Potential effects of metformin in DNA BER system based on oxidative status in type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Metformin is used to reduce hyperglycemia that induces energetic stress and leads to reduction in gluconeogenesis. Also, metformin inhibits complex I in oxidative phosphorylation, thereby decreasing cellular ATP levels. Activation of AMPK by the reduced ATP levels can induce inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activate p53-mediated DNA repair. DNA polymerase-β and XRCC1 function to repair DNA damages in the BER (base excision repair) system. In type 2 diabetes patients, metformin can enhance AMPK activation therefore suppress oxidative stress. The changes on oxidative stress ma...
Source: Biochimie - August 8, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dogan Turacli I, Candar T, Yuksel EB, Kalay S, Oguz AK, Demirtas S Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Effect of a C-end rule Modification on Antitumor Activity of Thymosin α1.
Effect of a C-end rule Modification on Antitumor Activity of Thymosin α1. Biochimie. 2018 Aug 07;: Authors: Wang F, Xu C, Peng R, Li B, Shen X, Zheng H, Lao X Abstract Thymosin α1 (Tα1), a hormone containing 28 amino acids, has been approved in several cancer therapies, but the lack of tumor-targeting hinders its full use in tumor treatment. We designed a new peptide by connecting Tα1 and RGDR, generating a product, Tα1-RGDR, where RGDR is located in the C-end with both tumor-homing and cell internalizing properties (C-end rule peptides, a consensus R/KXXR/K motif). Thi...
Source: Biochimie - August 7, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang F, Xu C, Peng R, Li B, Shen X, Zheng H, Lao X Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Irradiation by γ-rays reduces the level of H3S10 phosphorylation and weakens the G2 phase-dependent interaction between H3S10 phosphorylation and γH2AX.
Irradiation by γ-rays reduces the level of H3S10 phosphorylation and weakens the G2 phase-dependent interaction between H3S10 phosphorylation and γH2AX. Biochimie. 2018 Aug 07;: Authors: Bártová E, Lochmanová G, Legartová S, Suchánková J, Fedr R, Krejčí J, Zdráhal Z Abstract Histone posttranslational modifications regulate diverse nuclear functions, including DNA repair. Here, we use mass spectrometry, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and advanced confocal microscopy in order to show radiation-specific changes in the histone si...
Source: Biochimie - August 7, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bártová E, Lochmanová G, Legartová S, Suchánková J, Fedr R, Krejčí J, Zdráhal Z Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

N-terminal phosphorylation of glutaminase C decreases its enzymatic activity and cancer cell migration.
mes Dias SM Abstract The mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase C (GAC) is produced by the alternative splicing of the GLS gene. Compared to the other GLS isoform, the kidney-type glutaminase (KGA), GAC is more enzymatically efficient and of particular importance for cancer cell growth. Although its catalytic mechanism is well understood, little is known about how post-translational modifications can impact GAC function. Here, we identified by mass spectrometry a phosphorylated serine at the GLS N-terminal domain (at position 95) and investigated its role on regulating GAC activity. The ectopic expression o...
Source: Biochimie - August 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rodrigues Ascenção CF, Krishna Nagampalli RS, Islam Z, Pinheiro MP, Menezes Dos Reis L, Pauletti BA, Aparecida de Guzzi Cassago C, Granato DC, Paes Leme AF, Gomes Dias SM Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

The effect of electronic-cigarettes aerosol on rat brain lipid profile.
Abstract The electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, e-cigs) have become the most sought-after alternative to the traditional cigarettes, partly due to the widespread perception of safety. However, the high temperature reached by e-cig solutions can generate toxic compounds, some of which are listed as known human carcinogens. To evaluate the impact of e-cig aerosol on rat brain lipid profile, twenty male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 11 cycles/day (E-cig group), to consume 1 mL/day of e-liquid, for 5 days/week up to 8 weeks. Ten rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks (4w) and ten at the end of treatment (8w). Th...
Source: Biochimie - August 2, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cardenia V, Vivarelli F, Cirillo S, Paolini M, Canistro D, Rodriguez-Estrada MT Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Exploiting the impact of the secretome of MSCs isolated from different tissue sources on neuronal differentiation and axonal growth.
nto L, Salgado AJ Abstract Cell transplantation free-based therapies using Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secretome have recently been presented as a possible for CNS related disorders. MSC secretome is rich in several bio-factors that act synergically towards the repair of damaged tissues, thus making it an ideal candidate for regenerative applications. Great effort is currently being made to map the molecules that compose the MSC secretome. Previous proteomic characterization of the secretome (in the form of conditioned media - CM) of MSCs derived from adipose tissue (ASC), bone-marrow (BMSC) and umbilical cord (HU...
Source: Biochimie - August 2, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Assunção-Silva RC, Mendes-Pinheiro B, Patrício P, Behie L, Teixeira FG, Pinto L, Salgado AJ Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

The multifaceted functions of lipopolysaccharide in plant-bacteria interactions.
Abstract In Gram-negative bacteria, the cell envelope largely consists of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a class of heterogeneous glycolipids. As a fundamental component of the outer membrane, LPS provides stability to the bacterial cell and forms a protective cover shielding it from hostile environments. LPS is not only fundamental to bacterial viability, but also makes a substantial contribution both directly and indirectly to multiple aspects of inter-organismic interactions. During infection of animal and plant hosts, LPS promotes bacterial virulence but simultaneously betrays bacteria to the host immune system. Mo...
Source: Biochimie - August 2, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kutschera A, Ranf S Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Serotonin in stem cell based-dental repair and bone formation: a review.
Abstract Genetic and pharmacological studies provided evidence that serotonin (5-HT) is an important signaling molecule for the development and the maintenance of mineralized tissues. However, how 5-HT takes part to the homeostasis of teeth and bone remains elusive. In the dental field, a major breakthrough comes from the identification of 5-HT but also dopamine (DA) as "damage" signals necessary for stem cell-based tooth repair. Pulpal stem cells express the overall functions of 5-HT and DA neurons including a definite set of functional 5-HT/DA receptors that render cells responsive for circulating bioa...
Source: Biochimie - August 2, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Baudry A, Schneider B, Launay JM, Kellermann O Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

MiR-590-3p Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis by Targeting Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Human Breast Cancer Cells.
In this study, we identified and validated the functional role of miR-590-3p in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231). There was an inverse correlation between the expression of miR-590-3p and its putative target genes, ATF3 and Runx2 in these cells. Overexpression of miR-590-3p decreased the expression of ATF3 and Runx2 at the mRNA and protein levels in MDA-MB231 cells. Luciferase reporter assay identified a direct interaction of 3' UTRs of ATF3 and Runx2 with miR-590-3p in these cells. Overexpression of miR-590-3p also decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Based on our results, we sugges...
Source: Biochimie - August 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rohini M, Gokulnath M, Miranda PJ, Selvamurugan N Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

FOXD3 acts as a repressor of the mitochondrial S-adenosylmethionine carrier (SLC25A26) gene expression in cancer cells.
In this study we show that a silencer activity is present in the region from -756 bp to -504 bp, which specifically binds a protein present in Caski cells nuclear extracts. By in silico analysis, EMSA, ChIP, overexpressing and silencing experiments this protein was identified as FOXD3 which acts as a repressor of SLC25A26 expression. Interestingly, the repressor activity of FOXD3 is completely abolished by treating Caski cells with folate via a mechanism that involves methylation of FOXD3 gene promoter. This finding could have important impact in cancer cells where SLC25A26 is downregulated. Finally, the DPE and INR putati...
Source: Biochimie - August 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Antonia C, Alessio M, Ferdinando P, Vito I Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Cysteine mediated disulfide bond formation in RAGE V domain facilitates its functionally relevant dimerization.
Abstract Receptor for Advanced Glycation End product (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor implicated in diverse pathological conditions such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer and neural diseases. Extracellular, RAGE consists of V, C1 and C2 domains. Here, we show RAGE exists as a monomer in equilibrium with a fraction of a covalently linked dimer of monomers via its V domain through cysteine. In order to understand the functional implication of this dimer, we examined the binding capacity and functional potential of RAGE dimer via advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which shows enhanced binding capacity towards ...
Source: Biochimie - August 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jangde N, Ray R, Sinha S, Rana K, Singh SK, Khandagale P, Acharya N, Rai V Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Variability in lung cancer response to ALK inhibitors cannot be explained by the diversity of ALK fusion variants.
In conclusion, this study revealed that distinct ALK translocation variants render similar clinical responsiveness to ALK inhibitors. PMID: 30071258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - July 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mitiushkina NV, Tiurin VI, Iyevleva AG, Kholmatov MM, Filippova EA, Moiseyenko FV, Levchenko NE, Sardaryan IS, Odintsova SV, Lozhkina AM, Volkov NM, Karaseva NA, Moiseyenko VM, Orlov SV, Imyanitov EN Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Sphingolipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases.
eau N Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involves a panel of pathologies starting with hepatic steatosis and continuing to irreversible and serious conditions like steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocarcinoma. NAFLD is multifactorial in origin and corresponds to abnormal fat deposition in liver. Even if triglycerides are mostly associated with these pathologies, other lipid moieties seem to be involved in the development and severity of NAFLD. That is the case with sphingolipids and more particularly ceramides. In this review, we explore the relationship between NAFLD and sphingolipid metabolism. Aft...
Source: Biochimie - July 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Régnier M, Polizzi A, Guillou H, Loiseau N Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Structure of the monotopic membrane protein (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase at 2.2 Å resolution.
Structure of the monotopic membrane protein (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase at 2.2Å resolution. Biochimie. 2018 Jul 30;: Authors: Sukumar N, Liu S, Li W, Mathews FS, Mitra B, Kandavelu P Abstract The x-ray structure of the monotopic membrane protein (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase (MDH) from Pseudomonas putida reveals an inherent flexibility of its membrane binding segment that might be important for its biological activity. The surface of MDH exhibits a concentration of the positive charges on one side and the negative charges on the other side. The putative membrane binding surface of MDH has a concen...
Source: Biochimie - July 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sukumar N, Liu S, Li W, Mathews FS, Mitra B, Kandavelu P Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

The mycosporine-like amino acids porphyra-334 and shinorine are antioxidants and direct antagonists of Keap1-Nrf2 binding.
Abstract Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UVR-absorbing metabolites typically produced by cyanobacteria and marine algae, but their properties are not limited to direct sun screening protection. Herein, we examine the antioxidant activities of porphyra-334 and shinorine and demonstrate that these MAAs are prospective activators of the cytoprotective Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. The ability of porphyra-334 and shinorine to bind with Keap1 was determined using fluorescence polarization (FP) and thermal shift assays to detect Keap1 receptor antagonism. Concomitantly, the ability of porphyra-334 and shinorine to dissoci...
Source: Biochimie - July 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Gacesa R, Lawrence KP, Georgakopoulos ND, Yabe K, Dunlap WC, Barlow DJ, Wells G, Young AR, Long PF Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

International descriptive and interventional survey for oxycholesterol determination by gas- and liquid-chromatographic methods.
J, Iuliano L, Lagarda MJ, Leoni V, Lottenberg AM, Matysik S, McDonald J, Rideout TC, Schmitz G, Nunes VS, Wang Y, Zerbinati C, Diczfalusy U, Schött HF Abstract Increasing numbers of laboratories develop new methods based on gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography to determine serum concentrations of oxygenated cholesterol metabolites such as 7α-, 24(S)-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol. We initiated a first international descriptive oxycholesterol (OCS) survey in 2013 and a second interventional survey 2014 in order to compare levels of OCS reported by different laboratories and to define possib...
Source: Biochimie - July 28, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lütjohann D, Björkhem I, Friedrichs S, Kerksiek A, Geilenkeuser WJ, Lövgren-Sandblom A, Ansorena D, Astiasarán I, Baila-Rueda L, Barriuso B, Bretillon L, Browne RW, Caccia C, Cenarro A, Crick PJ, Fauler G, Garcia-LLatas G, Griffiths WJ, Iuliano L, Lag Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

S-allyl cysteine as potent anti-gout drug: Insight into the xanthine oxidase inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity.
Abstract S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is known for its various beneficial effects such as neuroprotection and immunomodulation. The beneficial effect of SAC against gout has not been explored. The present study aims to describe the two roles of SAC: (1) inhibitory effect against xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme activity; and (2) anti-inflammatory property against MSU crystal-induced gouty inflammation in rat. The inhibitory effect of SAC against bovine XO enzyme activity was determined in vitro. In silico analysis was carried out to determine the intermolecular interaction between SAC and bovine XO. MSU crystal was injected...
Source: Biochimie - July 27, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Preethi J, Chitra L, Ancy I, Kumaradhas P, Palvannan T Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

A stochastic approach to serotonergic fibers in mental disorders.
ing N Abstract Virtually all brain circuits are physically embedded in a three-dimensional matrix of fibers that release 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin). The density of this matrix varies across brain regions and cortical laminae, and it is altered in some mental disorders, including Major Depressive Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder. We investigate how the regional structure of the serotonergic matrix depends on the stochastic behavior of individual serotonergic fibers and introduce a new framework for the quantitative analysis of this behavior. In particular, we show that a step-wise random walk, based...
Source: Biochimie - July 26, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Janušonis S, Detering N Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Biophysical Characterization of a Recombinant Lipase KV1 from Acinetobacter haemolyticus in Relation to pH and Temperature.
Abstract Spectroscopic and calorimetric methods were employed to assess the stability and the folding aspect of a novel recombinant alkaline-stable lipase KV1 from Acinetobacter haemolyticus under varying pH and temperature. Data on far ultraviolet-circular dichroism of recombinant lipase KV1 under two alkaline conditions (pH 8.0 and 12.0) at 40˚C reveal strong negative ellipticities at 208, 217, 222 nm, implying its secondary structure belonging to a α + β class with 47.3 and 39.0 % ellipticity, respectively. Results demonstrate that lipase KV1 adopts its most stable conformation at pH 8.0 and 40...
Source: Biochimie - July 20, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Batumalaie K, Khalili E, Mahat NA, Huyop F, Wahab RA Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Cloning, purification and characterization of nigrelysin, a novel actinoporin from the sea anemone Anthopleura nigrescens.
, Alvarez C Abstract Actinoporins constitute a unique class of pore-forming toxins found in sea anemones that being secreted as soluble monomers are able to bind and permeabilize membranes leading to cell death. The interest in these proteins has risen due to their high cytotoxicity that can be properly used to design immunotoxins against tumor cells and antigen-releasing systems to cell cytosol. In this work we describe a novel actinoporin produced by Anthopleura nigrescens, an anemone found in the Central American Pacific Ocean. Here we report the amino acid sequence of an actinoporin as deduced from cDNA obtain...
Source: Biochimie - July 20, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Alvarado-Mesén J, Solano-Campos F, Canet L, Pedrera L, Hervis YP, Soto C, Borbón H, Lanio ME, Lomonte B, Valle A, Alvarez C Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Zinc(II) binding on human wild-type ISCU and Met140 variants modulates NFS1 desulfurase activity.
This study therefore identifies an important regulatory role for zinc-bound ISCU in modulation of the human Fe-S assembly system in vitro and reports no 'FXN bypass' effect on mutations at position Met140 in human ISCU. Furthermore, this study also calls for caution in interpreting studies involving recombinant ISCU by taking into consideration the influence of the bound zinc(II) ion on SDAU complex activity. PMID: 30031876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - July 19, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Fox NG, Martelli A, Nabhan JF, Janz J, Borkowska O, Bulawa C, Yue WW Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Induction of peroxisomal changes in oligodendrocytes treated with 7-ketocholesterol: Attenuation by α-tocopherol.
Induction of peroxisomal changes in oligodendrocytes treated with 7-ketocholesterol: Attenuation by α-tocopherol. Biochimie. 2018 Jul 19;: Authors: Nury T, Sghaier R, Zarrouk A, Ménétrier F, Uzun T, Leoni V, Caccia C, Meddeb W, Namsi A, Sassi K, Mihoubi W, Riedinger JM, Cherkaoui-Malki M, Moreau T, Vejux A, Lizard G Abstract The involvement of organelles in cell death is well established especially for endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and mitochondria. However, the role of the peroxisome is not well known, though peroxisomal dysfunction favors a rupture of redox equilibrium. To stu...
Source: Biochimie - July 19, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nury T, Sghaier R, Zarrouk A, Ménétrier F, Uzun T, Leoni V, Caccia C, Meddeb W, Namsi A, Sassi K, Mihoubi W, Riedinger JM, Cherkaoui-Malki M, Moreau T, Vejux A, Lizard G Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Gerli invited minireview Fatty acids and oxidized lipoproteins contribute to autophagy and innate immunity responses upon the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium and development of age-related macular degeneration.
Abstract Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage is a primary sign in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the leading cause of blindness in western countries. RPE cells are exposed to chronic oxidative stress due to constant light exposure, active fatty acid metabolism and high oxygen consumption. RPE cells phagocytosize lipid rich photoreceptor outer segment (POS) which is regulated by circadian rhytmn. Docosahexaenoic acid is present in high quantity in POS and increases oxidative stress, while its metabolites have cytoprotective effects in RPE. During RPE aging, reactive oxygen species and...
Source: Biochimie - July 18, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kaarniranta K, Koskela A, Felszeghy S, Kivinen N, Salminen A, Kauppinen A Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

The impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and their secretome as a treatment for gliomas.
Abstract In recent years, we have witnessed a significant increase in the amount of studies using Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) for cancer therapy, mostly as vectors for drug or gene delivery strategies. This is because of their intrinsic capacity of homing into tumor niches. However, the interactions between MSCs themselves and tumor cells is not fully understood, with contradictory results frequently being observed regarding their effects on cancer cell invasion and proliferation. This poses an important question of safety in respect to the application of these cells. The source of the MSC population used, as we...
Source: Biochimie - July 18, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Gomes ED, Vieira de Castro J, Costa BM, Salgado AJ Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

27-hydroxycholesterol decreases cell proliferation in colon cancer cell lines.
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most diagnosed cancer in the western world, affecting 1 out of approximately 22 people in their lifetime. Several epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between high plasma cholesterol levels and colorectal cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol may alter the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) are ill-defined as the cholesterol lowering drugs statins do not appear to decrease a patient's risk of developing colorectal cancer. Cholesterol is metabolized to active derivatives including cholesterol oxidization products (COP), known as o...
Source: Biochimie - July 13, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Warns J, Marwarha G, Freking N, Ghribi O Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Caloric restriction can affect one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy in the rat: A transgenerational model.
Abstract One-carbon metabolism is critical to pregnancy outcomes, because it determines the availability of nutrients involved in cell divisions and DNA methylation. The aim of this study was to analyze how 50% prenatal calorie restriction affected one-carbon metabolism in pregnant Wistar rats of the F0 to F2 generations. Mean choline (p
Source: Biochimie - July 12, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chmurzynska A, Mlodzik MA, Radziejewska A, Szwengiel A, Malinowska AM, Nowacka-Woszuk J Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

7 β-hydroxycholesterol-induced cell death, oxidative stress, and fatty acid metabolism dysfunctions attenuated with sea urchin egg oil.
7β-hydroxycholesterol-induced cell death, oxidative stress, and fatty acid metabolism dysfunctions attenuated with sea urchin egg oil. Biochimie. 2018 Jul 09;: Authors: Zarrouk A, Ben Salem Y, Hafsa J, Sghaier R, Charfeddine B, Limem K, Hammami M, Majdoub H Abstract Some oxysterols resulting either from enzymatic oxidation or autoxidation of cholesterol are associated with age-related diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. Among these oxysterols, 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC) is often found at increased levels in patients. It is therefore important to identify molecules or mixt...
Source: Biochimie - July 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zarrouk A, Ben Salem Y, Hafsa J, Sghaier R, Charfeddine B, Limem K, Hammami M, Majdoub H Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

G-quadruplex Virtual Drug Screening: A Review.
Abstract Over the past two decades biologists and bioinformaticians have unearthed substantial evidence supporting a role for G-quadruplexes as important mediators of biological processes. This includes telomere damage signaling, transcriptional activity, and splicing. Both their structural heterogeneity and their abundance in oncogene promoters makes them ideal targets for drug discovery. Currently, there are hundreds of deposited DNA and RNA quadruplex atomic structures which have allowed researchers to begin using in silico drug screening approaches to develop novel stabilizing ligands. Here we provide a review...
Source: Biochimie - June 29, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Monsen RC, Trent JO Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Oleanolic acid improves diet-induced obesity by modulating fat preference and inflammation in mice.
Abstract Obesity, triggered by high-fat diet (HFD), is associated to altered gustatory perception of dietary lipids. Oleanolic acid (OLA), a triterpene, has been reported to exert anti-obesity effects in animal models. Hence, we investigated the role of OLA in the modulation of oro-sensory perception of lipids in control and HFD-induced obese mice. As expected, OLA-treated obese mice exhibited a decrease in body, liver, and visceral adipose tissue weights. OLA treatment improved glucose tolerance, insulin level, plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. OLA-treated o...
Source: Biochimie - June 29, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Djeziri FZ, Belarbi M, Murtaza B, Hichami A, Benammar C, Khan NA Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A- a possible regulator in glucose homeostasis and germ cell kinetics in adult mice testes.
This study, therefore, examined role of OXA/OX1R system in regulation of glucose homeostasis in adult mouse testis under in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Binding of OXA to OX1R was blocked using an OX1R antagonist, SB-334867. Mice were given a single bilateral intratesticular injection of the antagonist at doses of 4 and 12μg/mouse and sacrificed 24 h post-injection. In order to understand the direct role of OXA in testes of adult mice, an ex vivo experiment was performed where binding of OXA to OX1R in the testis was blocked by using the same OX1R antagonist. The antagonist treatment affected testicular glucose and la...
Source: Biochimie - June 29, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Joshi D, Sarkar D, Singh SK Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

From the Ca2+-activated F1FO-ATPase to the mitochondrial permeability transition pore: an overview.
Abstract Based on recent advances on the Ca2+-activated F1FO-ATPase features, a novel multistep mechanism involving the mitochondrial F1FO complex in the formation and opening of the still enigmatic mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), is proposed. MPTP opening makes the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) permeable to ions and solutes and, through cascade events, addresses cell fate to death. Since MPTP forms when matrix Ca2+ concentration rises and ATP is hydrolyzed by the F1FO-ATPase, conformational changes, triggered by Ca2+ insertion in F1, may be transmitted to FO and locally modify the IMM curv...
Source: Biochimie - June 28, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nesci S, Trombetti F, Ventrella V, Pagliarani A Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

A new xanthatin analogue 1 β-hydroxyl-5α-chloro-8-epi-xanthatin induces apoptosis through ROS-mediated ERK/p38 MAPK activation and JAK2/STAT3 inhibition in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect and underlying mechanisms of XTT on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Firstly, XTT inhibited the cell growth and induced apoptosis in human HCC cells, which was associated with the induction of Bax and cleaved-caspase-3, inhibition of Bcl-2 and survivin expression. Importantly, XTT induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and depletion of glutathione (GSH) in HCC cells through covalently modification of GSH. Furthermore, XTT caused obvious activation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 mito...
Source: Biochimie - June 27, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Fang XY, Zhang H, Zhao L, Tan S, Ren QC, Wang L, Shen XF Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

The role of the retinal pigment epithelium and M üller cells secretome in neovascular retinal pathologies.
The role of the retinal pigment epithelium and Müller cells secretome in neovascular retinal pathologies. Biochimie. 2018 Jun 27;: Authors: Araújo RS, Santos DF, Silva GA Abstract Secreted trophic factors are key to maintain the structural and functional integrity of the retina, as they regulate cellular pathways responsible for survival, function, and response to injury. Nevertheless, these same factors can also be involved in retinal pathologies, as a consequence of the impairment of the secretory function of cells. The cells considered as major contributors to the retinal secretome are ...
Source: Biochimie - June 27, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Araújo RS, Santos DF, Silva GA Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Integration of the human exposome with the human genome to advance medicine.
Abstract Identifying precise and predictive biomarkers of health and disease is a critical objective of clinical biochemistry and biomedical research. New concepts and technologies have emerged recently that could support such an objective. The exposome corresponds to the totality of exposure over the lifetime. Research in this field allowed the development of sensors and biological biomarkers using omics technologies that are relevant for predicting the effect of those exposure on human health. Precision medicine has primarily focused on adapting treatments to the genetic profiles of tumors, when in fact, it had ...
Source: Biochimie - June 27, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: R B, K A, X C, F D, D G Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Identification of 7 α,24-Dihydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic and 7α,25-Dihydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic Acids in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma.
Identification of 7α,24-Dihydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic and 7α,25-Dihydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic Acids in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma. Biochimie. 2018 Jun 27;: Authors: Abdel-Khalik J, Crick PJ, Yutuc E, DeBarber AE, Duell PB, Steiner RD, Laina I, Wang Y, Griffiths WJ Abstract Dihydroxyoxocholestenoic acids are intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis. Here, using liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry, we confirm the identification of 7α,24-dihydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic and 7α,25-dihydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic acids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) based...
Source: Biochimie - June 27, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Abdel-Khalik J, Crick PJ, Yutuc E, DeBarber AE, Duell PB, Steiner RD, Laina I, Wang Y, Griffiths WJ Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Apn1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is recruited to the nucleotide incision repair pathway: kinetic and structural features.
Abstract Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Apn1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as a key player of the base excision DNA repair (BER) pathway in yeast. BER is initiated by DNA glycosylases, whereas Apn1 can start DNA repair individually in the nucleotide incision repair (NIR) pathway. The aim of this research was to elucidate kinetic and structural dynamic aspects of Apn1 involvement in the NIR process. One of the key characteristics of AP endonuclease's interactions is known to be divalent metal ions playing a part of a cofactor. Well-studied human APE1 employs Mg2+ ions, with metal ion concentration's affe...
Source: Biochimie - June 26, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dyakonova ES, Koval VV, Lomzov AA, Ishchenko AA, Fedorova OS Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Dihydrodipicolinate synthase is absent in fungi.
We report the characterization of DHDPS candidates from fungi. Firstly, the putative DHDPS from Coccidioides immitis (PDB ID: 3QFE) was shown to have negligible enzyme activity. Sequence analysis of 3QFE showed that three out of the seven amino acid residues critical for DHDPS activity are absent; however, exact matches to catalytic residues from two other class I aldolases, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate aldolase (KDGA), and 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase (HOGA), were identified. The presence of both KDGA and HOGA activity in 3QFE was confirmed in vitro using enzyme assays, the first report of such dual activity. Subsequent a...
Source: Biochimie - June 26, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Desbois S, John UP, Perugini MA Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

LncRNA THOR attenuates cisplatin sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via enhancing cells stemness.
Abstract The roles and mechanisms of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells stemness and chemotherapeutic sensitivity are unclear. Here, Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the lncRNA THOR expression in NPC and normal adjacent tissues, adherent NPC cells and non-adherent NPC spheres, and we found that THOR was significantly increased in NPC tissues and non-adherent NPC spheres. Further in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out and identified that knockdown of THOR attenuated NPC cells stemness, characterized as the decrease of spheres formation abilit...
Source: Biochimie - June 26, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ling GAO, Xiu-Lian CHENG, Hua CAO Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

A cross-talk between fat and bitter taste modalities.
Abstract The choice of food is governed largely by the sense of taste. To date, five basic taste modalities have been described; however, there is an increasing agreement on the existence of a 6th fat taste. The taste modalities might interact with each other and also with other senses. The advancements in cellular and molecular biology have helped the characterization of taste signaling mechanisms, down to the receptor level and beyond. CD36 and GPR120 have been shown to be involved in the detection of fat taste while bitter taste is perceived by a number of receptors that belong to a family of taste-type 2 recep...
Source: Biochimie - June 21, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Khan AS, Murtaza B, Hichami A, Khan NA Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Serotonin and human cancer: a critical view.
Abstract Besides its classical functions as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, local mediator in the gastrointestinal tract and vasoactive agent in the blood, serotonin has more recently emerged as a growth factor for human tumor cell lines of different origins (carcinomas, glioma and carcinoids). Several data are also available on serotonin involvement in cancer cell migration, metastatic dissemination and tumor angiogenesis. The serotonin-induced signaling pathways that promote tumor progression are complex and only partly understood in some cancer types. The results of several studies showed that...
Source: Biochimie - June 21, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sarrouilhe D, Mesnil M Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Experimental human endotoxemia as a model of systemic inflammation.
Abstract Systemic inflammation plays a pivotal role in a multitude of conditions, including sepsis, trauma, major surgery and burns. However, comprehensive analysis of the pathophysiology underlying this systemic inflammatory response is greatly complicated by variations in the immune response observed in critically ill patients, which is a result of inter-individual differences in comorbidity, comedication, source of infection, causative pathogen, and onset of the inflammatory response. During experimental human endotoxemia, human subjects are challenged with purified endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) intravenously ...
Source: Biochimie - June 21, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: van Lier D, Geven C, Leijte GP, Pickkers P Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Corticoids modulate liposome membrane fluidity and permeability depending on membrane composition and experimental protocol design.
Abstract Given that literature data may give inconsistent results on the effect of a drug on lipid membrane properties, this work aims to investigate the impact of the liposome composition and experimental protocol design on glucocorticoids (GRs: cortisol, cortisone, fludrocortisone acetate, methylprednisolone, prednisolone and prednisone)-modulating membrane fluidity and permeability. GRs-loaded liposomes consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol (CHOL) were prepared by reverse phase evaporation technique (REV) at DPPC:CHOL:GR molar ratios of 100:100:2.5, and 100:100:10. The formulations...
Source: Biochimie - June 20, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kaddah S, Khreich N, Kaddah F, Khrouz L, Charcosset C, Greige-Gerges H Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Predictive metabolic signatures of end-stage renal disease: a multivariate analysis of population-based data.
es RD Abstract The variability of molecular signatures and predictive low molecular weight markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in different populations are poorly understood. Thus, in a large sample with 4763 people we compare the molecular signatures and metabolites with diagnostic relevance in plasma and urine of CKD patients of different geographical origins. From an integrated model based on dynamic networks and multivariate statistics, metabolites with predictive value obtained from targeted and untargeted molecular analysis, interactions between metabolic pathways affected by CKD, and the methodological ...
Source: Biochimie - June 15, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Silva RE, Baldim JL, Chagas-Paula DA, Soares MG, Lago JHG, Gonçalves RV, Novaes RD Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase-ligand binding assay based on tryptophan fluorescence quenching.
Abstract Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (GTase) of family 51 are essential enzymes for the synthesis of the glycan chains of the bacterial cell wall. They are considered potential antibacterial target, but discovery of inhibitors was hampered so far by the lack of efficient and affordable screening assay. Here we used Staphylococcus aureus MtgA to introduce a single tryptophan reporter residue in selected positions flanking the substrates binding cavity of the protein. We selected a mutant (Y181W) that shows strong fluorescence quenching in the presence of moenomycin A and two lipid II analogs inhibitors. The ...
Source: Biochimie - June 14, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dahmane I, Montagner C, Matagne A, Dumbre S, Herdewijn P, Terrak M Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Serotonin in the gut: Blessing or a curse.
Abstract Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) once most extensively studied as a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, is seen to be predominantly secreted in the gut. About 95% of 5-HT is estimated to be found in gut mainly within the enterochromaffin cells whereas about 5% is found in the brain. 5-HT is an important enteric signaling molecule and is well known for playing a key role in sensory-motor and secretory functions in the gut. In recent times studies uncovering various new functions of gut-derived 5-HT indicate that many more are yet to be discovered in coming days. Recent studies revealed t...
Source: Biochimie - June 14, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Banskota S, Ghia JE, Khan WI Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

SUMO1/sentrin/SMT3 specific peptidase 2 modulates target molecules and its corresponding functions.
Abstract Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMOylation) is a reversible post-translational modification, which plays important roles in numerous biological processes. SUMO could be covalently attached to target proteins in an isopeptide bond manner that occurs via a lysine ε-amino group on the target proteins and the glycine on SUMO C-terminus. This covalent binding could affect the subcellular localization and stability of target proteins. SUMO modification can be reversed by members of the Sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs) family, which are highly evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human. SENP2, a...
Source: Biochimie - June 13, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liu SL, Gao FH Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Screening and characterization of a Annenix A2 binding aptamer that inhibits the proliferation of myeloma cells.
Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell disease and is considered incurable. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is closely related to the proliferation and adhesion of MM. Using protein-SELEX, we performed a screen for aptamers that bind GST-ANXA2 from a library, and GST protein was used for negative selection. The enrichment of the ssDNA pool was monitored by filter-binding assay during selection. After nine rounds of screening and high-throughput sequencing, we obtained six candidate aptamers that bind to the ANXA2 protein. The affinities of the candidate aptamers for ANXA2 were determined by ELONA. Binding of...
Source: Biochimie - June 12, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhou W, Zhang Y, Zeng Y, Peng M, Li H, Sun S, Ma B, Wang Y, Ye M, Liu J Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Implication of oxysterols in chronic inflammatory human diseases.
Abstract A growing bulk of evidence suggests that cholesterol oxidation products, known as oxysterols, are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of major chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammatory bowel disease. Oxysterols are involved in various key steps of these complex processes, mainly thanks to their ability to act through up-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell toxicity. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the effects induced by these compounds on cells, after their accumulation in the arterial wall, brain, and intestine. This evidence...
Source: Biochimie - June 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Testa G, Rossin D, Poli G, Biasi F, Leonarduzzi G Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Emerging fields in chaperone proteins: a French workshop.
est O Abstract The "Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines (BIP)" laboratory, CNRS (France), organized its first French workshop on molecular chaperone proteins and protein folding in November 2017. The goal of this workshop was to gather scientists working in France on chaperone proteins and protein folding. This initiative was a great success with excellent talks and fruitful discussions. The highlights were on the description of unexpected functions and posttranslational regulation of known molecular chaperones (such as Hsp90, Hsp33, SecB, GroEL) and on state-of-the-art...
Source: Biochimie - June 8, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mileo E, Ilbert M, Barducci A, Bordes P, Castanié-Cornet MP, Garnier C, Genevaux P, Gillet R, Goloubinoff P, Ochsenbein F, Richarme G, Iobbi-Nivol C, Giudici-Orticoni MT, Gontero B, Genest O Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Substituted Phosphonic Analogues of Phenylglycine as Inhibitors of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase from Potatoes.
Abstract A series of phosphonic acid analogues of phenylglycine variously substituted in phenyl ring have been synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity towards potato L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase. Most of the compounds appeared to act as moderate (micromolar) inhibitors of the enzyme. Analysis of their binding performed using molecular modeling have shown that they might be bound either in active site of the enzyme or in the non-physiologic site. The latter one is located in adjoining deep site nearby the to the entrance channel for substrate into active site. PMID: 29890205 [PubMed - as suppl...
Source: Biochimie - June 8, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wanat W, Talma M, Hurek J, Pawełczak M, Kafarski P Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research