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Not all astrocytes in the brain are the same, study finds

From afar, the billions of stars in our galaxy look indistinguishable, just as the billions of star-shaped astrocytes in our brains appear the same as each other. But UCLA researchers have now revealed that astrocytes, a type of brain cell that supports and protects neurons, aren ’t all the same. While stars might be categorized by their size, age and heat, the supportive brain cells vary when it comes to shape, molecular machinery and functioning.The findings,published today in the journal  Neuron, should make it easier for researchers to study how astrocytes relate to disease, or to develop drugs that aim to target small subsets of astrocytes, said Baljit Khakh, a UCLA professor of physiology and neurobiology and the study’s senior author.“For 50 years, the textbooks have said that astrocytes everywhere in the brain are largely identical,” Khakh said. “We’ve now discovered that astrocytes in different circuits in the brain are different, and we’ve developed a comprehensive toolkit to explore astrocyte biology and diversity. ”Unlike neurons, astrocytes in the brain don ’t directly process information, store memories or control the body’s movements. Instead, astrocytes — which have been described as glue-like — are known to compose the blood-brain barrier, give the brain structure, carry nutrients to neurons, and regulate the concentration of certain molecu les between neurons. They also play a ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Authors: Ponz de Leon M, Pedroni M, Pezzi A, Sulce B, Roncucci L, Domati F, Rossi G, Reggiani Bonetti L Abstract OBJECTIVE: Mutation carriers (Mut+) in DNA mismatch repair genes are predisposed to cancer of various organs and to adenomatous polyps; however, they may remain asymptomatic and cancer or polyp-free for several years. We purposed to analyse the clinical follow-up of individuals carrying constitutional mutations in the MLH1, MSH2 or MSH6 genes who were unaffected by benign polyps or malignant tumours at diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mut + subjects (n.81) were members of Lynch syndrome...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
In this study, we have shown that the lipid chaperones FABP4/FABP5 are critical intermediate factors in the deterioration of metabolic systems during aging. Consistent with their roles in chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in young prediabetic mice, we found that FABPs promote the deterioration of glucose homeostasis; metabolic tissue pathologies, particularly in white and brown adipose tissue and liver; and local and systemic inflammation associated with aging. A systematic approach, including lipidomics and pathway-focused transcript analysis, revealed that calorie restriction (CR) and Fabp4/5 deficiency result ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Dysesthesia is a painful, itchy sensation, often associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Learn more about the symptoms and types here.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Multiple Sclerosis Source Type: news
I apologize if this is repetitive in the anesthesia forums...tried to find a similar thread. Just wondering if anyone has called or emailed a program they're interested in if they have not yet received an interview. Do you think its better to email or call? also, who do you talk to? the coordinator - i'd imagine this is who you'd talk to if you called. who is best to contact? especially if its via email and you can directly contact the program director or someone like that.... email or call program for interview?
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: forums
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017 Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Arezoo Gowhari Shabgah, Jamshid Gholizadeh Navashenaq, Omid Gohari Shabgah, Hamed Mohammadi, Amirhossein Sahebkar Interleukin-22 (IL22) is one of the members of IL10 family. Elevated levels of this cytokine can be seen in diseases caused by T lymphocytes, such as Psoriasis, Rheumatoid arthritis, interstitial lung diseases. IL22 is produced by different cells in both innate and acquired immunities. Different types of T cells are able to produce IL22, but the major IL22-producing T-cell is the TCD4. TH22 cell is a new line of TCD4 cell...
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Spasticity is a common and potentially debilitating complication that develops after stroke, arising in approximately 30% of patients.
Source: PM and R - Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Source Type: research
This study aimed to examine (1) the relationship between brain glucose metabolism as measured by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and anosognosia in patients with MCI and AD and (2) the predictive utility of anosognosia in patients with MCI for later conversion to AD, even when controlling for other factors, including gender, education, apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier status, dementia severity, and cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: Data for 1,062 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database (2003 to August 2015) classified as having AD (n = 191) or MC...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Most patients started fasting too early preoperatively, consequently withholding food and oral fluids for longer than recommended. An increased awareness regarding complications of unnecessarily long fasting times, and interventions to correct this problem, is required. PMID: 29022538 [PubMed - in process]
Source: South African Medical Journal - Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research
By STEVE FINDLAY If you had illusions, or hopes, that the “Kill Obamacare” reality show starring Donald Trump would settle down to a dull roar, events of the last few days should blow those illusions out of the water. You’ve heard the news by now and I won’t repeat it here.   In addition to your favorite media outlets, see this analysis by ACA legal expert Tim Jost. Trump has been true to his word and his warnings of the last few months—that if Congress didn’t repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act he’d resort to regulatory and executive branch action. The words of th...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: blogs
By STEVE FINDLAY If you had illusions, or hopes, that the “Kill Obamacare” reality show starring Donald Trump would settle down to a dull roar, events of the last few days should blow those illusions out of the water. You’ve heard the news by now and I won’t repeat it here.   In addition to your favorite media outlets, see this analysis by ACA legal expert Tim Jost. Trump has been true to his word and his warnings of the last few months—that if Congress didn’t repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act he’d resort to regulatory and executive branch action. The words of th...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: blogs
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