Efficacy and Safety of Masitinib in Progressive Forms of Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized, Phase 3, Clinical Trial
This study provides Class II evidence that masitinib 4.5 mg/kg/d decreased progression of disability, measured by the EDSS, in adults with PPMS or patients with nSPMS (with no exacerbations in the last 2 years). (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - February 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Vermersch, P., Brieva-Ruiz, L., Fox, R. J., Paul, F., Ramio-Torrenta, L., Schwab, M., Moussy, A., Mansfield, C., Hermine, O., Maciejowski, M., on behalf of the AB07002 Study Group, on behalf of the AB07002 Study Group Tags: Clinical trials Randomized controlled (CONSORT agreement), Class II, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Is HIV Brain Disease Preventable?
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - February 9, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Brew, B. J. Tags: MRI, PET, HIV, HIV dementia Editorial Source Type: research

Multimodal Investigation of Neuroinflammation in Aviremic Patients With HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy and HIV Elite Controllers
This study casts a new light onto the role of neuroinflammation and related microstructural alterations of HIV infection in the CNS and shows that ECs suppress neuroinflammation more effectively than PWH on therapy. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - February 9, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Sari, H., Galbusera, R., Bonnier, G., Lin, Y., Alshelh, Z., Torrado-Carvajal, A., Mukerji, S. S., Ratai, E. M., Gandhi, R. T., Chu, J. T., Akeju, O., Orhurhu, V., Salvatore, A. N., Sherman, J., Kwon, D. S., Walker, B., Rosen, B., Price, J. C., Pollak, L. Tags: MRI, PET, HIV Article Source Type: research

Human Leukocyte Antigen Association Study Reveals DRB1*04:02 Effects Additional to DRB1*07:01 in Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis
Discussion In addition to the established primary DRB1*07:01 association in anti-LGI1 encephalitis, we observe a secondary effect of DRB1*04:02 with lower age at onset. Our study provides evidence for secondary effects within HLA locus that correlate with clinical phenotypes in anti-LGI1 encephalitis. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - February 3, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Peris Sempere, V., Muniz-Castrillo, S., Ambati, A., Binks, S., Pinto, A.-L., Rogemond, V., Pittock, S. J., Dubey, D., Geschwind, M. D., Gelfand, J. M., Dilwali, S., Lee, S.-T., Knight, J., Elliott, K. S., Irani, S., Honnorat, J., Mignot, E. Tags: Article Source Type: research

Humoral and Cellular Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Convalescent COVID-19 Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
The objectives of this study were to investigate factors influencing humoral and cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 and its persistence in convalescent COVID-19 PwMS. Methods This is a retrospective study of confirmed COVID-19 convalescent PwMS identified between February 2020 and May 2021 by SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. We examined relationships between demographics, MS characteristics, disease-modifying therapy (DMT), and humoral (immunoglobulin G against spike and nucleocapsid proteins) and cellular (interferon-gamma [IFN-]) responses to SARS-CoV-2. Results A total of 121 (83.45%) of 145 PwMS were seropositive, and 25/4...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - February 1, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Zabalza, A., Arrambide, G., Tagliani, P., Cardenas-Robledo, S., Otero-Romero, S., Esperalba, J., Fernandez-Naval, C., Trocoli Campuzano, J., Martinez Gallo, M., Castillo, M., Bonastre, M., Resina Salles, M., Beltran, J., Carbonell-Mirabent, P., Rodriguez- Tags: Article Source Type: research

Baicalin Promotes CNS Remyelination via PPAR{gamma} Signal Pathway
Discussion Our work demonstrated that BA promotes myelin production and regeneration by activating the PPAR signal pathway and also confirmed that BA is an effective natural product for the treatment of demyelinating diseases. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - February 1, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Ai, R.-S., Xing, K., Deng, X., Han, J.-J., Hao, D.-X., Qi, W.-H., Han, B., Yang, Y.-N., Li, X., Zhang, Y. Tags: All Demyelinating disease (CNS) Article Source Type: research

Slowly Expanding Lesions Predict 9-Year Multiple Sclerosis Disease Progression
This study provides Class III evidence that in patients with RRMS starting treatment with natalizumab or fingolimod, the proportion of SELs on brain MRI was associated with EDSS score worsening and SPMS conversion at 9-year follow-up. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - February 1, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Preziosa, P., Pagani, E., Meani, A., Moiola, L., Rodegher, M., Filippi, M., Rocca, M. A. Tags: MRI, Class III, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Cortical and Subcortical Dysmetabolism Are Dynamic Markers of Clinical Disability and Course in Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis
This study provides Class II evidence that semiquantitative measures of putaminal metabolism on PET can differentiate patients with LGI1-AE from patients without LGI1-AE, patients with AD, or NCs. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - January 28, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Rissanen, E., Carter, K., Cicero, S., Ficke, J., Kijewski, M., Park, M.-A., Kijewski, J., Stern, E., Chitnis, T., Silbersweig, D., Weiner, H. L., Kim, C. K., Lyons, J., Klein, J. P., Bhattacharyya, S., Singhal, T. Tags: PET, Class III Article Source Type: research

Optic Nerve Lesion Length at the Acute Phase of Optic Neuritis Is Predictive of Retinal Neuronal Loss
This study provides Class I evidence that optic nerve lesion length measured on MRI during the acute phase of a first episode of ON is associated with long-term retinal neuro-axonal loss and visual impairment. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - January 28, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Denis, M., Woillez, J.-P., Smirnov, V. M., Drumez, E., Lannoy, J., Boucher, J., Zedet, M., Pruvo, J.-P., Labreuche, J., Zephir, H., Leclerc, X., Outteryck, O. Tags: MRI, Optic nerve, Retina, Class I, Optic neuritis; see Neuro-ophthalmology/Optic Nerve Article Source Type: research

Progranulin Suppressed Autoimmune Uveitis and Autoimmune Neuroinflammation by Inhibiting Th1/Th17 Cells and Promoting Treg Cells and M2 Macrophages
The objective of this study is to investigate the role of PGRN in uveitis and its counterpart, experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods Serum PGRN levels in patients with Behcet disease (BD) or Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and normal controls were measured by ELISA. EAE and EAU were induced in B10RIII, wild-type, and PGRN–/– mice to evaluate the effect of PGRN on the development of these 2 immune-mediated disease models. The local and systemic immunologic alterations were detected by ELISA, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR. RNA sequencing was pe...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - January 26, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang, C., Zhou, W., Su, G., Hu, J., Yang, P. Tags: All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases, All Medical/Systemic disease, All Demyelinating disease (CNS) Article Source Type: research

Risk of Getting COVID-19 in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study
This study provides Class III evidence that among patients with MS, younger age, being female individuals, having more comorbidities, receiving natalizumab, undergoing an escalating treatment strategy, or receiving treatment at a hospital were associated with being infected with COVID-19. Among patients with MS who were infected with COVID-19, a severe course was associated with increasing age and having a progressive form of MS, whereas not being on treatment or receiving an interferon beta agent was protective. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - January 19, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Iaffaldano, P., Lucisano, G., Manni, A., Paolicelli, D., Patti, F., Capobianco, M., Brescia Morra, V., Sola, P., Pesci, I., Lus, G., De Luca, G., Lugaresi, A., Cavalla, P., Montepietra, S., Maniscalco, G. T., Granella, F., Ragonese, P., Vianello, M., Bram Tags: Class III, COVID-19, Multiple sclerosis, Case control studies Article Source Type: research

Dimethyl Fumarate Reduces Inflammation in Chronic Active Multiple Sclerosis Lesions
This study provided Class III evidence that DMF is superior to GA in the presence of iron as a marker of inflammation as measured by MRI quantitative susceptibility mapping. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - January 19, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Zinger, N., Ponath, G., Sweeney, E., Nguyen, T. D., Lo, C. H., Diaz, I., Dimov, A., Teng, L., Zexter, L., Comunale, J., Wang, Y., Pitt, D., Gauthier, S. A. Tags: MRI, All Immunology, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

SEZ6L2 Antibody-Associated Cerebellar Ataxia Responsive to Sequential Immunotherapy
We present a case report of a 73-year-old woman with progressive balance problems. Her condition had rapidly deteriorated in the 2 weeks before the admission to our hospital leading to repeated falls and eventually left her bed-ridden. Results She presented with severe trunk ataxia, bidirectional nystagmus, dysarthric speech, and persistent nausea. With the exception of cerebellar atrophy, extensive imaging studies revealed no pathology. SEZ6L2 antibodies were found in both CSF and serum. Over a period of 9 months, our patient received immunotherapy consisting of steroid pulse therapy, IV immunoglobulin infusions, rituxim...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - January 14, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehdiyeva, A., Hietaharju, A., Sipilä, J. Tags: All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases, Encephalitis, Gait disorders/ataxia, Class IV Clinical/Scientific Note Source Type: research

Assessing Neurofilaments as Biomarkers of Neuroprotection in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: From the MS-STAT Randomized Controlled Trial
This study provides class I evidence that simvastatin treatment does not have a large impact on either serum NfL or NfH, as quantified in this study, in SPMS. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - January 14, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Williams, T. E., Holdsworth, K. P., Nicholas, J. M., Eshaghi, A., Katsanouli, T., Wellington, H., Heslegrave, A., Zetterberg, H., Frost, C., Chataway, J. Tags: Clinical trials Randomized controlled (CONSORT agreement), Class I, Multiple sclerosis Article Source Type: research

Increased Intrathecal B and Plasma Cells in Patients With Anti-IgLON5 Disease: A Case Series
Discussion Our findings indicate the importance of inflammatory mechanisms, in particular in early and acute anti-IgLON5 cases, which may support the use of immune-suppressive treatments in these cases. The main limitation of the study is the small number of cases due to the rarity of the disease. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - January 14, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Strippel, C., Heidbreder, A., Schulte-Mecklenbeck, A., Korn, L., Warnecke, T., Melzer, N., Wiendl, H., Pawlowski, M., Gross, C. C., Kovac, S. Tags: All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases Clinical/Scientific Note Source Type: research