar involvement. Lymphocyte senescence and their memory state may be central to the immune dysregulation known to drive disease progression in ALS and a target for biomarkers and therapeutics discovery. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - November 2, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Yildiz, O., Schroth, J., Tree, T., Turner, M. R., Shaw, P. J., Henson, S. M., Malaspina, A. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Effect of Estimated Blood Volume and Body Mass Index on GFAP and NfL Levels in the Serum and CSF of Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
Discussion These findings support the notion that the volume of distribution of sGFAP approximated by BV and BMI is a relevant variable and should therefore be controlled for when measuring sGFAP in MS, while this might not be necessary when measuring cGFAP concentrations. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - October 31, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Yalachkov, Y., Schäfer, J. H., Jakob, J., Friedauer, L., Steffen, F., Bittner, S., Foerch, C., Schaller-Paule, M. A. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Early-Stage Contactin-Associated Protein-like 2 Limbic Encephalitis: Clues for Diagnosis
Discussion CASPR2-encephalitis has a progressive course and is highly heterogeneous at the early stage. In men older than 50 years, otherwise unexplained seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and/or neuropathic pain are suggestive of early-stage CASPR2-encephalitis, especially if they coincide with recent asthenia, mood disorders, or insomnia. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - October 26, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Benoit, J., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Vogrig, A., Farina, A., Pinto, A.-L., Picard, G., Rogemond, V., Guery, D., Alentorn, A., Psimaras, D., Rheims, S., Honnorat, J., Joubert, B. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Neurofilament Light Chain Levels Are Predictive of Clinical Conversion in Radiologically Isolated Syndrome
This study provides Class II evidence that in people with radiologic isolated syndrome (RIS), initial serum and CSF NfL levels are associated with subsequent evidence of disease activity or clinical conversion. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - October 24, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Rival, M., Thouvenot, E., Du Trieu de Terdonck, L., Laurent-Chabalier, S., Demattei, C., Uygunoglu, U., Castelnovo, G., Cohen, M., Okuda, D. T., Kantarci, O. H., Pelletier, D., Azevedo, C., Marin, P., Lehmann, S., Siva, A., Mura, T., Lebrun-Frenay, C., on Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Comparison of Fixed and Live Cell-Based Assay for the Detection of AChR and MuSK Antibodies in Myasthenia Gravis
In this study, we compared the performance of fixed and live CBAs in patients with RIA-dSN MG and assessed their sensitivity in RIA-positive MG samples and their specificity. Methods AChR and MuSK Abs were tested in 292 serum samples from 2 Italian MG referral centers by live and fixed CBAs: 192 from patients with MG and 100 from controls. All samples had been previously assessed by RIA: 66 were AChR positive, 40 MuSK positive, and 86 dSN. All controls were negative. Two independent raters assessed the CBA results. Fixed and live CBAs were compared with the McNemar test; interrater and interlaboratory agreement were asses...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - October 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Spagni, G., Gastaldi, M., Businaro, P., Chemkhi, Z., Carrozza, C., Mascagna, G., Falso, S., Scaranzin, S., Franciotta, D., Evoli, A., Damato, V. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Multiple Sclerosis Followed by Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: From the National Multiple Sclerosis Society Case Conference Proceedings
A woman presented at age 18 years with partial myelitis and diplopia and experienced multiple subsequent relapses. Her MRI demonstrated T2 abnormalities characteristic of multiple sclerosis (MS) (white matter ovoid lesions and Dawson fingers), and CSF demonstrated an elevated IgG index and oligoclonal bands restricted to the CSF. Diagnosed with clinically definite relapsing-remitting MS, she was treated with various MS disease-modifying therapies and eventually began experiencing secondary progression. At age 57 years, she developed an acute longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and was found to have AQP4 antibodies...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - October 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Goldschmidt, C., Galetta, S. L., Lisak, R. P., Balcer, L. J., Hellman, A., Racke, M. K., Lovett-Racke, A. E., Cruz, R., Parsons, M. S., Sattarnezhad, N., Steinman, L., Zamvil, S. S., Frohman, E. M., Frohman, T. C. Tags: Diagnostic [amp ] Treatment Challenges Source Type: research

Early Reduction of MRI Activity During 6 Months of Cladribine Tablet Treatment for Highly Active Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: MAGNIFY-MS
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - October 20, 2022 Category: Neurology Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Seizure Semiology in Antibody-Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis
Discussion Seizures are a frequent and diagnostically relevant symptom of ab + AE. Whereas NMDAR+ patients had few localizing semiological features, semiology in LGI1+ and GAD+ patients pointed toward a predominant temporal seizure onset. FBDS are pathognomonic for LGI1 + AE. Status epilepticus seems to be more frequent in NMDAR + AE. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - October 20, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Kaaden, T., Madlener, M., Angstwurm, K., Bien, C. G., Bogarin, Y., Doppler, K., Finke, A., Gerner, S. T., Reimann, G., Häusler, M., Handreka, R., Hellwig, K., Kaufmann, M., Kellinghaus, C., Koertvelyessy, P., Kraft, A., Lewerenz, J., Menge, T., Pa Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Multiple Sclerosis CSF Is Enriched With Follicular T Cells Displaying a Th1/Eomes Signature
In this study, we examined the phenotype, frequency, and transcriptome of circulating cTfh cells in the blood and CSF of patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Methods The phenotype and frequency of cTfh cells were analyzed in the blood of 39 healthy controls and 41 untreated patients with RRMS and in the CSF and paired blood of 10 patients with drug-naive RRMS at diagnosis by flow cytometry. Using an in vitro model of blood-brain barrier, we assessed the transendothelial migratory abilities of the different cTfh-cell subsets. Finally, we performed an RNA sequencing analysis of paired CSF cTfh cells and blood cTfh c...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - October 20, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Morille, J., Mandon, M., Rodriguez, S., Roulois, D., Leonard, S., Garcia, A., Wiertlewski, S., Le Page, E., Berthelot, L., Nicot, A., Mathe, C., Lejeune, F., Tarte, K., Delaloy, C., Ame, P., Laplaud, D., Michel, L. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Patients With Severe Multiple Sclerosis Exhibit Functionally Altered CD8+ Regulatory T Cells
Discussion Altogether, these results suggest a defect in the number and function of CD8+CD45RClow Tregs during MS relapse and an association of CD8+CD45RClow Tregs dysfunction with MS severity. Thus, CD8+CD45RClow/neg T cells might bring new insights into the pathophysiology and new therapeutic approaches of MS. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - October 20, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Benallegue, N., Nicol, B., Lasselin, J., Bezie, S., Flippe, L., Regue, H., Vimond, N., Remy, S., Garcia, A., Le Frere, F., Anegon, I., Laplaud, D., Guillonneau, C. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research