Renal fibrosis: PDGF-D in renal fibrosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 257 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.31 Author: Andrea Aguilar Kidney fibrosis is a hallmark and common end point of numerous chronic kidney diseases, but effective therapies to treat kidney fibrosis are lacking. Now, Peter Boor and co-workers show that an isoform of platelet-derived growth factor, PDGF-D, is dispensable for renal development and function but (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - March 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Novel candidate genes implicated in FSGS
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 256 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.30 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Genetic mutations in podocyte genes can increase susceptibility to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), but only a small proportion of patients have been identified who have a clear genetic basis underlying their disease. A new study from Haiyang Yu and colleagues describes the development of a (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - March 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Plasma cells as an innovative target in autoimmune disease with renal manifestations
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 232 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.20 Authors: Falk Hiepe & Andreas Radbruch Autoantibodies are secreted by plasma cells and have an essential role in driving the renal manifestations of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis. Effective depletion of autoreactive plasma cells might be the key to curative treatment of these diseases. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 29, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Falk HiepeAndreas Radbruch Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hypertension: Cardiovascular benefits of lowering blood pressure
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 202 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.27 Authors: Michael A. Weber & Daniel T. Lackland A recent meta-analysis reports that blood-pressure-lowering treatments reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in patients with baseline systolic blood pressures ranging from>160 mmHg to
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 29, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Michael A. WeberDaniel T. Lackland Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Hypertension: Testing for pre-eclampsia: paving the way to early diagnosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 200 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.21 Author: Thomas Benzing A new study reports that a single blood test can be used to rule out the development of pre-eclampsia in women in whom the syndrome is suspected. Early interventions for pre-eclampsia are not yet available, but this finding is likely to change the approach to diagnosis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 29, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thomas Benzing Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: FGF-23 inhibits neutrophil activation
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 198 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.28 Author: Ellen F. Carney Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased incidence of bacterial infections, but the mechanisms by which CKD leads to impairment of the immune system are not well defined. Now, Alexander Zarbock and colleagues report that increased levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 29, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Podocyte biology: Phosphorylation preserves podocytes
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 197 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.17 Author: Ellen F. Carney New data suggest that loss of nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation in podocytes is a driver of renal disease progression. Researcher Nina Jones and colleagues report that this phosphorylation is required for stabilization and repair of podocyte foot process architecture after injury.Nephrin is a transmembrane protein (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 29, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Genetics: New link between nuclear pore genes and SRNS
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 195 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.29 Author: Jessica K. Edwards A recent study has identified specific mutations in nuclear pore genes that can cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). The new data — recently published in Nature Genetics — suggest a novel link between nuclear pore complex (NPC)-associated proteins and SRNS via the BMP-7-dependent SMAD (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 29, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Memory T cells in organ transplantation: progress and challenges
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 339 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.9 Authors: Jaclyn R. Espinosa, Kannan P. Samy & Allan D. Kirk Antigen-experienced T cells, also known as memory T cells, are functionally and phenotypically distinct from naive T cells. Their enhanced expression of adhesion molecules and reduced requirement for co-stimulation enables them to mount potent and rapid recall responses to subsequent antigen encounters. Memory T cells (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 29, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jaclyn R. EspinosaKannan P. SamyAllan D. Kirk Tags: Review Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Low birth weight and the global burden of kidney disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 199 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.19 Authors: Carolyn L. Abitbol & Marva Moxey-Mims Low birth weight (LBW) and intrauterine growth restriction are major contributors to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. A Norwegian registry study has confirmed that LBW is associated with an increased risk of developing end-stage renal disease by 40 years of age, which could not be explained by familial factors. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 22, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Carolyn L. AbitbolMarva Moxey-Mims Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Genetics: Identification of new SLE risk variants
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 198 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.26 Author: Andrea Aguilar Researchers have identified 10 new susceptibility loci and confirmed 20 known susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in individuals with Asian ancestry. Sun et al. performed a genetic association study in 4,478 patients with SLE and 12,656 control individuals from six East (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 22, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Vitamin D supplementation reverses renal injury
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 198 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.25 Author: Andrea Aguilar In patients with glomerular disease, vitamin D deficiency correlates with the occurrence of proteinuria, but vitamin D supplementation is controversial. Now, researchers report that 1,25-vitamin D3 deficiency leads to glomerular injury and renal dysfunction in rats and in 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3-1α-hydroxylase knockout mice. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 22, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Thrombotic microangiopathy: Efficacy of eculizumab in paediatric aHUS
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 198 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.24 Author: Andrea Aguilar Eculizumab is currently the only approved treatment for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS), but data in paediatric patients are limited. Recent findings from a prospective phase II study in 22 children with aHUS suggest that eculizumab is safe and efficacious in this setting. After 26 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 22, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Mineral metabolism: Racial differences in phosphorous excretion in CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 198 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.23 Author: Andrea Aguilar A new study shows an independent association between genetic African ancestry and level of urinary phosphorous excretion in African Americans with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In their analysis of 3,013 patients, Gutiérrez et al. found that each 10% higher percentage of African ancestry (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 22, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Diabetic nephropathy: MiR-23b protects against fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 197 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.22 Author: Ellen F. Carney MicroRNA-23b (miR-23b) suppresses the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) by downregulating the renal expression of G3BP2, say researchers. Binghai Zhao and colleagues decided to investigate miR-23b after identifying it as a putative regulator of G3BP2 in a bioinformatics analysis. As G3BP2 acts through MAPK (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 22, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stromal cells in renal transplantation: opportunities and challenges
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 241 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.7 Authors: Federica Casiraghi, Norberto Perico, Monica Cortinovis & Giuseppe Remuzzi Lifelong immunosuppressive therapy is essential to prevent allograft rejection in transplant recipients. Long-term, nonspecific immunosuppression can, however, result in life-threatening complications and fail to prevent chronic graft rejection. Bone marrow (BM)-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have emerged as a potential candidate for cell-based therapy (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 8, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Federica CasiraghiNorberto PericoMonica CortinovisGiuseppe Remuzzi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Mineral and bone disorders: Targeting CYP24A1
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 196 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.16 Author: Susan J. Allison Disturbed phosphate homeostasis is a common feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD). High serum levels of FGF-23 are associated with adverse effects on bone metabolism. New findings suggest that inhibition of the vitamin D-inactivating enzyme, CYP24A1, might present a new therapeutic opportunity for the treatment (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 8, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Proteinuria: New therapeutic strategy for proteinuria
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 196 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.15 Author: Jessica K. Edwards 4-Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) — a molecular chaperone known to modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function — might be a suitable therapeutic to ameliorate the toxic effects of proteinuria, according to new research. Fabiola Terzi and colleagues report that PBA can inhibit ER stress-induced apoptosis and the (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 8, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Genetics: GWAS identifies 24 new loci for renal function
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 196 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.14 Author: Jessica K. Edwards A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified 24 novel genetic loci that are associated with renal function (based on estimated glomerular filtration rate), and has confirmed 29 previously identified loci. “The majority of the genes that we identified at these loci were predominantly (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 8, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Autoimmunity: Mitochondrial function in autoimmune disorders
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 126 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.13 Author: Jessica K. Edwards New research has helped unravel a link between mitochondria, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and inflammation in autoimmune disorders. Lood et al. found that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) could stimulate NETosis after mitochondrial activation by ribonucleoprotein immune complexes. Immune complex stimulation precipitated a (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 8, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Proton pump inhibitors increase risk of CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 126 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.12 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to new findings. Lazarus and et al. studied the effects of PPIs in 10,484 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, and found that twice-daily PPI dosing was (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 8, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Hypertension: Blood pressure lowering after lacunar stroke
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 126 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.11 Author: Jessica K. Edwards An analysis of>2,500 patients from the SPS3 randomized trial who experienced a lacunar stroke but maintained kidney function has found that intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering ( (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 8, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Microbiology: Altered gut microbiota in CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 126 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.10 Author: Jessica K. Edwards The effects of synbiotic therapy on serum levels of microbiome-generated uraemic toxins have been assessed in a new study involving predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data from the SYNERGY trial found that a 6 week prebiotic and probiotic therapeutic protocol favourably modified the (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 8, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 182 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.219 Authors: John F. Bertram, Stuart L. Goldstein, Lars Pape, Franz Schaefer, Rukshana C. Shroff & Bradley A. Warady To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - February 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: John F. BertramStuart L. GoldsteinLars PapeFranz SchaeferRukshana C. ShroffBradley A. Warady Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Hurdles to the introduction of new therapies for immune-mediated kidney diseases
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 205 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.206 Authors: Hans-Joachim Anders, David R. W. Jayne & Brad H. Rovin Innovative immunotherapies continue to markedly benefit many disciplines in clinical medicine but disappointingly, these benefits have not translated to the treatment of kidney diseases despite encouraging findings from preclinical models of kidney dysfunction. This lack of progress in nephrology might relate to the unique biology (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 25, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hans-Joachim AndersDavid R. W. JayneBrad H. Rovin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hypertension: Rest before blood pressure measurement: a lesson from SPRINT
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 127 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.2 Author: Rajiv Agarwal The SPRINT data suggest a cardiovascular benefit of intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in high-risk individuals. The BP measurement protocol, however, likely resulted in lower BP values than would normally be obtained in the clinic. Intensive BP targets might not be as safe if routine BP measurements are used. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 25, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rajiv Agarwal Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Transplantation: Reverse chimerism enables graft acceptance
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 125 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.8 Author: Ellen F. Carney Induction of reverse chimerism in renal allografts by mobilizing host stem cells from the bone marrow enables long-term graft acceptance in animal models, say Zhaoli Sun and colleagues. These researchers previously showed that the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 and low-dose tacrolimus act synergistically to mobilize autochthonous (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 25, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Anaemia: Targeting epigenetics in renal anaemia
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 125 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.5 Author: Susan J. Allison Anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease results from impaired function of renal erythropoietin-producing cells (REPCs), leading to insufficient erythropoiesis. Now research suggests a mechanistic role for epigenetic changes in the reduced function of REPCs in fibrosis and demonstrates that targeting these changes can restore erythropoietin (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 25, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: AT1 receptors modulate AKI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 124 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.6 Author: Jessica K. Edwards The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI), but conflicting outcomes have been reported in patients following RAS inhibition. New data from Steven Crowley and colleagues suggest that type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptors have differential effects on (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 25, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Mitochondrial dysfunction in inherited renal disease and acute kidney injury
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 267 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.214 Authors: Francesco Emma, Giovanni Montini, Samir M. Parikh & Leonardo Salviati Mitochondria are increasingly recognized as key players in genetic and acquired renal diseases. Most mitochondrial cytopathies that cause renal symptoms are characterized by tubular defects, but glomerular, tubulointerstitial and cystic diseases have also been described. For example, defects in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 25, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Francesco EmmaGiovanni MontiniSamir M. ParikhLeonardo Salviati Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hypertension: IL-1 receptor-induced sodium reabsorption in hypertension
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 126 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.1 Author: Susan J. Allison Hypertension is recognized to be mediated, at least in part, by inflammatory processes; however, the mechanisms by which immune cells regulate hypertension remain unclear. New findings suggest that IL-1 can potentiate hypertensive responses by stimulating the activity of the renal sodium transporter NKCC2 through IL-1-receptor (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 19, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Potassium efflux in APOL1 nephropathy
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 124 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.4 Author: Jessica K. Edwards The increased risk of chronic kidney disease in people of recent African descent compared to European–Americans is almost entirely attributed to the presence of two APOL1 genetic variants (G1 and G2) in this population. Now, findings by Martin Pollak and colleagues show that APOL1 (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 19, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: AIMing to enhance debris clearance and improve outcomes in AKI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 123 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.3 Author: Susan J. Allison Cell death is an important pathological feature of acute kidney injury (AKI), with debris from dead tubular epithelial cells (TECs) leading to renal tubular obstruction and exacerbating tubular injury. Now, research shows that apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM; encoded by Cd5l) on intraluminal debris (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 19, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

HIV-associated immune complex kidney disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 291 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.216 Authors: Ehsan Nobakht, Scott D. Cohen, Avi Z. Rosenberg & Paul L. Kimmel The introduction in the late 20th century of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to treat patients infected with HIV has changed the natural history of the disease from an acute illness that rapidly culminates in death, to a chronic condition that can be managed (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 19, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ehsan NobakhtScott D. CohenAvi Z. RosenbergPaul L. Kimmel Tags: Review Source Type: research

Exploring the genetic basis of early-onset chronic kidney disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 133 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.205 Authors: Asaf Vivante & Friedhelm Hildebrandt The primary causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children differ from those of CKD in adults. In the USA the most common diagnostic groups of renal disease that manifest before the age of 25 years are congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract, (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 11, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Asaf VivanteFriedhelm Hildebrandt Tags: Review Source Type: research

The mucosa–kidney axis in IgA nephropathy
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 147 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.208 Authors: Jürgen Floege & John Feehally Links between IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and the mucosa have been recognized since the 1970s. In particular, the observation of visible haematuria induced by respiratory infections in patients with IgAN and the association of IgAN with diseases in which the mucosa plays a part, especially coeliac (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jürgen FloegeJohn Feehally Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hypertension: SGLT2 inhibitors: not just another glucose-lowering agent
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 128 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.217 Authors: Hillel Sternlicht & George L. Bakris The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on lowering blood pressure are well characterized, but data now demonstrate their enhanced blood pressure-lowering capacity when combined with dual antihypertensive therapy. Specifically, blood pressure was markedly reduced when dapagliflozin was administered to patients receiving a renin–angiotensin system blocker plus a calcium antagonist or β-blocker. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hillel SternlichtGeorge L. Bakris Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Basic research: Bioengineering the kidney microvasculature
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 124 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.218 Author: Ellen F. Carney Jonathan Himmelfarb and colleagues have developed a novel method to bioengineer functional kidney microvasculature from human kidney peritubular microvascular endothelial cells (HKMECs). They suggest that their 3D microphysiologic system could be used to investigate mechanisms of kidney disease and potential therapies.The researchers isolated HKMECs (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Renal fibrosis in 2015: Understanding the mechanisms of kidney fibrosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 68 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.215 Authors: Dong Zhou & Youhua Liu The year 2015 has seen great progress in the renal fibrosis field, as key studies began to build a consensus on the importance of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell cycle arrest, and defective metabolism in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis. New findings also point to a role of developmental signalling in renal fibrogenesis. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Dong ZhouYouhua Liu Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Stem cells and renal development in 2015: Advances in generating and maintaining nephron progenitors
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 67 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.203 Author: Ryuichi Nishinakamura 2015 saw the publication of several important studies in the renal stem cell and developmental biology fields. Key studies provided insights into the ageing of nephron progenitors and optimal conditions to stimulate the expansion of nephron progenitors, and reported the in vitro generation of kidney organoids. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ryuichi Nishinakamura Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Podocyte biology in 2015: New insights into the mechanisms of podocyte health
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 63 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.204 Author: Jeffrey H. Miner Podocyte biologists can boast of some important advances in 2015. Some of the key developments include defining the transcriptional targets of the Wilms' tumour protein on a genome-wide scale, the identification of new mitochondria-centred pathways for maintaining podocyte homeostasis, and new insights into the regulation and pathogenic activation of TRPC6. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jeffrey H. Miner Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Progenitor cells: Promotion of nephron progenitor cell self-renewal
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 62 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.213 Author: Jessica K. Edwards BMP, FGF, and WNT signalling regulate self-renewal of nephron progenitor cells (NPCs). A molecular analysis by Muthukrishnan et al. to delineate these pathways found that BMP7 activates TAK1 and JNK, resulting in JUN phosphorylation, Myc and Ccnd1 transcriptional regulation, and NPC (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Basic research: TMEM107: a new ciliopathy transition zone gene
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 62 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.212 Author: Jessica K. Edwards A bioinformatics-based analysis has identified TMEM107 as a candidate transition zone (TZ) ciliary gene that is mutated in oral–facial–digital and Joubert syndromes. Functional analyses performed in C. elegans showed that TMEM107 contributes to ciliary composition and function in a redundant manner with NPHP-4, (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Immunosuppression: Modulation of BK polyomavirus replication
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 62 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.211 Author: Jessica K. Edwards The effects of immunosuppressive drugs on BK polyomavirus (BKV) replication have been compared in a new study. Sirolimus inhibited viral replication up to 24 h postinfection, but not thereafter, and similar results were found for other mTOR inhibitors and ciclosporin A. Conversely, tacrolimus — a (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Genetics: Genetic links between diabetes and albuminuria
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 62 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.210 Author: Jessica K. Edwards Loci that are associated with albuminuria in diabetes mellitus have been identified by GWAS meta-analysis of albuminuria traits in the general population. An association between CUBN and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was replicated, and gene-by-diabetes interactions were detected at the HS6ST1 and RAB38/CTSC (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica K. Edwards Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Role of PTH/PTHrP receptor in cachexia
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 62 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.207 Author: Susan J. Allison Cachexia is common in many illnesses, including chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cancer, and is characterized by elevated energy expenditure and loss of adipose and muscle mass. New data support an important role for PTH and the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR) in cachexia associated with CKD. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Addition of immunosuppression to supportive care does not STOP-IgAN
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 61 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.209 Author: Ellen F. Carney New data from the STOP-IgAN trial suggest that immunosuppressive treatment might not be beneficial in high-risk patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) who are receiving supportive care. This finding is in contrast to the results of previous studies that reported a potential benefit of immunosuppression in (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors for the treatment of renal anaemia and beyond
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 157 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.193 Authors: Patrick H. Maxwell & Kai-Uwe Eckardt Small-molecule stabilizers of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) are being developed for the treatment of renal anaemia. These molecules inhibit prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing (PHD) enzymes, resulting in HIF activation and increased production of erythropoietin. Currently, renal anaemia is treated with recombinant human erythropoietin or related analogues, (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 14, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Patrick H. MaxwellKai-Uwe Eckardt Tags: Review Source Type: research

Transplantation: The role of RAAS blockade in kidney transplantation
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 129 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.201 Author: Robert D. Toto Blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) slows the progression of many forms of kidney disease, but whether this therapy is beneficial in kidney transplant recipients is unclear. A new randomized controlled trial suggests that RAAS blockade is not beneficial in the transplant setting, but the underpowered nature of this study limits its conclusions. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 14, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Robert D. Toto Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Hypertension in 2015: Resistant hypertension: impact and evolving treatment options
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 70 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2015.199 Authors: Lilach O. Lerman & Stephen C. Textor Combination therapy with optimal doses of multiple antihypertensive drugs fails to achieve blood pressure (BP) control in up to 15% of hypertensive patients. Key studies in 2015 highlighted the risks of uncontrolled hypertension and evaluated new therapeutic modalities designed to achieve satisfactory BP control in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 14, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lilach O. LermanStephen C. Textor Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research