Microbiome: The first 1,000 days

In the United States and other developed countries, we have seen a shift over the past several decades in the types of illness people struggle with. Public health campaigns around vaccination, sanitation, and judicious use of antibiotics have largely eradicated many infectious illnesses. As the nature of disease has shifted to inflammatory conditions, we’ve seen a striking increase in allergy and autoimmune conditions such as diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and multiple sclerosis. The microbiome — the varied and teeming colonies of gut bacteria inside of us — may be helping to drive this shift. What is the microbiome? Colonization occurs within the first two years of life. It passes through stages: some exposure in utero occurs with bacteria from the mother’s intestine passing through the placenta into amniotic fluid. Major colonization begins with delivery, when the fetus either passes through the birth canal or is born by cesarean section. Each mode of delivery produces a different colonization pattern. Colonization is further affected by diet (breast milk vs. formula) and weaning to solid foods. Maternal illness during pregnancy and infant illness with the use of antibiotics can disrupt the process. With complete colonization at two years of life, each individual has a unique signature of billions of organisms residing principally in their colon. The nature of colonizing bacteria differs based on geographic location in...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Digestive Disorders Family Planning and Pregnancy Inflammation Probiotics Source Type: blogs

Related Links:

Conclusions: The constantly increasing prevalence of NAFLD in the general population can contribute to a growing role of NAFLD/NASH in HCC epidemiology. Moreover, some particular challenges specific for patients with liver steatosis may impede proper HCC diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. PMID: 31631714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Although consumption of a WPND was associated with a larger estimated GV in this pilot study, a larger study is necessary to conclude whether patients must fast longer than 2 hours after consumption of a WPND. PMID: 31630511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Minerva Anestesiologica - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Minerva Anestesiol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In elderly individuals with T1DM, we found associations between dLOC and cognition overall and in men but not women. Underlying sex differences should be considered in future research or interventions on psychosocial characteristics for cognition. PMID: 31633555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
Conclusion: The presentation of PPCRA has been sporadic in the majority of cases. Inflammatory and hereditary origins have been anecdotally cited. Our young patient showed concurrent presentation of inflammatory and hereditary origin of PPCRA. We suggest that a careful investigation of systemic inflammation should be done in children with suggestive extraocular symptoms in the setting of PPCRA. PMID: 31631731 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ophthalmic Genetics - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Ophthalmic Genet Source Type: research
We report a case of a child with congenital NDI. PMID: 31630706 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
This study aims to verify if clinical parameters, such as waist circumference and/or body mass index and biohumoral and inflammatory parameters can help predict cardiac structural and functional alterations, through an echocardiogram test in obese children and adolescents. Children were prospectively enrolled at the AUOC outpatients' department of Emergency Paediatrics, University Hospital, Messina, from June to December 2017. Clinical, metabolic parameters and an inflammation marker (HMGB1) were evaluated and a transthoracic echocardiogram was carried out. Twenty-two obese subjects were prospectively enrolled.HMGB1 values...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
This study was designed to examine the effects of a prebiotic compound on the immune system, digestive tract histology, and stress physiology of shrimp. The specific effects of dietary supplementation of the prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS or GTGOS) on shrimp health are scarce. This experiment, therefore attempted to evaluate the effects of GOS on growth, survival, intestinal microbiota, stress resistance and immune responses of Pacific white shrimp, Litopaneous vannamei. Over a 35-day trial, shrimps were fed diets, 15 times a day using automated feeder, supplemented with GOS at 0%, 0.25%, and 0.40% by weight. Shrimp...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research
This study evaluates the effects of different gum extraction methods on the mucoadhesive strengths of Abelmoschus esculentus (AE) and Irvingia gabonensis (IG) gums and the release of vaccine antigen in vaccine-gum formulations. AE and IG gums were extracted employing previously documented methods with acetone or sodium chloride (NaCl) and either oven-dried or freeze-dried. Gum extracts were analyzed for mucoadhesive strengths using a modified rotational cylinder method on animal mucosa. The time taken to detach from the mucosa was taken as the Peak Adhesion Time (PAT). The gum extracts were charged with Peste des petits ru...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research
Authors: Mustafa A, Buentello A, Gatlin D, Lightner D, Hume M, Lawrence A Abstract The present study investigated the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary supplements on stress, immune response, gut microbiota, growth, and survivability of three different treatment groups of Pacific white shrimp, Litopaneous vennamei, cultured in a recirculating system. The experiment was conducted over a 35-day trial period. Shrimps were fed diets, 15 times a day using automated feeder, supplemented with GOS at 0%, 0.15%, and 0.30% by weight. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that ...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research
In this study, an efficient pattern-join based algorithm is proposed to discover network motif in biological networks. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the transcription regulatory network of Escherichia coli and the protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The running time of the proposed algorithm outperforms most of the existing algorithms to discover large motifs.
Source: IET Systems Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
More News: Allergy | Allergy & Immunology | Autoimmune Disease | Babies | Blogging | Celiac Disease | Cesarean Section | Child Development | Children | Coeliac Disease | Diabetes | Diabetes Type 1 | Diets | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Endocrinology | Environmental Health | Gastroenteritis | Gastroenterology | Harvard | Health | Inflammatory Bowel Disease | International Medicine & Public Health | Milk | Multiple Sclerosis | Nutrition | Obesity | Pregnancy | Primary Care | Probiotics | Sports Medicine | USA Health | Vaccines | Vegetables