Serotonin in retina.
Abstract The expression of serotonin (5-HT) in the retina was first reported in the sixties. The detection of vesicular monoamine transporter and serotonin receptors in several retinal cells confirm that 5-HT is playing a neuromodulatory role in this structure. Whereas signaling pathways activated by 5-HT receptor binding has been poorly investigated so far, numerous data demonstrated that 5-HT is involved in retinal physiology, retinal physiopathology and photoreceptor survival. PMID: 30419260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - November 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Masson J Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

The cell secretome in personalized and regenerative medicine.
PMID: 30419261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - November 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Salgado A, Gimble J, Costa B Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

A novel uORF-based regulatory mechanism controls translation of the human MDM2 and eIF2D mRNAs during stress.
Abstract Short upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are the most prevalent cis-acting regulatory elements in the mammalian transcriptome which can orchestrate mRNA translation. Apart from being "passive roadblocks" that decrease expression of the main coding regions, particular uORFs can serve as specific sensors for changing conditions, thus regulating translation in response to cell stress. Here we report a novel uORF-based regulatory mechanism that is employed under conditions of hyperosmotic stress by at least two human mRNAs, coding for translation reinitiation/recycling factor eIF2D and E3 ubiquiti...
Source: Biochimie - November 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Akulich KA, Sinitcyn PG, Makeeva DS, Andreev DE, Terenin IM, Anisimova AS, Shatsky IN, Dmitriev SE Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

A secondary structure within a human piRNA modulates its functionality.
Abstract The piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, mostly 24-32 nucleotides in length. The piRNAs are not known to have any conserved secondary structure or sequence motifs. Using bioinformatics analysis, we discovered the presence of putative G-quadruplex (GQ) forming sequences in human piRNAs. We studied human piR-48164/piR-GQ containing potential GQ forming sequence and using biochemical and biophysical techniques confirmed its ability to form a GQ. Using EMSA, we discovered that formation of GQ structure led to inhibition of the piRNA binding to HIWI-PAZ domain as well as complementary base...
Source: Biochimie - November 8, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Balaratnam S, Hettiarachchilage M, West N, Piontkivska H, Basu S Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Role of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene mutations in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer; current status and perspectives.
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of solid tumors in the world with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Most cases of CRCs are initiated by inactivating mutations in a tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), leading to constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. This review summarizes the roles of somatic and germline mutations of the APC gene in hereditary as well as sporadic forms of CRC. We also discuss the diagnostic and prognostic value of the APC gene in the pathogenesis of CRC for a better understanding of CRC disease. PMID: 30414835 [PubMed ...
Source: Biochimie - November 8, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Aghabozorgi AS, Bahreyni A, Soleimani A, Bahrami A, Khazaei M, Ferns GA, Avan A, Hassanian SM Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Virus-like nanoparticles as a novel delivery tool in gene therapy.
Abstract Viruses are considered as natural nanomaterials as they are in the size range of 20 to 500 nm with a genetical material either DNA or RNA, which is surrounded by a protein coat capsid. Recently, the field of virus nanotechnology is gaining significant attention among researchers. Attention is given to the utilization of viruses as a nanomaterial for medical, biotechnology and energy applications. Removal of genetic material from the viral capsid creates empty capsid for drug incorporation and coating the capsid protein crystals with antibodies, enzymes or aptamers will enhance their targeted drug deliver ...
Source: Biochimie - November 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jeevanandam J, Pal K, Danquah MK Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Cytotoxic action of acetate on tumor cells of thymic origin: Role of MCT-1, pH homeostasis and altered cell survival regulation.
Abstract Neoplastic cells display altered biosynthetic and bioenergetic machinery to support cell survival. Therefore, cancer cells optimally utilize all available fuel resources to pump their highly upregulated metabolic pathways. While glucose is the main carbon source, transformed cells also utilize other molecules, which can be utilized in metabolic pathways, designated as alternative fuels. Acetate is one of such alternative metabolic fuels, which is mainly consumed in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, studies demonstrate the contradictory effects of acetate on tumor cell survival. Moreover, the mec...
Source: Biochimie - October 31, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pandey SK, Yadav S, Goel Y, Singh SM Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Silencing of LncRNA Steroid Receptor RNA Activator attenuates polycystic ovary syndrome in Mice.
CONCLUSION: Silencing of lncRNA Steroid Receptor RNA Activator (SRA) attenuates polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in mice. LncRNA SRA plays important roles in the development of PCOS. PMID: 30391287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - October 31, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Li Y, Zhao W, Wang H, Chen C, Zhou D, Li S, Zhang X, Zhao H, Zhou D, Chen B Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Subatomic structure of hyper-sweet thaumatin D21N mutant reveals the importance of flexible conformations for enhanced sweetness.
Abstract One of the sweetest proteins found in tropical fruits (with a threshold of 50 nM), thaumatin, is also used commercially as a sweetener. Our previous study successfully produced the sweetest thaumatin mutant (D21N), designated hyper-sweet thaumatin, which decreases the sweetness threshold to 31 nM. To investigate why the D21N mutant is sweeter than wild-type thaumatin, we compared the structure of the D21N mutant solved at a subatomic resolution of 0.93 Å with that of wild-type thaumatin determined at 0.90 Å. Although the overall structure of the D21N mutant resembles that of wild-type thaumati...
Source: Biochimie - October 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Masuda T, Okubo K, Murata K, Mikami B, Sugahara M, Suzuki M, Temussi PA, Tani F Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Autoantibody against arrestin-1 as a potential biomarker of renal cell carcinoma.
Abstract Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the second-most common uronephrological cancer. In the absence of specific symptoms, early diagnosis of RCC is challenging. Monitoring of the aberrant expression of tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) and related autoantibody response is considered as a novel approach of RCC diagnostics. The aim of this study was to examine the aberrant expression of arrestin-1 in renal tumours, to investigate the possible epigenetic mechanism underlying arrestin-1 expression, and to assess the frequency of anti-arrestin-1 autoantibody response. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the prese...
Source: Biochimie - October 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Baldin AV, Grishina AN, Korolev DO, Kuznetsova EB, Golovastova MO, Kalpinskiy AS, Alekseev BY, Kaprin AD, Zinchenko DV, Savvateeva LV, Varshavsky VA, Zernii EY, Vinarov AZ, Bazhin AV, Philippov PP, Zamyatnin AA Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Mo-CBP3-PepI, Mo-CBP3-PepII, and Mo-CBP3-PepIII are synthetic antimicrobial peptides active against human pathogens by stimulating ROS generation and increasing plasma membrane permeability.
Abstract The efficiency of current antimicrobial drugs is noticeably decreasing and thus the development of new treatments is necessary. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted great attention as promising candidates. Inspired on Mo-CBP3, an antimicrobial protein from Moringa oleifera seeds, we designed and synthesized three AMPs named Mo-CBP3-PepI, Mo-CBP3-PepII, and Mo-CBP3-PepIII. All these three peptides inhibited the growth of Candida species and pathogenic bacteria, penetrate into microbial cells, but none is hemolytic or toxic to human cells. Mo-CBP3-PepIII, particularly, showed t...
Source: Biochimie - October 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Oliveira JTA, Souza PFN, Vasconcelos IM, Dias LP, Martins TF, Van Tilburg MF, Guedes MIF, Sousa DOB Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Thermal Denaturation Profile: A Straightforward Signature to Characterize Parallel G-quadruplexes.
Abstract G-quadruplexes (G4s) are fascinating non-canonical nucleic acid structures that attract broad attention due to their vital roles in gene expression and various applications. G4s exhibit high structural polymorphism and high resolution techniques (NMR, Crystallography) are often required to unambiguously determine G4 topology. Fast and handy techniques such as UV and CD provide interesting structural information. Here, we monitored the thermal denaturation profiles (TDPs) of various G4s at different wavelengths by UV, and confirmed that all G4 topologies (parallel, antiparallel and hybrid) exhibited hyperc...
Source: Biochimie - October 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang Y, Chen J, Ju H, Zhou J Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

3D structure of the natural tetrameric form of human butyrylcholinesterase as revealed by cryoEM, SAXS and MD.
Abstract Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an endogenous bioscavenger that hydrolyzes numerous medicamentous and poisonous esters and scavenges potent organophosphorus nerve agents. BChE is thus a marker for the diagnosis of OP poisoning. It is also considered a therapeutic target against Alzheimer's disease. Although the X-ray structure of a partially deglycosylated monomer of human BChE was solved 15 years ago, all attempts to determine the 3D structure of the natural full-length glycosylated tetrameric human BChE have been unsuccessful so far. Here, a combination of three complementary structural met...
Source: Biochimie - October 29, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Boyko KM, Baymukhametov TN, Chesnokov YM, Hons M, Lushchekina SV, Konarev PV, Lipkin AV, Vasiliev AL, Masson P, Popov VO, Kovalchuk MV Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Secretome proteins regulate comparative osteogenic and adipogenic potential in bone marrow and dental stem cells.
CONCLUSION: Our study provides first evidence regarding regulation of osteogenic/adipogenic potential by secretome proteins in DMSC and BMSC. DMSC especially DPSC and its secretome show an inherent tendency for higher osteogenic differentiation and lower adipogenic differentiation, these may be potential candidates for effective future therapy in osteoporosis where disturbance of osteocyte/adipocyte homeostasis is reported. PMID: 30367923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - October 24, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kumar A, Kumar V, Rattan V, Jha V, Bhattacharyya S Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Bacterial ribosome heterogeneity: Changes in ribosomal protein composition during transition into stationary growth phase.
Abstract Ribosomes consist of many small proteins and few large RNA molecules. Both components are necessary for ribosome functioning during translation. According to widely accepted view, bacterial ribosomes contain always the same complement of ribosomal proteins. Comparative bacterial genomics data indicates that several ribosomal proteins are encoded by multiple paralogous genes suggesting structural heterogeneity of ribosomes. In E. coli, two r-proteins bL31 and bL36 are encoded by two genes: rpmE and ykgM encode bL31 protein paralogs bL31A and bL31B, and rpmJ and ykgO encode bL36 protein paralogs bL36A and b...
Source: Biochimie - October 22, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lilleorg S, Reier K, Pulk A, Liiv A, Tammsalu T, Peil L, Cate JHD, Remme J Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of Tat-ATOX1 protein against MPP+-induced SH-SY5Y cell deaths and in MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
In this study, we determined whether Tat-ATOX1 could protect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+)-induced SH-SY5Y cell death and in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced animal model of PD. In the MPP+ exposed SH-SY5Y cells, Tat-ATOX1 markedly inhibited cell death and toxicities. In addition, Tat-ATOX1 markedly suppressed the activation of Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as well as cleavage of caspase-3 and Bax expression levels. In a MPTP-induced animal model, Tat-ATOX1 transduced into brain and protected dopaminergic neuronal cell loss. Taken together, Tat-ATOX1 inhibit...
Source: Biochimie - October 20, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Eum WS, Shin MJ, Lee CH, Yeo HJ, Yeo EJ, Choi YJ, Kwon HJ, Kim DS, Kwon OS, Lee KW, Han KH, Park J, Kim DW, Choi SY Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

High altitude mediated skeletal muscle atrophy: Protective role of curcumin.
Abstract Chronic hypobaric hypoxia induced muscle atrophy results in decreased physical performance at high altitude. Curcumin has been shown to have muscle sparing effects under cachectic conditions. However, the protective effects of curcumin under chronic hypobaric hypoxia have not been studied till now. Therefore, the present study aims at evaluating the effects of curcumin administration on muscle atrophy under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Control (C)-normoxia exposed, Control Treated (CT)-normoxia exposed and administered with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg...
Source: Biochimie - October 19, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chaudhary P, Sharma YK, Sharma S, Singh SN, Suryakumar G Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

LncRNA ANRIL promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation in uric acid nephropathy through miR-122-5p/BRCC3 axis.
This study is designed to explore the mechanism by which long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) plays a pathogenic role in uric acid nephropathy (UAN). The expressions of ANRIL, miR-122-5p, BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 (BRCC3) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) were determined in UAN patients and uric acid-treated HK-2 cells by qRT-PCR. Protein levels of BRCC3 and NLRP3 were examined by western blot. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were quantified by ELISA. CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell viability. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double-labeled...
Source: Biochimie - October 19, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hu J, Wu H, Wang D, Yang Z, Dong J Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Epigenetics in the early divergent eukaryotic Giardia duodenalis: an update.
uz RM Abstract Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that usually parasitizes the small intestine of humans and many other vertebrates causing diarrheal disease throughout the world. Notably, Giardia despite minimization of most cellular systems shows different strategies to adapt to environmental conditions, evade the immune system and resist exposure to antimicrobial agents. Over the past years, epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been shown to have a relevant role in the parasite's biology. Interestingly, analysis of the Giardia genome revealed the presence of enzymes...
Source: Biochimie - October 18, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lagunas-Rangel FA, Bermúdez-Cruz RM Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Ferrochelatase activity of plant frataxin.
Abstract Frataxin plays a key role in cellular iron homeostasis of different organisms. It is engaged in several activities at the Fe-S cluster assembly machinery and it is also involved in heme biosynthesis. In plants, two genes encoding ferrochelatases (FC1 and FC2) catalyze the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin IX in the last stage of heme synthesis in chloroplasts. Despite ferrochelatases are absent from other cell compartments, a remaining ferrochelatase activity has been observed in plant mitochondria. Here we analyze the possibility that frataxin acts as the iron donor to protoporphyrin IX for the s...
Source: Biochimie - October 17, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Armas AM, Balparda M, Terenzi A, Busi MV, Pagani MA, Gomez-Casati DF Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Influence of Passage Number on the Impact of the Secretome of Adipose Tissue Stem Cells on Neural Survival, Neurodifferentiation and Axonal Growth.
Salgado AJ Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and within them adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs), have been shown to have therapeutic effects on central nervous system (CNS) cell populations. Such effects have been mostly attributed to soluble factors, as well as vesicles, present in their secretome. Yet, little is known about the impact that MSC passaging might have in the secretion therapeutic profile. Our aim was to show how human ASCs (hASCs) passage number influences the effect of their secretome in neuronal survival, differentiation and axonal growth. For this purpose, post-natal rat hippocampal ...
Source: Biochimie - October 17, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Serra SC, Costa JC, Assunção-Silva RC, Teixeira FG, Silva NA, Anjo SI, Manadas B, Gimble J, Behie LA, Salgado AJ Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Stabilization of miRNAs in esophageal cancer contributes to radioresistance and limits efficacy of therapy.
Abstract The five-year survival rate of esophageal cancer patients is less than 20%. This may be due to increased resistance (acquired or intrinsic) of tumor cells to chemo/radiotherapies, often caused by aberrant cell cycle, deregulated apoptosis, increases in growth factor signaling pathways, and/or changes in the proteome network. In addition, deregulation in non-coding RNA-mediated signaling pathways may contribute to resistance to therapies. At the molecular level, these resistance factors have now been linked to various microRNA (miRNAs), which have recently been shown to control cell development, differenti...
Source: Biochimie - October 13, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Malhotra A, Sharma U, Puhan S, Chandra Bandari N, Kharab A, Arifa PP, Thakur L, Prakash H, Vasquez KM, Jain A Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Activation of catalase via co-administration of aspirin and pioglitazone: Experimental and MLSD simulation approaches.
Abstract Aspirin (ASP) and pioglitazone (PGL) are the most common drugs that are widely used by diabetic patients to control the blood sugar and hinder cardiovascular diseases. The interaction between PGL and ASP is one of the important medical issues to clarify the safety of co-administration of these drugs. In the present study, the effect of co-administered ASP with PGL was investigated on the structure and catalytic function of catalase as a potential target in the liver. Based on our data, co-administration of ASP-PGL significantly enhanced the catalase activity in comparison with PGL alone. However, ASP does...
Source: Biochimie - October 13, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Panahi Y, Yekta R, Dehghan G, Rashtbari S, Jafari NJ, Moosavi-Movahedi AA Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Self-association and folding in membrane determine the mode of action of peptides from the lytic segment of sticholysins.
This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the permeabilizing activity of Sts N-terminal derived peptides, with connotation for the exploitation of these small molecules as alternative of the full-length toxins in clinical settings. PMID: 30326255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - October 13, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ros U, Carretero GPB, Paulino J, Crusca E, Pazos F, Cilli EM, Lanio ME, Schreier S, Alvarez C Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Fragmentation of Escherichia coli mRNA by MazF and MqsR.
ldalu N Abstract MazEF and MqsRA are toxin-antitoxin systems, where the toxins MazF and MqsR sequence-specifically cleave single-stranded RNA, thereby shutting down protein synthesis and cell growth. However, it has been proposed that MazF functions in a highly specific pathway, where it truncates the 5' ends of a set of E. coli transcripts (the MazF regulon), which are then translated under stress conditions by specialized ribosomes. We mapped the cleavage sites of MazF and MqsR throughout the E. coli transcriptome. Our results show that both toxins cleave mRNA independently of the recognition site position and M...
Source: Biochimie - October 10, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mets T, Kasvandik S, Saarma M, Maiväli Ü, Tenson T, Kaldalu N Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Lysines residing in putative small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) motifs regulate fate and function of 37 KDa Laminin Receptor.
We report an inability to detect 67 LR formation, suggesting that SUMOylation does not appear to directly occur at the lysine residues proposed. However, the work revealed that these lysine mutations still appear to be important and can impact the fate and function for 37 LR, for example impairing half-life and steady state pre-mRNA levels. These results suggest that the Lys residues within putative SUMO motifs in 37 LR may indirectly coordinate with SUMO pathways. PMID: 30315854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - October 10, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Umbaugh CS, Figueiredo ML Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

α-Lipoic acid and Amlodipine/Perindopril combination potentiate the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells on Isoproterenol induced cardiac injury in rats.
In conclusion, the concomitant administration of ALA and AP after BM-MSCs infusion increases the cellular antioxidant levels of cardiac tissue that improves the repairing function of BM-MSCs. PMID: 30308238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - October 8, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Abd El-Fattah AI, Zaghloul MS, Eltablawy NA, Rashed LA Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

MiR-650 regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human oral cancer by targeting Growth factor independent 1 (Gfi1).
Abstract Oral cancer being one of the lethal cancers is generally detected at advanced stages and causes significant mortality world over. The unavailability of the reliable biomarkers and therapeutic targets/agents forms a bottleneck in the treatment of oral cancer. MicroRNAs are considered of immense therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer. Consistently, in this study the role and therapeutic potential of miR-650 was explored in oral cancer. The analysis of miR-650 expression by qRT-PCR revealed significant (p
Source: Biochimie - October 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ningning S, Libo S, Chuanbin W, Haijiang S, Qing Z Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Tocopherol suppresses 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol-induced cell death via inhibition of CaMKII phosphorylation.
Abstract Although 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) plays an important role to maintain homeostasis of cholesterol in the brain, it induces neuronal cell death at high concentrations. 24S-OHC-induced cell death was suppressed by γ-tocopherol (γ-Toc) but not by γ-tocotrienol (γ-Toc3) in a similar way to α-tocopherol (α-Toc) and α-tocotrienol (α-Toc3) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Both γ-Toc and γ-Toc3 significantly inhibited cumene hydroperoxide-induced cell death, as previously shown in the case of α-Toc and α-Toc3. Lipid droplet-like...
Source: Biochimie - September 26, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kimura Y, Asa M, Urano Y, Saito Y, Nishikawa K, Noguchi N Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Insulinotropic activity of the host-defense peptide frenatin 2D: conformational, structure-function and mechanistic studies.
Abstract Of four naturally occurring frenatin peptides tested, frenatin 2D (DLLGTLGNLPLPFI.NH2) from Discoglossus sardus was the most potent and effective in producing concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells without displaying cytotoxicity. The peptide also stimulated insulin release from 1.1B4 human-derived clonal β-cells and isolated mouse islets and improved glucose tolerance concomitant with increased circulating insulin concentrations in mice following intraperitoneal administration. The insulinotropic activity of frenatin 2D was not associated with m...
Source: Biochimie - September 19, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Musale V, Guilhaudis L, Abdel-Wahab YHA, Flatt PR, Conlon JM Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Nucleic acid aptamers in diagnosis of colorectal cancer.
Abstract Nucleic acid aptamers are promising recognition ligands for diagnostic applications. They are short DNA or RNA molecules isolated from large random libraries through the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) procedure. These molecules, with a particular three-dimensional shape, bind to a wide range of targets from small molecules to whole cells with high affinity and specificity. The unique properties of nucleic acid aptamers including high binding affinity and specificity, thermostability, ease of chemical production, ease of chemical modification, target adaptability, simple ...
Source: Biochimie - September 19, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ahmadyousefi Y, Malih S, Mirzaee Y, Saidijam M Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Thermodynamics of the fourU RNA thermal switch derived from molecular dynamics simulations and spectroscopic techniques.
Abstract Bacterial 5' untranslated regions of mRNA, termed thermal switches or thermometers, change their structure in response to temperature change. This structural change provides for the regulation of gene expression. One of such thermal switches, called fourU, is present in the Salmonella species. Mutations of fourU were found to abrogate its regulatory properties. We investigated the thermodynamics of the fourU fragment responsible for its structural changes. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations at various temperatures and spectroscopic experiments in solution were performed for the wild-type fourU and it...
Source: Biochimie - September 19, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Leonarski F, Jasiński M, Trylska J Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

ARL3 subcellular localization and its suspected role in autophagy.
In this study, we explored ARL3 subcellular localization in an all-round way in HEK293T, Neuro-2A and U251 cells by density gradient centrifugation and immunofluorescence. The results showed that ARL3 is expressed in most of organelles, and an iodixonal step gradient was further confirmed that ARL3 is mainly localized to the mitochondria, endosomes, lysosomes, and proteasome. By molecular functional analysis, we observed that ARL3 promotes the aggregation of GFP-LC3, up-regulation of LC3-II/LC3-I and down-regulation of SQSMT1/BECN1, and knocking down of ARL3 inbibits autophagy, which suggested that ARL3 is necessary for au...
Source: Biochimie - September 15, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Luo G, Sun Y, Feng R, TieqiaoWen QZ Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Elucidating paramylon and other carbohydrate metabolism in Euglena gracilis: Kinetic characterization, structure and cellular localization of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.
Abstract Many oligo and polysaccharides (including paramylon) are critical in the Euglena gracilis life-cycle and they are synthesized by glycosyl transferases using UDP-glucose as a substrate. Herein, we report the molecular cloning of a gene putatively coding for a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EgrUDP-GlcPPase) in E. gracilis. After heterologous expression of the gene in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme was characterized structural and functionally. Highly purified EgrUDP-GlcPPase exhibited a monomeric structure, able to catalyze synthesis of UDP-glucose with a Vmax of 3,350 U.mg-1. Glucose-1P and UTP w...
Source: Biochimie - September 14, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Muchut RJ, Calloni RD, Herrera FE, Garay SA, Arias DG, Iglesias AA, Guerrero SA Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Paeonol attenuates ligation-induced periodontitis in rats by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis via regulating Nrf2/NF- κB/NFATc1 signaling pathway.
Paeonol attenuates ligation-induced periodontitis in rats by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis via regulating Nrf2/NF-κB/NFATc1 signaling pathway. Biochimie. 2018 Sep 10;: Authors: Li J, Li Y, Pan S, Zhang L, He L, Niu Y Abstract Paeonol is a natural phenolic compound in Moutan Cortex with multiple biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Recent evidence has proven that persistent inflammation, oxidative stress, along with nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling dysfunction in periodontium are the possible causes of alveolar bone resorption, and ultimate...
Source: Biochimie - September 10, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Li J, Li Y, Pan S, Zhang L, He L, Niu Y Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

1-Naphthyl acetate: a chromogenic substrate for the detection of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity.
Abstract Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a preferred biomarker for the detection of organophosphorus poisoning. Acetylthiocholine (ATCh) is the most popular substrate for the detection of AChE activity. However, oximolysis is a prominent feature with ATCh. In this context, we have searched alternative substrates for AChE using in silico tools for screening of a better substrate. The in silico approach was performed to understand the fitness and the Total Interaction Energy (TIE) of substrates for AChE. The alternative substrates for AChE were screened in terms of high Goldscore and favorable TIE in comp...
Source: Biochimie - September 7, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chowdhary S, Bhattacharyya R, Banerjee D Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Structure basis of the improved sweetness and thermostability of a unique double-sites single-chain sweet-tasting protein monellin (MNEI) mutant.
Abstract The sweet protein monellin has an intensely sweet potency but limited stability. We have identified a double-sites mutant (E2N/E23A) of the single-chain monellin (MNEI) with both improved sweetness (about 3-fold) and thermostability (10 °C). However, the structural basis of its superior properties remains elusive until now. Herein we report its crystal structure at a resolution 1.90 Å. Similar to the wild-type, E2N/E23A adopts a wedge-shaped structure consisting of a five-strand β-sheet partially "wrapped" around an α-helix. However, distinguishing parts were present in ...
Source: Biochimie - September 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhao M, Xu X, Liu B Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Identification of a novel member of 2H phosphoesterases, 2',5'-oligoadenylate degrading ribonuclease from the oyster Crassostrea gigas.
Abstract Several genes of IFN-mediated pathways in vertebrates, among them the genes that participate in the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)/RNase L pathway, have been identified in C. gigas. In the present study, we identified genes, which encode proteins having 2',5'-oligoadenylate degrading activity in C. gigas. These proteins belong to the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily and have sequence similarity to the mammalian A kinase anchoring protein 7 (AKAP7) central domain, which is responsible for the 2',5'-phosphodiesterase (2',5'-PDE) activity. Comparison of the genomic structures of C. gigas proteins with t...
Source: Biochimie - September 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lopp A, Reintamm T, Kuusksalu A, Olspert A, Kelve M Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

SELEX methods on the road to protein targeting with nucleic acid aptamers.
Abstract Systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is an efficient method used to isolate high-affinity single stranded oligonucleotides from a large random sequence pool. These SELEX-derived oligonucleotides named aptamer, can be selected against a broad spectrum of target molecules including proteins, cells, microorganisms and chemical compounds. Like antibodies, aptamers have a great potential in interacting with and binding to their targets through structural recognition and are therefore called "chemical antibodies". However, aptamers offer advantages over antibodies including...
Source: Biochimie - September 4, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bayat P, Nosrati R, Alibolandi M, Rafatpanah H, Abnous K, Khedri M, Ramezani M Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Biological relevance of double lipoxygenase products of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially within blood vessels and brain.
rde M Abstract The double lipoxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is possible with PUFA having at least three methylene-interrupted double bonds. Several PUFA of the omega-3/n-3 and -6 families may be converted through this route, and the products show interesting inhibitory effects on blood platelet function and cyclooxygenase activities. This review focuses on two main omega-3 PUFA of nutritional interest, namely docosahexaenoic acid (DHA/22:6n-3) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA/18:3n-3). The chemical configuration of the double lipoxygenase end-product from DHA (protectin DX) is compared with that of...
Source: Biochimie - September 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Guichardant M, Véricel E, Lagarde M Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

HAMSCs/HBMSCs coculture system ameliorates osteogenesis and angiogenesis against glucolipotoxicity.
In conclusion, the current coculture system of HAMSCs/HBMSCs can be a potential therapeutic material for advancing bone and vascular regeneration against DM-induced glucolipotoxicity. PMID: 30103897 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - August 15, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang C, Du Y, Yuan H, Jiang F, Shen M, Wang Y, Wang R Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Glucagon-Like peptide-1: A new therapeutic target to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm?
Abstract Recent antidiabetic drugs including GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-IV inhibitors have demonstrated protective effects in several cardiovascular diseases but their effect in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is far less known. AAA can be associated with extremely high rates of mortality and pharmacological treatments are still lacking underlining the real need to identify new therapeutic targets. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge on the role of GLP-1 pathway in AAA. A systematic literature review was performed and 6 relevant studies (2 clinical and 4 experimental) were included. Expe...
Source: Biochimie - August 15, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Raffort J, Chinetti G, Lareyre F Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

In  vitro and in silico studies of naphthoquinones and peptidomimetics toward Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V.
In vitro and in silico studies of naphthoquinones and peptidomimetics toward Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V. Biochimie. 2018 Sep;152:159-173 Authors: Sittikul P, Songtawee N, Kongkathip N, Boonyalai N Abstract Plasmodium proteases play both regulatory and effector roles in essential biological processes in this important pathogen and have long been investigated as drug targets. Plasmepsin V from P. falciparum (PfPMV) is an essential protease that processes proteins for export into the host erythrocyte and is a focus of ongoing drug development efforts. In the present study, recombinant p...
Source: Biochimie - August 15, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sittikul P, Songtawee N, Kongkathip N, Boonyalai N Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

FasL on the surface of Tag7 (PGRP-S)-activated lymphocytes induces necroptosis in HLA-negative tumor cells with the involvement of lysosomes and mitochondria.
Abstract Recently we have found that cytokine IL-2 and innate immunity protein Tag7 activate cytotoxic lymphocytes that kill HLA-negative tumor cells, inducing both apoptosis and necroptosis. Here we decrypt the processes, taking part in necroptosis execution after FasL-Fas interaction. Necroptosis begins with RIPK1 activation and necrosome formation. Subsequent activation of MLKL results in the increase of Ca2+ level in the cell and activation of Ca2+-dependent enzymes causing lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the release of cathepsins to the cytosol. STAT3 translocation to the mitochondria and binding to a...
Source: Biochimie - August 15, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sharapova TN, Romanova EA, Sashchenko LP, Yashin DV Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

CYP46A1 protects against NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity in Huntington's disease: analysis of lipid raft content.
This study highlights the beneficial role of CYP46A1 against NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity and gives further insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying CYP46A1-mediated neuroprotection. PMID: 30107216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimie)
Source: Biochimie - August 11, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Boussicault L, Kacher R, Lamazière A, Vanhoutte P, Caboche J, Betuing S, Potier MC Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Exploring receptor selectivity of the chimeric relaxin family peptide R3/I5 by incorporating unnatural amino acids.
Abstract Relaxin family peptides perform a variety of biological functions by activating four G protein-coupled receptors, namely RXFP1-4. Our recent study demonstrated that selectivity of the chimeric relaxin family peptide R3/I5 towards the homologous RXFP3 and RXFP4 can be modulated by replacement of the highly conserved nonchiral B23Gly or B24Gly with some natural L-amino acids. To investigate the mechanism of this modulating effect, in the present study we incorporated unnatural amino acids into the B23 or B24 position of a semi-synthetic R3/I5 that was prepared by a novel sortase-catalysed ligation approach ...
Source: Biochimie - August 10, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang JH, Hu MJ, Zhang L, Shao XX, Lv CH, Liu YL, Xu ZG, Guo ZY Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

A chronic LPS-induced low-grade inflammation fails to reproduce in lean mice the impairment of preference for oily solution found in diet-induced obese mice.
Abstract Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with a decreased oral fat detection in rodents. This alteration has been explained by an impairment of the lipid-mediated signaling in taste bud cells (TBC). However, factors responsible for this defect remain elusive. Diet rich in saturated fatty acids is known to elicit a metabolic inflammation by promoting intestinal permeation to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Gram-negative bacteria-derived endotoxins. To determine whether a local inflammation of the gustatory tissue might explain the obese-induced impairment of the oro-sensory detection of lipids, mice were subjec...
Source: Biochimie - August 10, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bernard A, Ancel D, Passilly-Degrace P, Landrier JF, Lagrost L, Besnard P Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Potential effects of metformin in DNA BER system based on oxidative status in type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Metformin is used to reduce hyperglycemia that induces energetic stress and leads to reduction in gluconeogenesis. Also, metformin inhibits complex I in oxidative phosphorylation, thereby decreasing cellular ATP levels. Activation of AMPK by the reduced ATP levels can induce inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activate p53-mediated DNA repair. DNA polymerase-β and XRCC1 function to repair DNA damages in the BER (base excision repair) system. In type 2 diabetes patients, metformin can enhance AMPK activation therefore suppress oxidative stress. The changes on oxidative stress ma...
Source: Biochimie - August 8, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dogan Turacli I, Candar T, Yuksel EB, Kalay S, Oguz AK, Demirtas S Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Effect of a C-end rule Modification on Antitumor Activity of Thymosin α1.
Effect of a C-end rule Modification on Antitumor Activity of Thymosin α1. Biochimie. 2018 Aug 07;: Authors: Wang F, Xu C, Peng R, Li B, Shen X, Zheng H, Lao X Abstract Thymosin α1 (Tα1), a hormone containing 28 amino acids, has been approved in several cancer therapies, but the lack of tumor-targeting hinders its full use in tumor treatment. We designed a new peptide by connecting Tα1 and RGDR, generating a product, Tα1-RGDR, where RGDR is located in the C-end with both tumor-homing and cell internalizing properties (C-end rule peptides, a consensus R/KXXR/K motif). Thi...
Source: Biochimie - August 7, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang F, Xu C, Peng R, Li B, Shen X, Zheng H, Lao X Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Irradiation by γ-rays reduces the level of H3S10 phosphorylation and weakens the G2 phase-dependent interaction between H3S10 phosphorylation and γH2AX.
Irradiation by γ-rays reduces the level of H3S10 phosphorylation and weakens the G2 phase-dependent interaction between H3S10 phosphorylation and γH2AX. Biochimie. 2018 Aug 07;: Authors: Bártová E, Lochmanová G, Legartová S, Suchánková J, Fedr R, Krejčí J, Zdráhal Z Abstract Histone posttranslational modifications regulate diverse nuclear functions, including DNA repair. Here, we use mass spectrometry, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and advanced confocal microscopy in order to show radiation-specific changes in the histone si...
Source: Biochimie - August 7, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bártová E, Lochmanová G, Legartová S, Suchánková J, Fedr R, Krejčí J, Zdráhal Z Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research