Hypertension: Nogo-B regulates BP homeostasis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 631 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.150 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Nogo-B regulates sphingolipid biosynthesis within the endothelium to modulate blood pressure (BP) and could open up new avenues for pharmacologic intervention in hypertension, according to new findings by Annarita Di Lorenzo and colleagues. “The importance of sphingolipid signalling in cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, has been (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - September 8, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Strategies to overcome the ABO barrier in kidney transplantation
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 732 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.144 Authors: Georg A. Böhmig, Andreas M. Farkas, Farsad Eskandary & Thomas Wekerle Kidney transplantation across the ABO blood group barrier was long considered a contraindication for transplantation, but in an effort to increase donor pools, specific regimens for ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation have been developed. These regimens are now widely used as an integral part of the available (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - September 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Georg A. BöhmigAndreas M. FarkasFarsad EskandaryThomas Wekerle Tags: Review Source Type: research

Decade in review—genetics of kidney diseases: Genetic dissection of kidney disorders
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 635 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.148 Author: Friedhelm Hildebrandt Advances in genome sequencing and genetic manipulation techniques over the last decade have helped identify numerous single-gene causes of early-onset kidney diseases and risk alleles for complex, polygenic traits. Subsequent studies regarding the underlying disease mechanisms will help lead to personal genetic diagnoses and unique therapeutic interventions in the future. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - September 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Friedhelm Hildebrandt Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Transplantation: Wide variation in rates of dialysis facility referrals to transplant centres
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 631 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.146 Author: Jessica K. Edwards The rates of referral from dialysis facilities to transplant centres are lower than expected and exhibit wide variation across the US state of Georgia, according to new research by Rachel Patzer and colleagues. These researchers previously reported that patients in Georgia have the lowest level (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 25, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Renal physiology: Aldosterone-dependent NCC activation
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 567 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.145 Author: Ellen F. Carney A new study has identified a mechanism linking aldosterone to activation of the NaCl cotransporter (NCC), which has important roles in renal sodium reabsorption and blood-pressure homeostasis. “Aldosterone is a potent NCC activator, but the mechanism by which it interfaces with the WNK kinase pathway (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 25, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors involved in CAKUT
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 720 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.140 Authors: Nayia Nicolaou, Kirsten Y. Renkema, Ernie M. H. F. Bongers, Rachel H. Giles & Nine V. A. M. Knoers Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) refer to a spectrum of structural renal malformations and are the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in children. The genetic diagnosis of CAKUT has proven to be challenging due to genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity and (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nayia NicolaouKirsten Y. RenkemaErnie M. H. F. BongersRachel H. GilesNine V. A. M. Knoers Tags: Review Source Type: research

Kidney–brain crosstalk in the acute and chronic setting
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 707 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.131 Authors: Renhua Lu, Matthew C. Kiernan, Anne Murray, Mitchell H. Rosner & Claudio Ronco Patients with kidney disease often exhibit multiple organ dysfunction that is caused, in part, by marked connectivity between the kidney and other organs and tissues. Substantial crosstalk occurs between the kidney and the brain, as indicated by the frequent presentation of neurological disorders, such as (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Renhua LuMatthew C. KiernanAnne MurrayMitchell H. RosnerClaudio Ronco Tags: Review Source Type: research

Obesity: Older age and high BMI are associated with increased risk of loss of kidney function
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 568 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.142 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Several reports have suggested that the effects of obesity might differ between older and younger individuals, but the effect of age on the association of obesity with deterioration of kidney function was previously unknown. Now, research performed by Csaba Kovesdy and colleagues has shown a (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Transplantation: Optimizing ECD graft outcomes
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 567 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.143 Author: Ellen F. Carney A strategy of allocating extended criteria donor (ECD) kidneys only to recipients without anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and reducing cold ischaemia time to (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Vascular complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 589 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.128 Authors: Ronald D. Perrone, Adel M. Malek & Terry Watnick Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease. Relentless cyst growth substantially enlarges both kidneys and culminates in renal failure. Patients with ADPKD also have vascular abnormalities; intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are found in ∼10% of asymptomatic patients during screening and (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ronald D. PerroneAdel M. MalekTerry Watnick Tags: Review Source Type: research

Clinical trial: Lack of benefit of MMF in IgAN
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 567 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.141 Author: Ellen F. Carney Data from a randomized controlled trial show that mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) did not significantly reduce proteinuria in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) who had failed to respond to initial treatment with lisinopril or losartan plus purified omega-3 fatty acid. The trial was terminated early on (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Transplantation: Mild hypothermia improves transplantation outcomes
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 566 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.134 Author: Susan J. Allison The induction of therapeutic hypothermia in deceased organ donors significantly reduces delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients, according to new findings. “Our research shows that slight cooling of deceased kidney donors can substantially increase transplantation success and the pool of potential donors,” explains Claus (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Therapeutic use of human renal progenitor cells for kidney regeneration
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 695 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.126 Authors: Benedetta Bussolati & Giovanni Camussi The ability of the human kidney to repair itself is limited. Consequently, repeated injury can trigger a maladaptive response that is characterized by fibrosis and loss of renal function. The transcription patterns that characterize nephrogenesis in fetal renal progenitor cells (RPCs) are only partially activated (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 4, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Benedetta BussolatiGiovanni Camussi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Fibrosis: GLI2 inhibition reduces myofibroblast generation and kidney fibrosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 568 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.135 Author: Ellen F. Carney A new study provides experimental evidence that blocking the generation of myofibroblasts by inhibiting GLI2—a transcriptional activator of hedgehog (Hh) signalling—might reduce fibrosis and slow the progression of kidney disease. Hh signalling regulates the fate of mesenchymal cells during kidney development and both the Hh (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 4, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Fabry disease: Effects of agalsidase-β shortage in Fabry disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 566 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.139 A shortage in agalsidase-β between 2009 and 2012 resulted in patients with Fabry disease either receiving reduced doses or switching to agalsidase-α. Lenders et al. found that patients who reduced doses or switched medications exhibited a decline in renal function compared to those (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 4, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Nephrotoxicity: Bicarbonate versus saline in contrast-induced AKI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 566 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.138 A prospective, double-blind, randomized trial has assessed whether infusion of sodium bicarbonate is protective against contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Solomon et al. compared the effects of high dose sodium bicarbonate with high dose sodium chloride in patients undergoing angiography with an estimated (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 4, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: ACR versus UAE
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 566 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.137 The KDIGO 2012 guidelines state that albuminuria should be assessed using the albumin–creatinine ratio (ACR) rather than by monitoring 24 h urinary albumin excretion (UAE). To assess the importance of misclassification when evaluating albuminuria by ACR in an early morning urine sample instead of 24 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 4, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Regenerative medicine: Expansion of nephron progenitor cells in vitro
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 566 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.136 An in vitro niche in which nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) isolated from mouse embryonic kidneys or human embryonic stem cells can be propagated has been developed by modulating FGF, BMP, and WNT signalling pathways. The technique allows for NPCs to be (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 4, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Fibrosis: Targeting EMT to reverse renal fibrosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 565 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.133 Author: Susan J. Allison Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular epithelial cells is a feature of renal fibrosis, but the contribution of EMT to the myofibroblast population and the importance of EMT to the fibrotic process are unclear. Two studies published in Nature Medicine now show that partial EMT (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 4, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

RAS blockade: Nephroprotection by dual RAS blockade—a welcome back
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 507 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.132 Authors: Piero Ruggenenti & Giuseppe Remuzzi A new meta-analysis shows that dual blockade of the renin–angiotensin system is the most effective approach to prevent end-stage renal disease in patients with diabetes and kidney disease. Combination therapy should therefore be reconsidered as the most powerful tool for nephroprotection, provided that treatment is individually tailored by careful dose-titration. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - August 4, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Piero RuggenentiGiuseppe Remuzzi Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Renal physiology: The proximal tubule and albuminuria—at last a starring role
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 573 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.127 Authors: Philip Poronnik & David J. Nikolic-Paterson The constitutive uptake and degradation of filtered albumin by the proximal tubule has resulted in this process being relegated a passive player in albuminuria. Real-time intravital imaging of the rat kidney now describes a new paradigm in which the proximal tubule dynamically increases or decreases albumin uptake following changes in plasma albumin levels. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 28, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Philip PoronnikDavid J. Nikolic-Paterson Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Reductions in FGF-23 levels associated with improved outcomes
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 572 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.125 Authors: Anna Jovanovich & Michel Chonchol Elevated levels of fibrobast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) are associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with kidney disease. A secondary analysis of the EVOLVE trial reports that cinacalcet-induced reductions in FGF-23 were associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular events in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism on dialysis. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 28, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anna JovanovichMichel Chonchol Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Management of hypertension in chronic kidney disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 555 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.114 Authors: Raymond R. Townsend & Sandra J. Taler Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with impaired kidney function. The kidney exerts a marked degree of control over blood pressure through various mechanisms, such as by regulating sodium balance and hormone secretion through the activity of the renin–angiotensin system. The kidney is susceptible (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 28, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Raymond R. TownsendSandra J. Taler Tags: Review Source Type: research

Development and application of human adult stem or progenitor cell organoids
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 546 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.118 Authors: Maarten B. Rookmaaker, Frans Schutgens, Marianne C. Verhaar & Hans Clevers Adult stem or progenitor cell organoids are 3D adult-organ-derived epithelial structures that contain self-renewing and organ-specific stem or progenitor cells as well as differentiated cells. This organoid culture system was first established in murine intestine and subsequently developed for several other organs and translated to (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 28, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Maarten B. RookmaakerFrans SchutgensMarianne C. VerhaarHans Clevers Tags: Review Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Can remote ischaemic preconditioning prevent AKI?
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 512 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.119 Authors: Anna Zuk & Joseph V. Bonventre A randomized multicentre controlled study of 240 cardiac surgery patients at high risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) has demonstrated that remote ischaemic preconditioning can reduce the rate of AKI and requirement for renal replacement therapy. These findings suggest this procedure could be a promising therapeutic option for this high-risk patient group. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 28, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anna ZukJoseph V. Bonventre Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Renal injury: Prevention of talin-1-mediated activation of neutrophils protects against renal ischaemia–reperfusion injury
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 506 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.130 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Integrins are αβ heterodimeric cell-adhesion molecules that support many biological processes, such as neutrophil-mediated tissue injury in inflammatory disorders. New data from Rodger McEver and colleagues show that the large cytoplasmic protein talin-1 is required for integrin activation in renal ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury and neutrophil (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 28, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: ECGs help predict risk of death in CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 505 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.129 Author: Jessica K. Edwards The standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is a routine diagnostic test that provides a comprehensive overview of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction, but debate exists regarding its utility in low and intermediate-risk populations, such as those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Now, findings from the Chronic Renal (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 28, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Therapy: Maintenance of steroid-free remission in nephrotic syndrome
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 569 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.117 Authors: Jeroen K. Deegens & Jack F. Wetzels Maintaining steroid-free remission in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is an important goal of therapy. A new trial provides evidence that mycophenolate mofetil can be added to the list of effective steroid-sparing agents. The majority of participants relapsed, however, highlighting an unmet need for more effective treatment modalities. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jeroen K. DeegensJack F. Wetzels Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder: Fracture burden in children with CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 505 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.120 Author: Susan J. Allison Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with disturbed bone and mineral metabolism; however, the effect of these disturbances on fracture risk in affected children is uncertain. New findings from a large cohort study show that fracture rates in children with CKD are 2–3-fold higher than (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: TRPC6 and NPHS1 mediate FSGS risk
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 505 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.111 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Mutations in podocyte genes, such as NPHS1 and TRPC6, have known associations with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and can elicit variable phenotypes in carriers. Findings from Kar-Hui Ng and colleagues now indicate that interactions between TRPC6 and NPHS1 variants account for (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Polycystic kidney disease: Predicting renal survival in ADPKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 504 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.124 A new prognostic model has been developed to predict renal outcomes in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The PROPKD algorithm uses a scoring system based on genetic and clinical data to assign risk categories corresponding to the predicted age of onset of (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Genetics: Clinical correlates of APOL1 risk genotypes
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 504 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.123 An analysis of clinical and genomic datasets from the NEPTUNE study has revealed that individuals with a high-risk APOL1 genotype present with more advanced renal disease and have less remission of proteinuria over time, independent of histologic diagnosis, compared to those with a low-risk (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Transplantation: Fc-silent anti-CD40 antibody prolongs allograft survival
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 504 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.122 Blockade of the CD40–CD154 pathway prolongs renal allograft survival in nonhuman primates, but anti-CD154 antibodies are associated with thromboembolic complications and anti-CD40 antibodies are associated with varying degrees of B-cell depletion. To assess the contribution of B-cell depletion to allograft survival, researchers from Novartis Institutes (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: AKI is a risk factor for elevated blood pressure
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 504 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.121 Findings from a retrospective cohort study show that acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated blood pressure. In a study of adults who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, 2,451 of 43,611 patients developed AKI as defined by (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Transplantation: Little effect of state policies on organ donation in the USA
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 570 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.113 Authors: Arthur J. Matas & Rebecca E. Hays A new study reports that state-level policies have had little effect on rates of organ donation in the USA, highlighting the limited ability of scattered initiatives to have a national effect. Regardless of their impact on donation rate, a need exists for policies that make donation financially neutral for donors. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 14, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Arthur J. MatasRebecca E. Hays Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: IL-34 promotes persistent ischaemia-induced AKI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 504 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.116 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) is central to macrophage-mediated renal repair during inflammation, but little is known about the function of IL-34, with which it shares a receptor (c-FMS). Now, data from Vicki Rubin Kelley and colleagues support a mechanism by which macrophages can promote (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 14, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Immunology: T-cell exhaustion limits immune reactivity and is associated with good prognosis in autoimmune disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 503 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.115 Author: Ellen F. Carney A transcriptional signature of CD8 T-cell exhaustion is associated with good prognosis in multiple autoimmune diseases—including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)—but with poor outcomes in chronic infections, say researchers Eoin McKinney and colleagues. They suggest that measuring this signature could (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 14, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Amplifying renal immunity: the role of antimicrobial peptides in pyelonephritis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 642 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.105 Authors: Brian Becknell, Andrew Schwaderer, David S. Hains & John David Spencer Urinary tract infections (UTIs), including pyelonephritis, are among the most common and serious infections encountered in nephrology practice. UTI risk is increased in selected patient populations with renal and urinary tract disorders. As the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant uropathogens increases, novel and alternative treatment options will (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brian BecknellAndrew SchwadererDavid S. HainsJohn David Spencer Tags: Review Source Type: research

Risk factors: The kidneys find a voice in cardiovascular risk prediction
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 510 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.109 Author: Maarten W. Taal Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease that often exceeds risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. A meta-analysis has shown that the addition of glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes improves the discrimination of cardiovascular risk prediction models. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Maarten W. Taal Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Serious adverse effects associated with IV iron in CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 506 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.112 Author: Susan J. Allison Iron-deficiency anaemia is very common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Primary findings from the REVOKE study now show that among nondialyzed patients with CKD and iron-deficiency anaemia, intravenous (IV) iron therapy is associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events, including infections (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Challenging the use of warfarin in patients on dialysis with atrial fibrillation
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 450 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.87 Authors: Georg Schlieper & Jürgen Floege We read with great interest the article from Qamar and Bhatt (Anticoagulation therapy: Balancing the risks of stroke and bleeding in CKD. Nat. Rev. Nephrol.11, 200–202; 2015) that discussed the observational study by Bonde et al. on anticoagulation (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Georg SchlieperJürgen Floege Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply: Warfarin in patients on haemodialysis with atrial fibrillation—friend or foe?
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 450 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.103 Authors: Arman Qamar & Deepak L. Bhatt We would like to thank G. Schlieper and J. Floege for their comments on our News & Views article (Anticoagulation therapy: Balancing the risks of stroke and bleeding in CKD. Nat. Rev. Nephrol.11, 200–202; 2015), in which relevant concerns pertaining (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Arman QamarDeepak L. Bhatt Tags: Reply Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Metformin increases risk of mortality in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 443 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.110 Author: Jessica K. Edwards The use of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) confers a 35% increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to those not treated with metformin, according to new findings published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - July 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

IgG4-related disease and the kidney
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 599 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.95 Authors: Frank B. Cortazar & John H. Stone IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic fibroinflammatory condition that involves almost every organ system. In this Review, we summarize current knowledge of IgG4-RD and its most frequent manifestations in the kidney—IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and membranous glomerulonephropathy (MGN). Diagnosis of IgG4-RD relies on histopathology: the (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Frank B. CortazarJohn H. Stone Tags: Review Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Steroids for prevention of AKI after cardiopulmonary bypass
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 509 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.106 Authors: Chirag R. Parikh & Jennifer A. Schaub Cardiac surgery often requires the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, which can cause an inflammatory cascade that results in acute kidney injury (AKI). A recent post hoc analysis of a placebo-controlled, randomized trial suggests that intraoperative steroids might lower the risk of renal replacement therapy for AKI after cardiac surgery. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Chirag R. ParikhJennifer A. Schaub Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Renal fibrosis: Kidney-specific deletion of Lkb1 perturbs intracellular metabolism and induces severe renal fibrosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 446 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.108 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Defects in metabolism and cellular polarity are thought to contribute to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). New research from Katalin Susztak and colleagues has identified liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) as an upstream regulator of fatty acid metabolism. Selective deletion of Lkb1 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Hypertension: A new therapeutic strategy for PAH
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 445 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.107 Author: Ellen F. Carney Selective targeting of BMPR-II signalling using BMP9 could be a promising strategy for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), according to a new study. “This potential therapy targets the most common genetic cause of the disease—a pathway that is known to also be dysfunctional (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

The effects of environmental chemicals on renal function
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 610 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.94 Authors: Anglina Kataria, Leonardo Trasande & Howard Trachtman The global incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing among individuals of all ages. Despite advances in proteomics, genomics and metabolomics, there remains a lack of safe and effective drugs to reverse or stabilize renal function in patients with glomerular or tubulointerstitial causes of (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anglina KatariaLeonardo TrasandeHoward Trachtman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Epidemiology: Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 reports that disability caused by CKD is increasing worldwide
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 446 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.98 Author: Ellen F. Carney Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing cause of disability worldwide, according to new data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2013. “This paper expands on our prior mortality study—which showed that CKD was the noncommunicable cause of death that increased the most (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Podocyte biology: Age-associated changes in podocytes linked to FGGS
Nature Reviews Nephrology 11, 444 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.99 Author: Susan J. Allison Decreasing podocyte density with increasing age is associated with hypertrophic podocyte stress and can lead to glomerular tuft collapse and the development of focal global glomerulosclerosis (FGGS), say researchers. “This sequence of events provides a mechanism for the development of FGGS and partly explains why (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 23, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research