Development: Tfcp2l1 drives Notch signalling and epithelial diversity in the collecting duct
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 445 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.93 Author: Andrea Aguilar Unlike other renal epithelia, the collecting duct epithelium is formed by two different cell types: intercalated cells (IC), which regulate acid-base homeostasis, and principal cells (PC), which control salt-water equilibrium. Those two cell types function in a coordinated fashion but whether and how their development (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 19, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Podocyte biology: The podocyte adhesome
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 445 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.86 Author: Susan J. Allison Loss of podocyte adhesion is a major contributing factor to the progression of glomerular disease; however, comprehensive understanding of the role of focal adhesions (FAs) in podocyte biology is lacking. New research has identified the FERM-domain protein, EPB41L5, as an important podocyte FA protein with (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 12, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Lupus nephritis: Role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in podocyte injury
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 444 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.91 Author: Ellen F. Carney New data implicate podocyte NLRP3 inflammasomes in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). These inflammasomes were activated in biopsy samples from patients with LN and in lupus-prone NZM2328 mice. In the mice, NLRP3 inhibition reduced proteinuria, renal histological lesions and podocyte foot-process effacement. Sera from (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 12, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Targeting Treg cells to protect the kidney
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 444 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.90 Author: Ellen F. Carney A hybrid cytokine created by linking IL-2 and IL-33 (IL233) might protect against acute kidney injury (AKI). In mice, IL233 increased the numbers of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood, spleen and kidneys and prevented renal ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) more efficiently than (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 12, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Onconephrology: New mouse model of clear cell renal cell carcinoma
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 444 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.89 Author: Ellen F. Carney A new autochthonous mouse model of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) could be used to investigate ccRCC biology and test new therapies. Combined deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 in renal epithelial cells induced the development of ccRCC tumours that arose (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 12, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Transplantation: Survival benefit of accepting a diabetic deceased donor kidney
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 444 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.88 Author: Ellen F. Carney Despite the increased mortality risk of recipients of diabetic versus nondiabetic deceased donor kidneys, for many transplant candidates, accepting a diabetic donor kidney confers a survival benefit compared with remaining on the waitlist, say researchers. The greatest survival benefit of diabetic donor kidney transplantation compared (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 12, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Development: Pax2 keeps nephron progenitors on track
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 444 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.87 Author: Andrea Aguilar Low nephron numbers can increase susceptibility to chronic kidney disease. Nephrons and the surrounding interstitial tissue arise from two distinct progenitors that are separated by a lineage boundary. The molecular determinants of this fate barrier, which is largely maintained in healthy, diseased and regenerating kidneys, (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 12, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Cystic kidney disease: A new osmoregulatory role for HNF-1 β
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 445 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.81 Author: Andrea Aguilar The transcription factor HNF-1β is crucial for kidney development and adult renal function. Ablation of HNF-1β causes kidney cysts in mice and heterozygous human HNF-1β mutations lead to structural and functional renal abnormalities such as multicystic dysplastic kidneys. In a new study, Peter Igarashi and (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 5, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Immunology: ACE in neutrophil antibacterial defence
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 382 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.80 Author: Susan J. Allison Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used to lower blood pressure and slow the progression of renal disease. New research, however, has revealed an important role for ACE in the antibacterial effectiveness of neutrophils. “ACE can do many things that affect the immune response,” says (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 5, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Bioengineering: Kidney glomerulus-on-a-chip
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 382 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.79 Author: Susan J. Allison In vitro models that mimic the glomerulus could aid understanding of glomerular disease processes and potentially guide therapeutic discovery. Researchers now report a method for directing the efficient differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into podocytes that can be co-cultured with human (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - June 5, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Reducing the costs of chronic kidney disease while delivering quality health care: a call to action
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 393 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.63 Authors: Raymond Vanholder, Lieven Annemans, Edwina Brown, Ron Gansevoort, Judith J. Gout-Zwart, Norbert Lameire, Rachael L. Morton, Rainer Oberbauer, Maarten J. Postma, Marcello Tonelli, Wim Van Biesen & Carmine Zoccali The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) imposes substantial societal costs. Expenditure is highest for renal replacement therapy (RRT), especially in-hospital haemodialysis. Redirection towards less expensive forms of RRT (peritoneal dialysis, home haemodialysis) or kidney transplantati...
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Raymond Vanholder Lieven Annemans Edwina Brown Ron Gansevoort Judith J. Gout-Zwart Norbert Lameire Rachael L. Morton Rainer Oberbauer Maarten J. Postma Marcello Tonelli Wim Van Biesen Carmine Zoccali Tags: Review Source Type: research

Heart failure: Macrophages take centre stage in the heart –brain–kidney axis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 388 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.73 Authors: Herman H.W. Silljé & Rudolf A. de Boer A new study reports that a heart–brain–kidney network involving renal and cardiac macrophages is required for the adaptive response to cardiac stress. As well as highlighting the importance of inter-organ communication in complex pathological syndromes, the findings raise important questions with implications for the treatment of heart failure. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Herman H.W. Sillj é Rudolf A. de Boer Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Public health: Public investment in childhood health: worth the cost
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 386 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.66 Authors: Sandra Amaral & Susan Furth A new study of mortality of children on renal replacement therapy in 32 European countries demonstrates that 67% of the variance between countries can be explained by disparities in public health expenditure. Investment in health care is critical and has demonstrable benefits for the most vulnerable populations. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sandra Amaral Susan Furth Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Development: Non-muscle myosin II in kidney morphogenesis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 384 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.77 Author: Katharine H. Wrighton Hague et al. deleted Myh9 and Myh10, which encode heavy chains of the motor protein non-muscle myosin II, from the nephric duct and ureteric bud in mice. They observed that mid-gestation epithelia from these structures showed features of aberrant apicobasal integrity (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Katharine H. Wrighton Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Vascular disease: Trialling stem cell treatment for vascular disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 384 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.76 Author: Katharine H. Wrighton In a study of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat atherosclerotic renovascular disease, 28 patients received standard medical treatment, 14 of whom also received a single infusion of MSCs. Patients who received MSCs showed no adverse clinical effects. 3 months after treatment, cortical perfusion and (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Katharine H. Wrighton Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Basic research: PHD inhibitors miss their mark
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 384 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.75 Author: Katharine H. Wrighton Kiriakidis et al. show that small molecule inhibitors of prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes, which were developed as treatment for renal anaemia through activation of hypoxia inducible factor, suppress the secretion of complement C1q in vitro and in mice. C1q requires prolyl (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Katharine H. Wrighton Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Epidemiology: Surveying kidney care worldwide
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 384 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.74 Author: Katharine H. Wrighton The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) surveyed 130 ISN-affiliated countries on their ability to deliver kidney care. 125 countries completed the survey, representing ∼93% of the world's population. Most countries had facilities for haemodialysis (95%), peritoneal dialysis (76%) and kidney transplantation (75%); these services were (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 30, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Katharine H. Wrighton Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Vasculitis: A CLEAR argument for targeting complement in ANCA vasculitis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 448 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.69 Author: Ralph Kettritz Mechanistic studies have implicated the alternative complement pathway, specifically C5a receptor activation, in the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Results from a phase 2 trial suggest that C5a receptor blockade could enable the reduced use or complete withdrawal of steroids from induction protocols. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 22, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ralph Kettritz Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Targeted steroid therapy for IgA nephropathy
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 390 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.65 Author: Richard J. Glassock Encouraging preliminary data from the NEFIGAN trial suggest that a novel oral formulation of budesonide might reduce disease progression in IgA nephropathy. This formulation releases corticosteroid in the distal small intestine and colon, so is thought to directly target the mucosal element of the pathogenesis of the disease. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 22, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Richard J. Glassock Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Updated Oxford Classification of IgA nephropathy: a new MEST-C score
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 385 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.67 Author: Glen Markowitz The Oxford Classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most widely accepted system for assessing histologic findings in IgAN. A new publication refines this classification by adding a crescent score, reassessing the segmental sclerosis score, and contextualizing the clinical relevance of the histologic lesions. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 22, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Glen Markowitz Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Lupus nephritis: Cholesterol accumulation in DCs promotes autoimmunity
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 383 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.72 Author: Ellen F. Carney Cholesterol accumulation in dendritic cells (DCs) activates inflammatory signalling pathways that promote autoimmunity. This new finding from Marit Westerterp and colleagues suggests that suppression of DC cholesterol efflux pathways might have a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 22, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Alkaline phosphatase: a novel treatment target for cardiovascular disease in CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 429 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.60 Authors: Mathias Haarhaus, Vincent Brandenburg, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Peter Stenvinkel & Per Magnusson Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of early death in the settings of chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and ageing. Cardiovascular events can be caused by an imbalance between promoters and inhibitors of mineralization, which leads to vascular calcification. This process (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 15, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mathias Haarhaus Vincent Brandenburg Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh Peter Stenvinkel Per Magnusson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Diabetic nephropathy: Glucose metabolic flux in DN
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 384 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.70 Author: Susan J. Allison Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common cause of end-stage renal disease and is thought to be caused, at least in part, by hyperglycaemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. New research shows that activation of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) can protect podocytes from glucose-induced damage by increasing glucose metabolic (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 15, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Transplantation: Anti-viral therapy enables transplantation of HCV+ kidneys
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 382 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.68 Author: Andrea Aguilar Kidneys for transplantation are in very short supply; yet, hundreds of kidneys from deceased patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are discarded every year. In a new open label, single group, pilot trial Peter Reese and David Goldberg show that direct anti-viral therapy cured (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 15, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Autoimmunity: HLA-mediated protection in Goodpasture disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 381 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.71 Author: Ellen F. Carney A new study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of HLA-mediated susceptibility and protection in Goodpasture disease (GPD). This rare renal disorder is characterized by autoimmune responses to the non-collagenous domain of the α3 chain of type IV collagen (α3(IV)NC1). Expression of HLA-DR15 is associated (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 15, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Metabolic reprogramming in clear cell renal cell carcinoma
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 410 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.59 Authors: Hiromi I. Wettersten, Omran Abu Aboud, Primo N. Lara & Robert H. Weiss Research in many cancers has uncovered changes in metabolic pathways that control tumour energetics and biosynthesis, so-called metabolic reprogramming. Studies in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have been particularly revealing, leading to the concept that ccRCC is a metabolic disease. ccRCC is generally accompanied (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 8, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hiromi I. Wettersten Omran Abu Aboud Primo N. Lara Robert H. Weiss Tags: Review Source Type: research

Transplantation: The psychology of extraordinary altruism
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 383 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.64 Author: Ellen F. Carney Living donation of a kidney to a stranger is a very rare act of extraordinary altruism and the motivations of non-directed donors are not well understood. Now, a new study by Kruti Vekaria, Abigail Marsh and colleagues provides insights into the psychological mechanisms that underlie (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 8, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Cardiovascular disease: Coronary artery calcification predicts risk of CVD in patients with CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 324 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.61 Author: Paolo Raggi A recent study reports that coronary artery calcification (CAC) predicts the risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). This finding suggests that even in CKD, CAC is a marker of cardiovascular risk rather than a benign indicator of vessel healing and stability. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 8, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Paolo Raggi Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Renal physiology: Burning calories to excrete salt
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 323 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.62 Author: Ton J. Rabelink New findings challenge the dogma that high salt intake leads to increased thirst, water intake and diuresis. Titze and colleagues show that salt loading activates an adaptive regulatory network in the kidney, muscle and liver, which enables the reprioritization of energy metabolism to conserve plasma water in the setting of high salt intake. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - May 8, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ton J. Rabelink Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

The systemic nature of CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 344 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.52 Authors: Carmine Zoccali, Raymond Vanholder, Ziad A. Massy, Alberto Ortiz, Pantelis Sarafidis, Friedo W. Dekker, Danilo Fliser, Denis Fouque, Gunnar H. Heine, Kitty J. Jager, Mehmet Kanbay, Francesca Mallamaci, Gianfranco Parati, Patrick Rossignol, Andrzej Wiecek & Gerard London The accurate definition and staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major achievements of modern nephrology. Intensive research is now being undertaken to unravel the risk factors and pathophysiologic underpinnings of this disease. In particular, the relatio...
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 24, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Carmine Zoccali Raymond Vanholder Ziad A. Massy Alberto Ortiz Pantelis Sarafidis Friedo W. Dekker Danilo Fliser Denis Fouque Gunnar H. Heine Kitty J. Jager Mehmet Kanbay Francesca Mallamaci Gianfranco Parati Patrick Rossignol Andrzej Wiecek Gerard London Tags: Review Source Type: research

Polycystic kidney disease: PMM2 mutation causes PKD and hyperinsulinism
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 321 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.58 Author: Ellen F. Carney Researchers have identified a previously undescribed genetic disorder that presents with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HI) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) in childhood (HIPKD). They report that this disease is caused by a promoter mutation in PMM2, which encodes the N-glycosylation enzyme phosphomannomutase 2.The coexistence (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 24, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Hypertension: Hypertension in pregnancy: a risk factor for the whole family?
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 326 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.54 Authors: Grace Z. Yu & Paul Leeson Hypertension in pregnancy is a known risk factor for increased cardiovascular risk for both the mother and her offspring. New findings suggest the offspring of normotensive pregnancies should also be considered at risk of high blood pressure if their mother has had hypertension in other pregnancies. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 19, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Grace Z. Yu Paul Leeson Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Kidney cancer: Targeting metabolism in RCC
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 320 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.57 Author: Susan. J. Allison Loss of VHL and elevated expression of HIF transcription factors leads to reprogramming of tumour cell metabolism, enabling renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells to use carbons from glutamine-derived aspartate to drive pyrimidine biosynthesis. Now, researchers show that inhibition of glutamine availability decreases aspartate availability, (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 19, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan. J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Physical inactivity: a risk factor and target for intervention in renal care
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 318 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.44 Author: Dorien M. Zelle, Gerald Klaassen, Edwin van Adrichem, Stephan J.L. Bakker, Eva Corpeleijn & Gerjan Navis Nature Reviews Nephrology13, 152–168 (2017)In the original pdf and online versions of this article, the y-axes of FIGS 3b–c and components of Supplementary information S1 (table) were incorrect, and the permissions line for FIGS 3a–b was not (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 13, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Dorien M. Zelle Gerald Klaassen Edwin van Adrichem Stephan J.L. Bakker Eva Corpeleijn Gerjan Navis Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

The immunology of atherosclerosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 368 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.51 Authors: Anton Gisterå & Göran K. Hansson Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, both in the general population and among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In most cases, the underlying cause of the cardiovascular event is atherosclerosis — a chronic inflammatory disease. CKD accelerates atherosclerosis via augmentation of (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 10, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anton Gister å G öran K. Hansson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hypertension: Role of γδ T cells in the development of hypertension
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 321 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.56 Author: Ellen F. Carney New data suggest that γδ T cells contribute to the development of hypertension and vascular damage. These unconventional innate-like T cells have a role in the initiation of immune responses.“We previously demonstrated roles of macrophages, monocytes, and regulatory T cells in blood pressure elevation (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 10, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Diabetes: Renal responses to SGLT2 blockade
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 320 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.55 Author: Andrea Aguilar Inhibition of the sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SLGT2) efficiently controls glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but it can also induce ketoacidosis. In a new study, Ele Ferrannini and colleagues show that the hyperketonaemia induced by SGLT2 blockade results from enhanced ketogenesis and (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 10, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Ageing: Targeting senescence-associated tissue damage
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 319 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.53 Author: Susan J. Allison Cellular senescence — an irreversible fate in which cells become permanently withdrawn from the cell cycle — can be induced by a variety of stressors. Although the induction of cellular senescence can be beneficial in the acute setting, chronic accumulation of senescent cells can impair (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 10, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Renal and cardiac assessment of living kidney donor candidates
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 420 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.43 Authors: Ngan N. Lam, Krista L. Lentine & Amit X. Garg Living kidney donation provides the best therapeutic outcomes for eligible patients with end-stage renal disease. To ensure suitability for living kidney donation, donor candidates undergo a thorough medical, surgical, and psychosocial evaluation by a multidisciplinary transplant assessment team. Numerous guidelines are available to assist clinicians (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 3, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ngan N. Lam Krista L. Lentine Amit X. Garg Tags: Review Source Type: research

Transplantation: Pro-tolerogenic properties of erythropoietin
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 320 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.46 Author: Ellen F. Carney Erythropoietin (EPO) has immunomodulatory effects that promote tolerance to kidney allografts, say researchers. EPO is predominantly produced by renal pericapillary fibroblasts and is required for the differentiation of red blood cells in the bone marrow, but also has non-erythropoietic effects. In particular, reports that EPO (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 3, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Hypertension: Quarter dose quadpill combinations: a new therapeutic approach
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 266 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.45 Authors: Guido Grassi & Giuseppe Mancia Achieving optimal blood pressure with antihypertensive agents in hypertensive patients can be particularly challenging. A major factor in this challenge is poor implementation of and compliance with multidrug regimens. However, a recent study shows encouraging results with a new single pill product that contains ultra-low doses of four antihypertensive agents. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 3, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Guido Grassi Giuseppe Mancia Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Lupus nephritis: CD11b suppresses inflammation in SLE
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 262 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.50 Author: Shimona Starling Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ITGAM gene (which encodes the adhesion molecule CD11b) are associated with an increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Faridi et al. show that ITGAM SNPs that reduce CD11b function correlate with elevated activity of pro-inflammatory (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 3, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shimona Starling Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Renal fibrosis: Pericytes activate complement in fibrosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 262 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.49 Author: Shimona Starling The complement pathway is activated during kidney fibrosis and may contribute to renal inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Using a mouse model of kidney injury, Xavier et al. show that platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β-positive pericytes (which are non-immune, interstitial cells) secrete (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 3, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shimona Starling Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Epidemiology: Sickle cell trait increases ESRD risk
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 262 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.48 Author: Shimona Starling The risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is higher in people of African ancestry than in those of European ancestry, but whether sickle cell trait (SCT), which is relatively common in black individuals, is a risk factor for ESRD is unclear. Naik et al (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 3, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shimona Starling Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Transplantation: A new biomarker for transplant rejection?
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 262 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.47 Author: Shimona Starling A need exists for biomarkers that can monitor transplant rejection. Now, Vallabhajosyula et al. show that, in a human-to-mouse xenogeneic islet transplant model, human exosomes (extracellular vesicles that are released by tissues) can be purified from the plasma of recipient mice. Moreover, islet (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - April 3, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shimona Starling Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Intravenous hydration for the prevention of CIAKI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 264 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.41 Authors: Carlo Briguori & Giuseppe Signoriello Iodinated contrast media are essential for diagnostic and interventional radiological and cardiological procedures, but may cause kidney damage. Intravenous hydration is the current cornerstone for prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury; however, new data from the AMACING trial suggest that this approach might not be beneficial in low-risk patients. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - March 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Carlo Briguori Giuseppe Signoriello Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Renal physiology: HCO3 − reclamation in the renal proximal tubule
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 262 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.40 Author: Ellen F. Carney Reclamation of HCO3− in the kidney has a key role in the regulation of systemic acid–base balance. Approximately 80% of HCO3− reclamation occurs in the proximal tubule and is thought to depend on the secretion of H+ (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - March 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: mTOR in FSGS
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 260 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.42 Author: Susan J. Allison Progression of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is associated with podocyte loss and hypertrophy of remaining podocytes; however, the mechanisms underlying these processes are unknown. New findings reveal a role for mTORC1 in balancing glomerular maintenance and disease progression in FSGS. “Complete mTOR inhibition or mTOR (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - March 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Complement in ANCA-associated vasculitis: mechanisms and implications for management
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 359 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.37 Authors: Min Chen, David R. W. Jayne & Ming-Hui Zhao Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of potentially life-threatening autoimmune diseases. The main histological feature in the kidneys of patients with AAV is pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis with little immunoglobulin and complement deposition in the glomerular capillary walls. The complement system was (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - March 20, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Min Chen David R. W. Jayne Ming-Hui Zhao Tags: Review Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Uraemic toxin-induced platelet hyperactivity
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 261 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.39 Author: Susan J. Allison Thrombosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. New findings show that the uraemic toxin, indoxyl sulfate, induces platelet hyperactivity, contributing to thrombus formation. Moreover, the researchers show that KLOTHO counteracts indoxyl sulfate-induced platelet hyperactivity. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - March 20, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research