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Not all astrocytes in the brain are the same, study finds

From afar, the billions of stars in our galaxy look indistinguishable, just as the billions of star-shaped astrocytes in our brains appear the same as each other. But UCLA researchers have now revealed that astrocytes, a type of brain cell that supports and protects neurons, aren ’t all the same. While stars might be categorized by their size, age and heat, the supportive brain cells vary when it comes to shape, molecular machinery and functioning.The findings,published today in the journal  Neuron, should make it easier for researchers to study how astrocytes relate to disease, or to develop drugs that aim to target small subsets of astrocytes, said Baljit Khakh, a UCLA professor of physiology and neurobiology and the study’s senior author.“For 50 years, the textbooks have said that astrocytes everywhere in the brain are largely identical,” Khakh said. “We’ve now discovered that astrocytes in different circuits in the brain are different, and we’ve developed a comprehensive toolkit to explore astrocyte biology and diversity. ”Unlike neurons, astrocytes in the brain don ’t directly process information, store memories or control the body’s movements. Instead, astrocytes — which have been described as glue-like — are known to compose the blood-brain barrier, give the brain structure, carry nutrients to neurons, and regulate the concentration of certain molecu les between neurons. They also play a ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis of 20,605 patients who participated in large RCTs demonstrate improved MBG scores and ST segment resolution>50% with aspiration thrombectomy compared to PCI alone, but no differences in mortality, reinfarction, TVR and stroke rates at 30 days. Our study supports the latest ACC/AHA/SCAI focused update document that recommends against the routine use of aspiration thrombectomy during primary PCI. PMID: 29241844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Tags: Hellenic J Cardiol Source Type: research
Authors: Reinsch M, Weinberger F Abstract Myocardial infarction leads to an irreversible loss of vital myocardial cells. The transplantation of new cardiomyocytes into the heart was first described over 20 years ago and represents a straightforward approach to remuscularize a damaged heart. Due to the lack of human cells a clinical application seemed ambitious; however, dramatic progress in stem cell biology over the last two decades has paved the way towards a clinical application. This is especially important as the prognosis for patients with terminal heart failure is still poor. The transpla...
Source: Herz - Category: Cardiology Tags: Herz Source Type: research
Authors: Baba Y, Higashi M, Awai K Abstract Transcatheter arterial or venous embolization has been widely used to address solid tumors by occluding the tumor-feeding vessels. It is also performed to treat portosystemic shunts and to stop bleeding by repair of the site of trauma. Commonly used embolic materials are gelatin sponges, coils, beads, and liquid agents such as absolute ethanol, histoacyryl, and onyx. In the field of interventional radiology, embolotherapy is performed routinely. Liquid embolization agents have different characteristics. Their coagulation time, the inflammatory reaction of the vascular wal...
Source: Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies - Category: Surgery Tags: Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol Source Type: research
By SHANNON HALLOWAY &MELISSA KALENSKY A patient walked into clinic wearing only a hospital gown, feet bare and EKG wires trailing. Just hours after having surgery, his dementia had prompted him to wander out of the hospital and walk two miles to proudly show off his new surgical scar to a familiar face. Physically unharmed, his heart was easy to fix but his memory was beyond repair. Though the road to a cure has long seemed insurmountable, dementia advocates have recently found reason to celebrate. Scientists announced this week the development of a new tool that may help identify people who are prone to Alzheimer&rsqu...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Alzheimer's Dementia prevention Source Type: blogs
Authors: Saito T, Tamura M, Chernov MF, Ikuta S, Muragaki Y, Maruyama T Abstract Aggressive resection of intracranial gliomas has a positive impact on patients' prognosis, but is associated with a risk of neurological complications. For preservation of brain functions and avoidance of major postoperative morbidity various methods of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring have been introduced into clinical practice. At present, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are u...
Source: Progress in Neurological Surgery - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Prog Neurol Surg Source Type: research
Dr. Tara Narula joins "CBS This Morning: Saturday" to discuss a new study that shows why those without traditional heart disease risk factors may still be susceptible to heart attacks and stroke and how mandatory screening for critical congenital heart disease in infants affected death rates.
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Aceto P, Sollazzi L PMID: 29239158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Minerva Anestesiologica - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Minerva Anestesiol Source Type: research
Authors: Savoia G, Scibelli G PMID: 29239157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Minerva Anestesiologica - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Minerva Anestesiol Source Type: research
Do patients require "escorts" or "carers" for discharge following day surgery and office based anesthesia? Both sides of the debate explored. Minerva Anestesiol. 2017 Dec 13;: Authors: Mason KP, Burkle CM Abstract Over the past few years, there has been a rapid rise in office-based procedures, out of hospital and day surgery procedures, particularly as an effort to combat the escalating costs of hospital- based services. Coincident with this burgeoning demand for office based anesthesia, is the accompanying increased risk of anesthesia and sedation-related complications. In the 1990...
Source: Minerva Anestesiologica - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Minerva Anestesiol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: There are situations during laparoscopic surgery where a better communication between surgeon and anesthesiologist may improve patient's outcome. Moreover, clinical research has now to identify which additional procedures and type of patients may benefit most from this new deep block concept and ultimately, whether the implementation of a routine deep neuromuscular block may affect patient's outcome. PMID: 29239154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Minerva Anestesiologica - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Minerva Anestesiol Source Type: research
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