The Effect of Smoking on Long-term Gray Matter Atrophy and Clinical Disability in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Discussion Smoking was associated with brain atrophy and disability progression 10 years later in patients with RRMS. The findings imply that patients should be advised and offered aid in smoking cessation shortly after diagnosis, to prevent long-term disability progression. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 23, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Lie, I. A., Wesnes, K., Kvistad, S. S., Brouwer, I., Wergeland, S., Holmoy, T., Midgard, R., Bru, A., Edland, A., Eikeland, R., Gosal, S., Harbo, H. F., Kleveland, G., Sorenes, Y. S., Oksendal, N., Barkhof, F., Vrenken, H., Myhr, K.-M., Bo, L., Torkildsen Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Comment: Humoral and T-cell Immunities to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: Safety, Efficacy, and Challenges in Autoimmune Neurology
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Dalakas, M. C., Dalmau, J. Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Immune Response and Safety of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis
This study provides Class IV evidence that patients with MG receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine did not show clinical worsening after vaccination and that most of the patients achieved high cellular or immune response levels. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Reyes-Leiva, D., Lopez-Contreras, J., Moga, E., Pla-Junca, F., Lynton-Pons, E., Rojas-Garcia, R., Turon-Sans, J., Querol, L., Olive, M., Alvarez-Velasco, R., Caballero-Avila, M., Carbayo, A., Vesperinas-Castro, A., Domingo, P., Illa, I., Gallardo, E., Cor Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Myasthenia, Class IV, COVID-19 Research Article Source Type: research

Refractory Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in Early Pregnancy: A Case Report of Treatment Course and Pregnancy Outcomes
We present a case of refractory anti-NMDAR encephalitis during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy with the successful use of rituximab and cyclophosphamide and resultant healthy pregnancy. Results The patient was treated with an escalating immunotherapy regimen from 11 to 15 weeks of gestation, including steroids, plasma exchange, IV immunoglobulins, and rituximab, with no clinical response. At 16 weeks of gestation, she received cyclophosphamide with clinical improvement after 4 weeks. She subsequently gave birth to a healthy, term baby boy, who continued to do well at the follow-up. Discussion This case illus...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 21, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Fredrich, S., Wang, C., Narayan, R., Tardo, L., Blackburn, K. M., Vernino, S. Tags: Clinical/Scientific Note Source Type: research

Early Reduction of MRI Activity During 6 Months of Treatment With Cladribine Tablets for Highly Active Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: MAGNIFY-MS
This study (MAGNIFY-MS) evaluates the onset of action of cladribine tablets by observing changes in combined unique active (CUA) MRI lesion counts during the first 6 months of treatment in patients with highly active relapsing MS. Methods MRI was performed at screening, baseline, and at months 1, 2, 3, and 6 after initiating treatment with cladribine tablets 3.5 mg/kg. CUA lesion counts, defined as the sum of T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions and new or enlarging active T2 lesions (without T1 Gd+), were compared between postbaseline and the baseline period and standardized to the period length and the number of MRIs p...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 14, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: de Stefano, N., Barkhof, F., Montalban, X., Achiron, A., Derfuss, T., Chan, A., Hodgkinson, S., Prat, A., Leocani, L., Schmierer, K., Sellebjerg, F., Vermersch, P., Wiendl, H., Keller, B., Roy, S., MAGNIFY-MS Study Group Tags: MRI, Class IV, Multiple sclerosis RESEARCH Article Source Type: research

Disease-Modifying Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis and Association With Survival
We examined the association between the disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) and survival in a multiregion population-based study. Methods We accessed multiple administrative health databases from 4 Canadian provinces. Persons with MS were identified and followed from the most recent of the first MS or demyelinating event or January 1, 1996 (index date), until death, emigration, or December 31, 2017. Association between the first-generation and second-generation DMDs and all-cause mortality was examined using stratified Cox proportional hazard models, reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Timing...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 14, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Ng, H. S., Zhu, F., Kingwell, E., Yao, S., Ekuma, O., Evans, C., Fisk, J. D., Marrie, R. A., Zhao, Y., Tremlett, H. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Plasma Markers of Neurologic Injury and Inflammation in People With Self-Reported Neurologic Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Discussion Self-reported neurologic symptoms present approximately 4 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with elevations in markers of neurologic injury and inflammation at earlier time points. Some inflammatory pathways seem to be involved months after acute infection. Additional work will be needed to better characterize these processes and to identify interventions to prevent or treat this condition. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 14, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Peluso, M. J., Sans, H. M., Forman, C. A., Nylander, A. N., Ho, H.-e., Lu, S., Goldberg, S. A., Hoh, R., Tai, V., Munter, S. E., Chenna, A., Yee, B. C., Winslow, J. W., Petropoulos, C. J., Martin, J. N., Kelly, J. D., Durstenfeld, M. S., Hsue, P. Y., Hunt Tags: All Immunology, COVID-19 Research Article Source Type: research

Multimodal Investigation of Neuroinflammation in Aviremic Patients With HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy and HIV Elite Controllers
(Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 10, 2022 Category: Neurology Tags: Correction [amp ] Replacement Source Type: research

CNS Antigen-Specific Neuroinflammation Attenuates Ischemic Stroke With Involvement of Polarized Myeloid Cells
Discussion CNS autoantigen-specific autoimmunity has a protective influence on primary tissue damage after experimental stroke, indicating a very early involvement of CNS antigen-specific, myeloid cell-associated anti-inflammatory immune mechanisms that mitigate ischemic injury in the acute EAE phase. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 8, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Guse, K., Hagemann, N., Thiele, L., Remlinger, J., Salmen, A., Hoepner, R., Keller, I., Meyer, P., Grandgirard, D., Leib, S. L., Vassella, E., Locatelli, G., Hermann, D. M., Chan, A. Tags: All Immunology, Multiple sclerosis, Infarction Research Article Source Type: research

Ofatumumab Modulates Inflammatory T Cell Responses and Migratory Potential in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
This study showed that ofatumumab treatment of patients with RRMS increased the control of effector T cells and decreased T cell autoreactivity. It also showed that ofatumumab reduced the level of peripheral CD20+ T cells and that the observed decrease in CNS-migratory capacity of T cells was caused by the depletion of CD20+ T cells. Finally, our study pointed out a bias in the measurement of CD20+ cells due to a steric hindrance between the treatment antibody and the flow cytometry antibody. Discussion The substantial ofatumumab-induced alteration in the T cell compartment including a severely decreased CNS-migratory cap...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 7, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: von Essen, M. R., Hansen, R. H., Hojgaard, C., Ammitzboll, C., Wiendl, H., Sellebjerg, F. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Retinal Hyperreflecting Foci Associate With Cortical Pathology in Multiple Sclerosis
This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with early RRMS but without ON, the number of HRF on OCT of the retinal inner nuclear layer is associated with cNEDA and rNEDA. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 23, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Pengo, M., Miante, S., Franciotta, S., Ponzano, M., Torresin, T., Bovis, F., Rinaldi, F., Perini, P., Saiani, M., Margoni, M., Bertoldo, A., Sormani, M. P., Pilotto, E., Midena, E., Gallo, P., Puthenparampil, M. Tags: Retina, Class II, Multiple sclerosis Research Article Source Type: research

{beta}IV-Spectrin Autoantibodies in 2 Individuals With Neuropathy of Possible Paraneoplastic Origin: A Case Series
This study provides Class IV evidence that βIV-spectrin antibodies are specific autoantibody biomarkers for paraneoplastic neuropathy. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 17, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Bartley, C. M., Ngo, T. T., Alvarenga, B. D., Kung, A. F., Teliska, L. H., Sy, M., DeRisi, J. L., Rasband, M. N., Pittock, S. J., Dubey, D., Wilson, M. R., Pleasure, S. J. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Class IV Clinical/Scientific Note Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic Profiles of Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy: Practical Importance of Anti-{alpha}-Actinin Immunostaining
Discussion SLONM is a treatable myopathy with ASCT or traditional immunotherapy, especially when combined with steroids and immunosuppressants. Anti–α-actinin immunostaining is the most reliable pathologic marker to identify rod-bearing fibers, and it should be performed routinely in adult patients with undiagnosed nonnecrotic myopathies. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 17, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao, B., Dai, T., Zhao, D., Ma, X., Zhao, C., Li, L., Sun, Y., Zhang, Y., Yan, Y., Lu, J.-Q., Liu, F., Yan, C. Tags: MRI, All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases, All Clinical Neurology, Muscle disease Research Article Source Type: research

Transitioning From S1P Receptor Modulators to B Cell-Depleting Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical, Radiographic, and Laboratory Data
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between inflammatory activity and the transition period from fingolimod to anti-CD20 therapies in a real-world MS cohort. Methods Medical records were reviewed for all patients at our center transitioning from fingolimod to rituximab or ocrelizumab between 2010 and October 2020. Time periods reviewed were the following: before fingolimod discontinuation, interval between fingolimod and anti-CD20 treatments, and after the first anti-CD20 infusion. The primary outcome was clinical relapses; MRI activity, time to absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery, and infect...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 17, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Rowles, W. M., Hsu, W.-Y., McPolin, K., Li, A., Merrill, S., Guo, C.-Y., Green, A. J., Gelfand, J. M., Bove, R. M. Tags: All Immunology, All Infections, All Clinical Neurology, Multiple sclerosis Research Article Source Type: research

Innate Immune Cell-Related Pathology in the Thalamus Signals a Risk for Disability Progression in Multiple Sclerosis
Discussion Increased TSPO radioligand binding in the thalamus has potential in predicting short-term disability progression in MS and seems to be more sensitive for this than GM atrophy measures. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - May 17, 2022 Category: Neurology Authors: Misin, O., Matilainen, M., Nylund, M., Honkonen, E., Rissanen, E., Sucksdorff, M., Airas, L. Tags: PET, Multiple sclerosis Research Article Source Type: research