Dialysis: A wearable dialysis device: the first step to continuous therapy
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 512 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.100 Author: Andrew Davenport A wearable haemodialysis device holds the promise of freedom for patients to carry on with their lives without the limitations associated with conventional dialysis. A new report of the outcomes of 24 h treatment with a wearable haemodialysis system represents a small but important step forward in the development of a wearable device. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 11, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrew Davenport Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Preventing acute kidney injury through nephrotoxin management
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 511 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.95 Authors: Mark A. Perazella & F. Perry Wilson Nephrotoxin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a considerable risk among hospitalized children. The development and use of a proactive, nephrotoxin screening system seems to have led to a significant improvement in AKI rates in one children's hospital, suggesting that such systems might have broader implications for patient care. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 4, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mark A. Perazella F. Perry Wilson Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

The epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in chronic kidney diseases
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 496 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.91 Authors: Laura R. Harskamp, Ron T. Gansevoort, Harry van Goor & Esther Meijer The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has a critical role in renal development, tissue repair and electrolyte handling. Numerous studies have reported an association between dysregulation of this pathway and the initiation and progression of various chronic kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy, chronic (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 4, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Laura R. HarskampRon T. GansevoortHarry van GoorEsther Meijer Tags: Review Source Type: research

The expanding phenotypic spectra of kidney diseases: insights from genetic studies
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 472 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.87 Authors: Marijn F. Stokman, Kirsten Y. Renkema, Rachel H. Giles, Franz Schaefer, Nine V.A.M. Knoers & Albertien M. van Eerde Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has led to the identification of previously unrecognized phenotypes associated with classic kidney disease genes. In addition to improving diagnostics for genetically heterogeneous diseases and enabling a faster rate of gene discovery, NGS has enabled an expansion and redefinition of nephrogenetic disease (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 4, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Marijn F. StokmanKirsten Y. RenkemaRachel H. GilesFranz SchaeferNine V.A.M. KnoersAlbertien M. van Eerde Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hypertension: AT2R activation counteracts hypertension
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 443 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.98 Author: Andrea Aguilar Sustained activation of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls Na+ excretion and blood pressure (BP), by infusion of angiotensin II (ang II), leads to Na+ retention and hypertension in rats. New data from Robert Carey and colleagues show that C-21, a (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 4, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Molecular assessment of disease states in kidney transplant biopsy samples
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 534 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.85 Authors: Philip F. Halloran, Konrad S. Famulski & Jeff Reeve Progress in renal transplantation requires improved understanding and assessment of rejection and injury. Study of the relationship between gene expression and clinical phenotypes in kidney transplant biopsy samples has led to the development of a system that enables diagnoses of specific disease states on the (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 27, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Philip F. Halloran Konrad S. Famulski Jeff Reeve Tags: Review Source Type: research

The importance of non-HLA antibodies in transplantation
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 484 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.88 Authors: Qiuheng Zhang & Elaine F. Reed The development of post-transplantation antibodies against non-HLA autoantigens is associated with rejection and decreased long-term graft survival. Although our knowledge of non-HLA antibodies is incomplete, compelling experimental and clinical findings demonstrate that antibodies directed against autoantigens such as angiotensin type 1 receptor, perlecan and collagen, (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 27, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Qiuheng ZhangElaine F. Reed Tags: Review Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Timing of renal replacement therapy in AKI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 445 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.92 Authors: Sean M. Bagshaw & Ron Wald Uncertainty exists regarding the optimal timing of initiation of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury in the absence of urgent or life-threatening complications. Two high-profile trials — AKIKI and ELAIN — that aimed to address this issue have recently reported conflicting findings. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 27, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sean M. BagshawRon Wald Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Transplantation: Long-term risk of ESRD in living donors
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 442 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.93 Author: Andrea Aguilar The life-time risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in living kidney donors is often extrapolated from studies that follow donors for (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 27, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

PRE-Eclampsia: sFLT1 inhibits NO signalling
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 442 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.90 Author: Andrea Aguilar Circulating levels of fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) are elevated in patients with pre-eclampsia and correlate with adverse outcomes; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathological effects of sFLT1 are unclear. In a new study, Ananth Karumanchi and coworkers show that overexpression of sFlt1 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 27, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Nephrotic syndrome: Insights into protein scaffolds of the slit diaphragm
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 441 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.94 Author: Susan J. Allison The slit diaphragm is a specialized type of intercellular junction that connects neighbouring podocyte foot processes in the glomerulus; mutations in components of the slit diaphragm, such as NEPHRIN, have been linked to inherited proteinuric diseases. Although imaging and mutational studies have improved understanding of (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 27, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Membranous nephropathy and the Henle –Koch postulates
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 447 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.86 Authors: Hans-Joachim Anders & Claudio Ponticelli Antibodies against several podocyte antigens have evolved as markers of diagnosis, disease activity, and prognosis in membranous nephropathy, but their pathogenic role remains debated. Detailed work-up of two cases of primary and secondary membranous nephropathy now supports the concept that thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A autoantibodies are pathogenic. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hans-Joachim Anders Claudio Ponticelli Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Biomarkers: Albuminuria — a marker of systemic microvascular function
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 449 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.82 Author: Peter Boor A new study reports an independent association between albuminuria and skin capillary rarefaction in a population-based cohort. These findings suggest that as well as reflecting injury to the glomeruli — a highly specialized microvascular bed — albuminuria might be a surrogate marker of systemic microvascular and endothelial dysfunction. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Peter Boor Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Membranous nephropathy and the Henle–Koch postulates
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 447 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.86 Authors: Hans-Joachim Anders & Claudio Ponticelli Antibodies against several podocyte antigens have evolved as markers of diagnosis, disease activity, and prognosis in membranous nephropathy, but their pathogenic role remains debated. Detailed work-up of two cases of primary and secondary membranous nephropathy now supports the concept that thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A autoantibodies are pathogenic. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hans-Joachim AndersClaudio Ponticelli Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Hypertension: Role of p66Shc in renal vascular dysfunction
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 442 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.89 Author: Ellen F. Carney A new study provides insights into the mechanisms by which regulation of renal microvascular tone is impaired in salt-sensitive hypertension- induced nephropathy. Andrey Sorokin and colleagues report that overexpression of the SH2 adaptor protein p66Shc promotes renal vascular dysfunction in this disease.p66Shc is known (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Immunosuppressant-induced reduction of proteinuria in IgAN
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 380 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.84 Authors: Jürgen Floege & Thomas Rauen Time-averaged proteinuria (TAP) is thought to be the most reliable predictor of outcomes in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). New data suggest that corticosteroids reduce TAP and presumably improve outcomes in IgAN, but increase the risk of adverse effects. Whether TAP is a good surrogate end point for clinical trials remains unclear. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jürgen FloegeThomas Rauen Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Metabolism: Energy-efficient transport in the kidney
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 443 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.83 Author: Ellen F. Carney The transmembrane protein claudin-2 mediates paracellular sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule, but given the versatility of transcellular epithelial transport, the paracellular pathway seems dispensable. Now, Alan Yu and colleagues report that paracellular sodium transport increases the energy efficiency of the kidney.To investigate the (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 13, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Obesity-related glomerulopathy: clinical and pathologic characteristics and pathogenesis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 453 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.75 Authors: Vivette D. D'Agati, Avry Chagnac, Aiko P.J. de Vries, Moshe Levi, Esteban Porrini, Michal Herman-Edelstein & Manuel Praga The prevalence of obesity-related glomerulopathy is increasing in parallel with the worldwide obesity epidemic. Glomerular hypertrophy and adaptive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis define the condition pathologically. The glomerulus enlarges in response to obesity-induced increases in glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, filtration fraction and tubular sodium (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 6, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Vivette D. D'AgatiAvry ChagnacAiko P.J. de VriesMoshe LeviEsteban PorriniMichal Herman-EdelsteinManuel Praga Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hypertension: Accessory arteries in incomplete renal denervation
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 378 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.81 Author: Ellen Carney Incomplete ablation of renal nerves owing to the presence of accessory renal arteries that are too small for denervation might partly account for persistent hypertension after renal denervation say researchers. Before denervation, stimulation of renal nerves in the main and accessory renal arteries of 21 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 6, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Basic research: Role of the β3 adrenergic receptor in renal function
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 378 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.80 Author: Ellen Carney The β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors (ARs) are known to contribute to the sympathetic regulation of renal function. Now, researchers report an antidiuretic effect of β3-AR stimulation. In murine kidney tubules, stimulation of β3-AR promoted accumulation of (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 6, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Hypertension: Hypertension not associated with GFR decline
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 378 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.79 Author: Ellen Carney Researchers report that non-malignant hypertension is not associated with accelerated decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the general middle-aged population. Eriksen et al. identified a mean decline in measured GFR of 0.95 ml/min per year in 1,595 individuals aged 50–62 years who (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 6, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Pre-eclampsia: Altered placental macrophages in pre-eclampsia
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 378 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.78 Author: Ellen Carney A new study shows alterations in placental macrophage activation and in their interactions with trophoblasts in women with pre-eclampsia. Przybyl et al. report a significant reduction in CD74+ placental macrophages in pre-eclamptic women compared with healthy controls. Macrophages that lacked CD74 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 6, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Polycystic kidney disease: WNTs: ligands of the polycystin complex
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 377 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.77 Author: Susan J. Allison Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 (also called TRPP2) cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, the most common genetic disease of the kidney. The products of PKD1 and PKD2, polycystin-1 (PC1) and TRPP2 are thought to form a receptor–channel complex that (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 6, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

The role of neutrophils and NETosis in autoimmune and renal diseases
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 402 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.71 Authors: Sarthak Gupta & Mariana J. Kaplan Systemic autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders characterized by a failure in self-tolerance to a wide variety of autoantigens. In genetically predisposed individuals, these diseases occur as a multistep process in which environmental factors have key roles in the development of abnormal innate and (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 31, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sarthak GuptaMariana J. Kaplan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Zero deaths from AKI by 2025: focus on awareness and therapy
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 379 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.76 Authors: Eric A.J. Hoste & Jorien De Loor The 0by25 Global Snapshot sheds light on the recognition, management and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in countries worldwide stratified by gross national income. These novel epidemiological data open new horizons for preventing death from AKI particularly in developing countries. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 31, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Eric A.J. HosteJorien De Loor Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Complement in disease: a defence system turning offensive
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 383 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.70 Authors: Daniel Ricklin, Edimara S. Reis & John D. Lambris Although the complement system is primarily perceived as a host defence system, a more versatile, yet potentially more harmful side of this innate immune pathway as an inflammatory mediator also exists. The activities that define the ability of the complement system to control microbial threats (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 23, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Daniel RicklinEdimara S. ReisJohn D. Lambris Tags: Review Source Type: research

Ciliopathies: CPLANE regulates intraflagellar transport
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 376 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.74 Author: Andrea Aguilar Recent research has identified a new protein complex with an important role in ciliogenesis and in human ciliopathies, including disorders that affect the kidney. John Wallingford and coworkers show that ciliogenesis and planar cell polarity effector (CPLANE), a complex formed by Inturned (Intu), Fuzzy and (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 23, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Microbiota trigger inflammation
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 376 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.73 Author: Ellen F. Carney Persistent systemic inflammation contributes to endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the origin of this inflammation is unclear. A new study reports that uraemia-associated dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation result in (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 23, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Renal physiology: MAGED2 mutations in transient antenatal Bartter syndrome
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 377 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.72 Author: Susan J. Allison Antenatal Bartter syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by renal salt wasting and fetal polyuria, resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Findings now identify loss-of-function mutations in MAGED2 as a cause of polyhydramnios and a transient form of antenatal Bartter syndrome associated with (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 16, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Localization and function of the renal calcium-sensing receptor
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 414 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.59 Authors: Daniela Riccardi & Giovanna Valenti The ability to monitor changes in the ionic composition of the extracellular environment is a crucial feature that has evolved in all living organisms. The cloning and characterization of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) from the mammalian parathyroid gland in the early 1990s provided the (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 9, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Daniela RiccardiGiovanna Valenti Tags: Review Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Personalized immunomonitoring in lupus and lupus nephritis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 320 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.69 Authors: Hans-Joachim Anders & Matthias Kretzler The heterogeneity of pathomechanisms leading to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) might contribute to between-patient variations in treatment response. A new, longitudinal transcriptome analysis has identified molecularly distinct subgroups of SLE that correlate with disease activity; use of such disease classifiers might facilitate the development of stratified treatment recommendations. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 9, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hans-Joachim AndersMatthias Kretzler Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Developmental signalling pathways in renal fibrosis: the roles of Notch, Wnt and Hedgehog
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 426 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.54 Authors: Maria Edeling, Grace Ragi, Shizheng Huang, Hermann Pavenstädt & Katalin Susztak Kidney fibrosis is a common histological manifestation of functional decline in the kidney. Fibrosis is a reactive process that develops in response to excessive epithelial injury and inflammation, leading to myofibroblast activation and an accumulation of extracellular matrix. Here, we describe how three key developmental (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Maria EdelingGrace RagiShizheng HuangHermann PavenstädtKatalin Susztak Tags: Review Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Collectin-11: a signal for complement activation
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 378 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.68 Author: Susan J. Allison Activation of complement on the cell surface is sufficient to induce cell injury leading to inflammation and cell death; however, the initiation signal that triggers complement activation in response to injury is unknown. Now, Steven Sacks and colleagues report that the soluble C-type lectin, collectin-11 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Vagus nerve stimulation may prevent AKI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 376 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.62 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Successful prevention and treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) remains elusive, but new data suggest that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) could be a novel method to protect the kidneys from injury. “VNS is already used in the clinical setting for some inflammatory disorders, but our (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Systemic lupus erythematosus: Defective noncanonical autophagy in SLE-like disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 375 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.67 Author: Susan J. Allison Defective clearance of debris has been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). New findings, published in Nature, now show that defects in a form of noncanonical autophagy, known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), result in defective digestion of engulfed dying cells, leading (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNAs in kidney and cardiovascular diseases
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 360 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.51 Authors: Johan M. Lorenzen & Thomas Thum Transcription of a large part of the human genome results in RNA transcripts that have limited or no protein-coding potential. These include long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are defined as being ≥200 nucleotides long. Unlike microRNAs, which have been extensively studied, little is known about (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Johan M. LorenzenThomas Thum Tags: Review Source Type: research

Polycystic kidney disease: Cilia and mechanosensation revisited
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 318 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.61 Authors: Alexis Hofherr & Michael Köttgen Polycystic Kidney disease (PKD) is caused by mutations in genes that affect cilia structure and composition. Impaired mechanosensation through primary cilia has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism in PKD; however, a new study challenges this hypothesis by showing an absence of mechanically induced Ca2+ increases in primary cilia. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alexis HofherrMichael Köttgen Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Stem cells: RAAS inhibition promotes podocyte replacement
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 316 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.66 Author: Jessica K. Edwards A new study finds that inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) during focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) augments the ability of cells of renin lineage (CoRL) to proliferate and differentiate into podocytes. Stuart Shankland et al. permanently labelled CoRL in mice and then experimentally (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Anaemia: REPCs are derived from FOXD1 progenitors
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 316 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.65 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) dioxygenases are oxygen sensors that regulate hypoxia-inducible factor 2 (HIF-2) and erythropoietin (EPO) production. Now, researchers have shown that renal EPO-producing cells (REPCs) are derived from FOXD1-expressing cells and consist of various subpopulations that are heterogeneous in their response to Phd2 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: MDM2 — a novel target in glomerulonephritis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 316 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.64 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in NF-κB signalling and negatively regulates TP53-mediated cell cycle arrest and cell death. Now, a new study shows that blockade of MDM2 with nutlin-3a can ameliorate crescentic glomerulonephritis, and MDM2 inhibition in Trp53 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Transplantation: Females hold the key to ischaemia tolerance
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 316 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.63 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Females have an increased capacity to recover from ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) compared to males, according to new research. Female mice deficient in the estrogen receptor displayed exacerbated renal IRI, but mice that received supplemental estrogen were protected. This sex-specific difference was also implied from analysis (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

TGF-β: the master regulator of fibrosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 325 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.48 Authors: Xiao-ming Meng, David J. Nikolic-Paterson & Hui Yao Lan Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is the primary factor that drives fibrosis in most, if not all, forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inhibition of the TGF-β isoform, TGF-β1, or its downstream signalling pathways substantially limits renal fibrosis in a wide range of disease models whereas (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 25, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Xiao-ming MengDavid J. Nikolic-PatersonHui Yao Lan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Kidney cancer: Rest ASSUREd, much can be learned from adjuvant studies in renal cancer
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 317 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.58 Authors: David D. Chism & W. Kimryn Rathmell The first, highly anticipated randomized trial of adjuvant antiangiogenic therapy in renal cancer was recently reported. Although far from assuring, data from the adjuvant sorafenib or sunitinib for unfavorable renal carcinoma (ASSURE) trial offer a wealth of insights into the disease, treatments, and biological considerations for studies aimed at risk reduction. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 25, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: David D. ChismW. Kimryn Rathmell Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Circadian rhythms: Functional roles of the renal tubular circadian clock
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 316 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.60 Author: Ellen F. Carney Circadian rhythms are regulated by a central clock mechanism in the hypothalamus that coordinates subsidiary clocks with cell-specific functions in the peripheral tissues. New data from Dmitri Firsov and colleagues suggest that the circadian clock of renal tubular cells controls various homeostatic and metabolic processes, (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 25, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Transplantation: Survival benefits of incompatible living donor kidney transplants
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 321 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.55 Author: J. Michael Cecka A single-centre study found that desensitization therapy permits a good success rate of kidney transplantation with an incompatible living donor. Data from 22 US centres now suggest that this technique could be employed across multiple hospitals to prolong the lives of sensitized transplant recipients. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 18, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: J. Michael Cecka Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Renin–Angiotensin system: Prorenin receptor: no role in the RAS?
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 315 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.57 Author: Ellen F. Carney A new study shows that nephron-specific knockout of Atp6ap2 — also known as the prorenin receptor — results in impaired V-ATPase activity and distal renal tubular acidosis in mice, but does not affect the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). “This finding is very important for the RAS (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 18, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Renal physiology: mTORC2 controls potassium secretion
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 315 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.56 Author: Andrea Aguilar The mTOR complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, are involved in numerous renal diseases, but the function of mTORC2 in the kidney is poorly understood. A new study from Florian Grahammer, Tobias Huber and colleagues shows that mTORC2 is a critical regulator of distal tubular K+ (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 18, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Radiologic imaging of the renal parenchyma structure and function
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 348 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.44 Authors: Nicolas Grenier, Pierre Merville & Christian Combe Radiologic imaging has the potential to identify several functional and/or structural biomarkers of acute and chronic kidney diseases that are useful diagnostics to guide patient management. A renal ultrasound examination can provide information regarding the gross anatomy and macrostructure of the renal parenchyma, and ultrasound (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 12, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nicolas GrenierPierre MervilleChristian Combe Tags: Review Source Type: research

Diabetic nephropathy: Atrasentan stabilizes the endothelial glycocalyx
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 315 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.53 Author: Susan J. Allison Endothelin receptor antagonists, such as atrasentan, can reduce albuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Now, researchers show that atrasentan restores glomerular endothelial glycocalyx coverage. “In the study we not only show that atrasentan restores the glycocalyx in diabetic nephropathy, but also show that this effect (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 12, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Nanomedicine: Nanocarbon-mediated siRNA delivery to the kidney
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 314 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.52 Author: Jessica K. Edwards The development of effective therapeutics based on RNA interference (RNAi) to prevent or treat acute kidney injury (AKI) has been hindered due to confounds such as poor tissue-specific delivery and off-target effects. Now, Michael McDevitt and colleagues report the development of a fibrillar carbon nanomaterial (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 12, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research