Glomerular disease in 2016: New advances in the treatment of glomerular disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 65 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.195 Authors: Rutger J. Maas & Jack F. Wetzels Studies published in 2016 provide insights that bring us closer to achieving the goal of personalized therapy for primary glomerular diseases. Moreover, promising renal outcome data with new classes of glucose-lowering agents — SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists — offer new hope for patients with diabetic nephropathy. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 19, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rutger J. Maas Jack F. Wetzels Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Kidney disease and obesity: epidemiology, mechanisms and treatment
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 181 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.191 Authors: Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Kunitoshi Iseki, Holly Kramer, Zhi-Hong Liu & Kumar Sharma The theme of World Kidney Day 2017 is 'kidney disease and obesity: healthy lifestyle for healthy kidneys'. To mark this event, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited five leading researchers to describe changes in the epidemiology of obesity-related kidney disease, advances in current understanding of the (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 16, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Niels Olsen Saraiva C âmara Kunitoshi Iseki Holly Kramer Zhi-Hong Liu Kumar Sharma Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Metabolic reprogramming and tolerance during sepsis-induced AKI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 143 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.186 Authors: Hernando Gómez, John A. Kellum & Claudio Ronco The host defence against infection is an adaptive response in which several mechanisms are deployed to decrease the pathogen load, limit tissue injury and restore homeostasis. In the past few years new evidence has suggested that the ability of the immune system to limit the (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 16, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hernando G ómez John A. Kellum Claudio Ronco Tags: Review Source Type: research

Polycystic kidney disease: Autophagy boost to treat ADPKD?
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 134 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.1 Author: Andrea Aguilar Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common inheritable human diseases and leads to renal failure; however, no effective treatment exists. In a new study, Xueying Lin and colleagues used TALEN-mediated gene editing to establish a zebrafish model of ADPKD and (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - January 16, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Rituximab therapy for IgA nephropathy
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 138 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.188 Author: Jürgen Floege As IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is considered to result in part from autoimmune processes, B-cell depletion using rituximab might be a plausible therapy. However, a small randomized, controlled trial in patients at risk of progressive IgAN reports that this therapy failed to reduce proteinuria over 1 year and was associated with more adverse events per patient. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: J ürgen Floege Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Changes in the worldwide epidemiology of peritoneal dialysis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 90 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.181 Authors: Philip Kam-Tao Li, Kai Ming Chow, Moniek W.M. Van de Luijtgaarden, David W. Johnson, Kitty J. Jager, Rajnish Mehrotra, Sarala Naicker, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Xue Qing Yu & Norbert Lameire As the global burden of chronic kidney disease continues to increase, so does the need for a cost-effective renal replacement therapy. In many countries, patient outcomes with peritoneal dialysis are comparable to or better than those with haemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis is also more cost-effective. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Philip Kam-Tao Li Kai Ming Chow Moniek W.M. Van de Luijtgaarden David W. Johnson Kitty J. Jager Rajnish Mehrotra Sarala Naicker Roberto Pecoits-Filho Xue Qing Yu Norbert Lameire Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cellular senescence in renal ageing and disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 77 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.183 Authors: Ines Sturmlechner, Matej Durik, Cynthia J. Sieben, Darren J. Baker & Jan M. van Deursen The senescence programme is implicated in diverse biological processes, including embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and repair, tumorigenesis, and ageing. Although in vivo studies of senescence are in their infancy, evidence suggesting that senescent cells are a heterogeneous cell type is accumulating: senescence can be induced (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ines Sturmlechner Matej Durik Cynthia J. Sieben Darren J. Baker Jan M. van Deursen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hypertension in 2016: Blood pressure goals, variability and SGLT2 blockade in CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 75 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.189 Authors: Debbie L. Cohen & Raymond R. Townsend Blood pressure (BP) goals and the management of BP in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain controversial topics. Key articles in the past year have addressed BP goals in CKD, the use of new agents to slow CKD progression and the effects of visit-to-visit variability in systolic BP on cardiovascular events and renal progression in patients with CKD. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Debbie L. Cohen Raymond R. Townsend Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

The renal Fanconi syndrome in cystinosis: pathogenic insights and therapeutic perspectives
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 115 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.182 Authors: Stephanie Cherqui & Pierre J. Courtoy Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease that belongs to the family of lysosomal storage disorders. It is caused by a defect in the lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin, which results in an accumulation of cystine in all organs. Despite the ubiquitous expression of cystinosin, a (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 19, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Stephanie Cherqui Pierre J. Courtoy Tags: Review Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Role of tonsillar B cells in IgAN
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 63 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.185 Author: Ellen F. Carney In Japan, patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) frequently undergo tonsillectomy, which has been associated with a decrease in serum IgA levels and an improvement in clinical outcomes. However, the rationale for this treatment is unclear. Now, researcher Yusuke Suzuki and colleagues report that overexpression of (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 19, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Thrombotic microangiopathies: VEGF –complement interactions
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 62 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.184 Author: Susan J. Allison Dysregulation of epithelial-cell-derived VEGF in the eye and kidney is associated with wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), respectively. ARMD and TMA are also associated with complement dysregulation and genetic variants in the complement inhibitor, factor H (FH). New research demonstrates (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 19, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

The global burden of chronic kidney disease: estimates, variability and pitfalls
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 104 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.163 Authors: Richard J. Glassock, David G. Warnock & Pierre Delanaye Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is currently defined by abnormalities of kidney structure or function assessed using a matrix of variables — including glomerular filtration rate (GFR), thresholds of albuminuria and duration of injury — and is considered by many to be a common disorder globally. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 12, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Richard J. Glassock David G. Warnock Pierre Delanaye Tags: Review Source Type: research

Renal, metabolic and cardiovascular considerations of SGLT2 inhibition
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 11 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.170 Authors: Ralph A. DeFronzo, Luke Norton & Muhammad Abdul-Ghani The kidney has a pivotal role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by using glucose as a metabolic fuel, by producing glucose through gluconeogenesis, and by reabsorbing all filtered glucose through the sodium–glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 located in the proximal tubule. In patients with diabetes, the (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 12, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ralph A. DeFronzo Luke Norton Muhammad Abdul-Ghani Tags: Review Source Type: research

Transplantation: Efficacy of rapid steroid withdrawal after induction therapy
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 2 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.179 Author: Andrea Aguilar New data from the Harmony trial show that in renal transplant recipients with a low immunological risk profile, rapid corticosteroid withdrawal after rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or basiliximab induction therapy can be achieved without compromising the efficacy of standard low-dose tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 12, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Epidemiology: Paediatric acute kidney injury
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 63 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.176 Author: Ellen F. Carney Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with poor outcomes among children and young adults admitted to paediatric intensive care units (ICUs), according to new data from the AWARE study. “We undertook this prospective, international, multicentre project, which used KDIGO AKI criteria, to definitively (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 5, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Fibrosis: Pericyte MyD88 and IRAK4 signalling in fibrosis
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 63 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.174 Author: Susan J. Allison New data suggest that signalling of MyD88 and its downstream effector IRAK4 in pericytes is an important driver of inflammation and fibrogenesis in the injured kidney. Jeremy Duffield and colleagues also show that pharmacological inhibition of IRAK4 signalling suppresses inflammatory and fibrotic markers in kidney (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 5, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Mechanisms of APOL1-associated renal disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 62 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.175 Author: Ellen F. Carney Mutations in APOL1 are associated with an increased risk of renal disease and are found at a high frequency in people of African ancestry. Two recent studies used transgenic Drosophila melanogaster models to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underlie APOL1-associated renal disease. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 5, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Autoimmune disease: Egress of intestinal TH17 cells in autoimmune renal disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 61 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.177 Author: Susan J. Allison Studies over the past few years have revealed a role for type 17 T helper (TH17) cells in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, including crescentic glomerulonephritis. These cells are most abundant in the lamina propria of the small intestine under homeostatic conditions; (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 5, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Haemodialysis: Intradialytic meals: addressing a neglected problem
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 6 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.172 Authors: Francesco Locatelli & Lucia Del Vecchio New data suggest that provision of high-protein, high-calorie intradialytic meals in combination with phosphate binder therapy could be an easy and effective strategy to reduce the risk of malnutrition in patients on haemodialysis. These findings highlight the importance of avoiding excessive dietary restrictions in these patients. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 5, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Francesco Locatelli Lucia Del Vecchio Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Hypertension: Global blood pressure trends
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 2 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.178 Author: Andrea Aguilar High blood pressure, a leading global risk factor for chronic kidney disease, is an important health issue worldwide. A new study shows that mean blood pressure has increased in low-income countries in the past 40 years. “This type of comparative performance data will allow us (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - December 5, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

The epigenetic landscape of renal cancer
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 47 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.168 Authors: Mark R. Morris & Farida Latif The majority of kidney cancers are associated with mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau gene and a small proportion are associated with infrequent mutations in other well characterized tumour-suppressor genes. In the past 15 years, efforts to uncover other key genes involved in renal cancer have (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mark R. Morris Farida Latif Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cellular plasticity in kidney injury and repair
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 39 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.169 Authors: Monica Chang-Panesso & Benjamin D. Humphreys Terminally differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency or directly to another differentiated cell type in vitro, a capacity termed cellular plasticity. Plasticity is not limited to in vitro manipulations but rather represents an important aspect of the regenerative response to injury in (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 28, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Monica Chang-Panesso Benjamin D. Humphreys Tags: Review Source Type: research

The role of phosphate in kidney disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 27 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.164 Authors: Marc G. Vervloet, Siren Sezer, Ziad A. Massy, Lina Johansson, Mario Cozzolino & Denis Fouque The importance of phosphate homeostasis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized for decades, but novel insights — which are frequently relevant to everyday clinical practice — continue to emerge. Epidemiological data consistently indicate an association between hyperphosphataemia and poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, compelling (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 21, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Marc G. Vervloet Siren Sezer Ziad A. Massy Lina Johansson Mario Cozzolino Denis Fouque Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sepsis: Preventing organ failure in sepsis — the search continues
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 5 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.171 Authors: Thomas J. Graetz & Richard S. Hotchkiss In a recent trial, levosimendan therapy failed to ameliorate sepsis-induced organ dysfunction or improve the survival of patients with septic shock. The failure of levosimendan and many other potential therapies for sepsis, together with the findings of histopathologic studies, raise questions regarding the pathophysiologic basis of the disorder. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 21, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thomas J. Graetz Richard S. Hotchkiss Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Hypertension: Microbiota under pressure
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 3 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.173 Author: Andrea Aguilar Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is involved in severe conditions such as chronic kidney disease but whether the gut–microbiome link is altered in hypertension has not been elucidated. A new study shows that hypertension is associated with altered gut function, changes in gut bacterial populations (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 21, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury from SGLT2 inhibitors: potential mechanisms
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 711 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.159 Authors: Kai Hahn, A. Ahsan Ejaz, Mehmet Kanbay, Miguel A. Lanaspa & Richard J. Johnson SGLT2 inhibitors have shown great promise in the management of diabetes mellitus and the prevention of cardiovascular complications, but increasing evidence suggests that their use can be associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. Insights into the mechanisms involved might help to identify individuals who are at risk of renal injury. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 16, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kai Hahn A. Ahsan Ejaz Mehmet Kanbay Miguel A. Lanaspa Richard J. Johnson Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Hypertension: Mechanosensation by PIEZO1 in blood pressure control
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 3 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.165 Author: Susan J. Allison The sensing of fluid shear stress and subsequent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle is a regulatory process that controls arterial vasodilation and blood pressure; however, the flow-sensing mechanism that leads to the release of vasoactive mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) is unclear. New research (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 14, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Lupus nephritis: B-cell ER α signalling promotes lupus development
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 2 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.167 Author: Ellen F. Carney Estrogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of lupus and approximately 90% of patients are female. Now, Dana Tabor and Karen Gould report that estrogen receptor α (ERα) signalling in B cells promotes lupus development. “We were interested in knocking out ERα in specific immune (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 14, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Developmental biology: Transcriptional reprogramming of kidney tubules
Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 1 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.166 Author: Susan J. Allison The direct programming of differentiated cells into organ-specific cell types bypasses pluripotency and might enable the development of models with which to test disease pathogenesis and regeneration. Using specific combinations of transcription factors, fibroblasts have been directly reprogrammed into various cell types, including neurons and (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 14, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

The contribution of branching morphogenesis to kidney development and disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 754 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.157 Authors: Kieran M. Short & Ian M. Smyth The mammalian kidney develops from a simple epithelial bud to an arborized network of tubules, which are fated to form the ureter, renal pelvis and collecting ducts. This process of ductal elaboration is achieved through an ancient developmental mechanism known as branching morphogenesis that is (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kieran M. Short Ian M. Smyth Tags: Review Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Loss of PKC- ɛ protects against IRI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 714 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.162 Author: Andrea Aguilar Sudden, temporary interruption of renal blood flow induces ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IRI), a major cause of acute renal failure. A new study conducted by Grazyna Nowak and colleagues shows that deletion of protein kinase C-ɛ (PKC-ɛ) prevents IRI-induced changes in mitochondrial function, kidney morphology and renal (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - November 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Aguilar Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 738 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.156 Authors: Nazila Kamaly, John C. He, Dennis A. Ausiello & Omid C. Farokhzad Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 31, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nazila Kamaly John C. He Dennis A. Ausiello Omid C. Farokhzad Tags: Review Source Type: research

Stones: Utilizing bacterial factors for kidney stone prevention
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 715 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.158 Author: Ellen F. Carney Colonization of the intestine with Oxalobacter formigenes is associated with a reduced risk of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Now, researcher Hatim Hassan and colleagues show that bioactive factors derived from these probiotic bacteria stimulate oxalate secretion in the distal colon, leading to a reduction (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 31, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Minimal change disease and idiopathic FSGS: manifestations of the same disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 768 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.147 Authors: Rutger J. Maas, Jeroen K. Deegens, Bart Smeets, Marcus J. Moeller & Jack F. Wetzels Minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are the key histological findings in patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). Although MCD and idiopathic FSGS are often considered to represent separate entities based on differences in their presenting characteristics, histology and outcomes, little evidence (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rutger J. Maas Jeroen K. Deegens Bart Smeets Marcus J. Moeller Jack F. Wetzels Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

The impact of insulin resistance on the kidney and vasculature
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 721 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.145 Authors: Ferruh Artunc, Erwin Schleicher, Cora Weigert, Andreas Fritsche, Norbert Stefan & Hans-Ulrich Häring Insulin resistance is a systemic disorder that affects many organs and insulin-regulated pathways. The disorder is characterized by a reduced action of insulin despite increased insulin concentrations (hyperinsulinaemia). The effects of insulin on the kidney and vasculature differ in part from the effects on classical (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ferruh Artunc Erwin Schleicher Cora Weigert Andreas Fritsche Norbert Stefan Hans-Ulrich H äring Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sepsis: Vasopressin: a first-line agent for septic shock?
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 718 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.144 Authors: Jean-Louis Vincent & Emiel H. Post Noradrenaline is the currently recommended first-line vasopressor agent for patients with refractory septic shock. Although vasopressin adjunct therapy might be beneficial, new data from the VANISH trial do not support use of vasopressin as a first-line agent in these patients. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jean-Louis Vincent Emiel H. Post Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Genetics: Genetic factors in the regulation of blood pressure
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 716 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.150 Authors: Nicholette D. Palmer & Barry I. Freedman Three large-scale association studies provide insights into the genetic architecture of blood pressure regulation, identifying new common variants of modest effect and providing insights into the impact of rare and low-frequency variants. The findings suggest that newly identified variants act through indirect disease pathways and suggest targeting of causal networks might improve outcomes in patients with hypertension. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nicholette D. Palmer Barry I. Freedman Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Thrombosis: New mechanism of thrombus formation in CKD
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 715 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.155 Author: Ellen F. Carney Holy et al. suggest that carbamylated (c)LDL promotes thrombus formation in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). They found that LDL isolated from these patients (CKD LDL) had higher levels of carbamylation than LDL from healthy controls. In mice, administration of cLDL or (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Risk factors: Relationship between sodium intake and mortality
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 715 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.154 Author: Ellen F. Carney New data indicate a long-term beneficial effect of reduced sodium intake on mortality. Among the participants of the phase I (n = 744) and phase II (n = 2,382) TOHP sodium reduction trials, the risk of death during a median post-trial (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: Role of platelet activation and NETs in renal IRI
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 715 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.153 Author: Ellen F. Carney Platelet activation and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to renal ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IRI), say researchers. Jansen et al. show that in mice, renal IRI led to activation of platelets in the proximity of necrotic cell casts. The antiplatelet agent clopidogrel (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Kidney cancer: IMPRINT: no survival benefit of IMA901 in RCC
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 715 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.152 Author: Ellen F. Carney The IMPRINT phase III trial shows that combination therapy with the multipeptide cancer vaccine IMA901 plus sunitinib does not improve the survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) over sunitinib alone. In the trial, which included 339 HLA-A*02-positive patients with previously untreated metastatic (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Diabetic nephropathy: A lncRNA and miRNA megacluster in diabetic nephropathy
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 713 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.151 Author: Susan J. Allison Several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy; however, a new report describes the discovery of a large megacluster of nearly 40 miRNAs hosted by a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), which are co-ordinately upregulated in renal cells in response to diabetic (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Diabetic nephropathy: The genetic architecture of DKD in T1DM
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 714 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.149 Author: Ellen F. Carney Evidence of a substantial heritability of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) exists but the genetic background is poorly understood. New data confirm that renal complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are highly heritable and provide insights into the biological mechanisms of DKD.To comprehensively study (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 10, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease: Outcomes of CKD in primary care
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 714 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.148 Author: Susan J. Allison Many studies have assessed the risks associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but few have focused on patients managed in primary care. New findings from a 5-year study indicate that the majority of patients with stage 3 CKD in primary care demonstrate stable renal disease, (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 10, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

The importance of total kidney volume in evaluating progression of polycystic kidney disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 667 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.135 Authors: Jared J. Grantham & Vicente E. Torres The rate at which autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) progresses to end-stage renal disease varies widely and is determined by genetic and non-genetic factors. The ability to determine the prognosis of children and young adults with ADPKD is important for the effective life-long management (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jared J. Grantham Vicente E. Torres Tags: Review Source Type: research

Precision medicine from the renal cancer genome
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 655 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.133 Authors: Yasser Riazalhosseini & Mark Lathrop Genomics is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The advent of unbiased genome-wide association studies has led to the discovery of previously unrecognized genetic predisposing factors that impact an individual's risk of developing RCC. Moreover, large-scale investigations of somatic (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yasser Riazalhosseini Mark Lathrop Tags: Review Source Type: research

Podocyte biology: Dynamic control of actin remodelling
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 650 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.146 Author: Ellen F. Carney Dynamic regulation of the podocyte actin cytoskeleton enables these cells to adapt to changes in their environment and maintain the function of the glomerular filtration barrier. Now Lisa Buvall, Anna Greka and colleagues report that synaptopodin integrates competing signals from upstream tyrosine and serine/threonine pathways (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - October 3, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Fabry disease: A pharmacological chaperone on the horizon
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 653 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.138 Authors: Martina Gaggl & Gere Sunder-Plassmann For more than a decade, enzyme replacement therapy represented the only treatment option for patients with Fabry disease. New findings suggest that a pharmacological chaperone can induce renal substrate clearance, decrease left ventricular mass and improve gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with specific mutations in GLA. (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - September 26, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Martina Gaggl Gere Sunder-Plassmann Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Stones: TNFRs mediate CaOx deposition in hyperoxaluria
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 651 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.143 Author: Ellen F. Carney Tumour necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) have an essential role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition in renal tubules, according to new data from Hans-Joachim Anders and colleagues. These researchers previously found that TNFRs contribute to the induction of tubular epithelial cell necroptosis in oxalate crystal-induced (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - September 26, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ellen F. Carney Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Glomerular disease: Crescents in IgAN
Nature Reviews Nephrology 12, 650 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.141 Author: Susan J. Allison Glomerular crescents are not part of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), as the presence of crescents did not predict outcome in the original Oxford cohort. This initial study excluded patients with severe or rapidly progressive disease; however, subsequent studies that have used less (Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology)
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - September 26, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan J. Allison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research