Prognostic Accuracy of NEDA-3 in Long-term Outcomes of Multiple Sclerosis
This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with RRMS who attained NEDA-3 status, subsequent RAW was associated with baseline MRI activity and discontinuation of treatment and PIRA was associated with age and the presence of baseline spinal cord lesions. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - August 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Prosperini, L., Ruggieri, S., Haggiag, S., Tortorella, C., Pozzilli, C., Gasperini, C. Tags: Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Familial History of Autoimmune Disorders Among Patients With Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis
The objective of this study was to determine whether family members of patients with pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) have an increased prevalence of autoimmune conditions compared with controls. Methods Data collected during a pediatric MS case-control study of risk factors included information about various autoimmune diseases in family members. The frequency of these disorders was compared between cases and controls. Results There was an increased rate of autoimmune diseases among family members of pediatric MS cases compared with controls with first-degree history of MS excluded (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.71–3.01, p...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - August 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Greenberg, B. M., Casper, T. C., Mar, S. S., Ness, J. M., Plumb, P., Liang, S., Goyal, M., Weinstock-Guttman, B., Rodriguez, M., Aaen, G. S., Belman, A., Barcellos, L. F., Rose, J. W., Gorman, M. P., Benson, L. A., Candee, M., Chitnis, T., Harris, Y. C., Tags: Autoimmune diseases, All Pediatric, Multiple sclerosis, Case control studies, Risk factors in epidemiology Article Source Type: research

Encephalitis and Myelitis in a Young Woman: Overlap Syndrome, Thyroiditis, and Occult Tumor From the National Multiple Sclerosis Society Case Conference Proceedings
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - August 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Combined Neurofilament Light and Optical Coherence Tomography Better Predicts Multiple Sclerosis Disease Activity Than Either Measure Alone
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - August 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Krämer, J., Wiendl, H., Meuth, S. G., Albrecht, P. Tags: Multiple sclerosis Editorial Source Type: research

Increased Serum Neurofilament Light and Thin Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Are Additive Risk Factors for Disease Activity in Early Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusions In patients with early MS, the presence of both abnormal sNfL and thin GCIP is a stronger risk factor for future disease activity than the presence of each parameter alone. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - August 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin, T.-Y., Vitkova, V., Asseyer, S., Martorell Serra, I., Motamedi, S., Chien, C., Ditzhaus, M., Papadopoulou, A., Benkert, P., Kuhle, J., Bellmann-Strobl, J., Ruprecht, K., Paul, F., Brandt, A. U., Zimmermann, H. G. Tags: Retina, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Vascular Involvement in Neurosarcoidosis: Early Experiences From Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging
We report our preliminary experience in patients with NS who underwent high-resolution vessel wall imaging (VWI). Methods A total of 13 consecutive patients with NS underwent VWI. Images were analyzed by 2 neuroradiologists in consensus. The assessment included segment-wise evaluation of larger- and medium-sized vessels (internal carotid artery, M1-M3 middle cerebral artery; A1-A3 anterior cerebral artery; V4 segments of vertebral arteries; basilar artery; and P1-P3 posterior cerebral artery), lenticulostriate perforator vessels, and medullary and deep cerebral veins. Cortical veins were not assessed due to flow-related a...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - August 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Bathla, G., Abdel-Wahed, L., Agarwal, A., Cho, T. A., Gupta, S., Jones, K. A., Priya, S., Soni, N., Wasserman, B. A. Tags: MRI, DWI, Other cerebrovascular disease/ Stroke, Vasculitis Article Source Type: research

A New England COVID-19 Registry of Patients With CNS Demyelinating Disease: A Pilot Analysis
Discussion The case fatality and hospitalization rates in our cohort were similar to those found in MS and general population COVID-19 cohorts within the region. Hospitalization was associated with increased disability, age, and comorbidities but not disease-modifying therapy use. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - August 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Money, K. M., Mahatoo, A., Samaan, S., Anand, P., Baber, U., Bailey, M., Bakshi, R., Bouley, A., Bower, A., Cahill, J., Houtchens, M., Katz, J., Lathi, E., Levit, E., Longbrake, E. E., McAdams, M., Napoli, S., Raibagkar, P., Wade, P., Sloane, J. A. Tags: COVID-19, All Demyelinating disease (CNS), Cohort studies Article Source Type: research

Autoimmune Encephalitis Resembling Dementia Syndromes
Conclusions Red flags for AIE in patients with suspected dementia are: (1) rapidly progressive cognitive decline, (2) subtle seizures, and (3) abnormalities in ancillary testing atypical for neurodegeneration. Physicians should be aware that inflammatory changes are not always present in AIE, and that biomarkers often requested when dementia was suspected (including 14-3-3) can show abnormal results. Diagnosis is essential as most patients profit from immunotherapy. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - August 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Bastiaansen, A. E. M., van Steenhoven, R. W., de Bruijn, M. A. A. M., Crijnen, Y. S., van Sonderen, A., van Coevorden-Hameete, M. H., Nühn, M. M., Verbeek, M. M., Schreurs, M. W. J., Sillevis Smitt, P. A. E., de Vries, J. M., Jan de Jong, F., Titu Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Encephalitis, All Cognitive Disorders/Dementia Article Source Type: research

Impact of Disease-Modifying Treatments of Multiple Sclerosis on Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies: An Observational Study
Conclusions Humoral response after COVID-19 was lower in patients with MS with fingolimod or anti-CD20 mAb. These patients could therefore be at risk of recurrent infection and could benefit from anti–SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The humoral response after vaccination and the delay before vaccination need to be evaluated. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class IV evidence that patients treated with fingolimod or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies for MS have a lower humoral response after COVID-19 compared with patients without DMTs or with another DMTs. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Bigaut, K., Kremer, L., Fabacher, T., Lanotte, L., Fleury, M.-C., Collongues, N., de Seze, J. Tags: COVID-19, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

CNS Lymphocytic Vasculitis in a Young Woman With COVID-19 Infection
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Timmons, G. M., Rempe, T., Bevins, E. A., Goodwill, V., Miner, A., Kavanaugh, A., Ritter, M., Graves, J. S. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Vasculitis, Post-infectious, COVID-19 Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Argonaute Autoantibodies as Biomarkers in Autoimmune Neurologic Diseases
Conclusions AGO-Abs might be potential biomarkers of autoimmunity in patients with central and peripheral nonparaneoplastic neurologic diseases. In 7 patients, AGO-Abs were the only biomarkers; thus, their identification may be useful to suspect the autoimmune character of the neurologic disorder. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class III evidence that AGO-Abs are more frequent in patients with autoimmune neurologic diseases than controls. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Do, L.-D., Moritz, C. P., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Pinto, A.-L., Tholance, Y., Brugiere, S., Coute, Y., Stoevesandt, O., Taussig, M. J., Rogemond, V., Vogrig, A., Joubert, B., Ferraud, K., Camdessanche, J.-P., Antoine, J.-C., Honnorat, J. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Peripheral neuropathy, Paraneoplastic syndrome Article Source Type: research

Thymoma and Autoimmune Encephalitis: Clinical Manifestations and Antibodies
Conclusions AE in patients with thymoma include several clinical-radiologic syndromes that vary according to the associated antibodies. Anti-GABAAR encephalitis was the most frequent AE and occurred more frequently in Japanese patients. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Guasp, M., Landa, J., Martinez-Hernandez, E., Sabater, L., Iizuka, T., Simabukuro, M., Nakamura, M., Kinoshita, M., Kurihara, M., Kaida, K., Bruna, J., Kapetanovic, S., Sanchez, P., Ruiz-Garcia, R., Naranjo, L., Planaguma, J., Munoz-Lopetegi, A., Bataller Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Encephalitis, Paraneoplastic syndrome Article Source Type: research

The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent TGF-{alpha}/VEGF-B Ratio Correlates With Disease Subtype and Prognosis in Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusions The AHR-dependent TGF-α/VEGF-B ratio is altered in a subtype, severity, and disease activity–specific manner and correlates with time to conversion from CIS to MS. It may thus represent a novel marker and serve as additive guideline for immunomodulatory strategies in MS. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class III evidence that serum levels of AHR, TGF-α, and VEGF-B distinguish subtypes of MS and predict the severity and disease activity of MS. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cirac, A., Tsaktanis, T., Beyer, T., Linnerbauer, M., Andlauer, T., Grummel, V., Nirschl, L., Loesslein, L., Quintana, F. J., Hemmer, B., Rothhammer, V. Tags: All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases, Class III, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

International Consensus Recommendations for the Treatment of Pediatric NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis
Conclusion These international consensus recommendations for the management of pediatric NMDARE aim to standardize the treatment and provide practical guidance for clinicians, rather than absolute rules. A similar recommendation could be applicable to adult patients. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Nosadini, M., Thomas, T., Eyre, M., Anlar, B., Armangue, T., Benseler, S. M., Cellucci, T., Deiva, K., Gallentine, W., Gombolay, G., Gorman, M. P., Hacohen, Y., Jiang, Y., Lim, B. C., Muscal, E., Ndondo, A., Neuteboom, R., Rostasy, K., Sakuma, H., Sharma, Tags: Article Source Type: research

Predicting Aggressive Multiple Sclerosis With Intrathecal IgM Synthesis Among Patients With a Clinically Isolated Syndrome
Conclusions ITMS predicts an aggressive MS at disease onset, especially when detected as LS-OCMB. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class II evidence that lipid-specific IgM oligoclonal bands can predict progression from CIS to MS and a worse disease course over a follow-up of at least 2 years. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Monreal, E., Sainz de la Maza, S., Costa-Frossard, L., Walo-Delgado, P., Zamora, J., Fernandez-Velasco, J. I., Villarrubia, N., Espino, M., Lourido, D., Lapuente, P., Toboso, I., Alvarez-Cermeno, J. C., Masjuan, J., Villar, L. M. Tags: Prognosis, Class II, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research