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Not all astrocytes in the brain are the same, study finds

From afar, the billions of stars in our galaxy look indistinguishable, just as the billions of star-shaped astrocytes in our brains appear the same as each other. But UCLA researchers have now revealed that astrocytes, a type of brain cell that supports and protects neurons, aren ’t all the same. While stars might be categorized by their size, age and heat, the supportive brain cells vary when it comes to shape, molecular machinery and functioning.The findings,published today in the journal  Neuron, should make it easier for researchers to study how astrocytes relate to disease, or to develop drugs that aim to target small subsets of astrocytes, said Baljit Khakh, a UCLA professor of physiology and neurobiology and the study’s senior author.“For 50 years, the textbooks have said that astrocytes everywhere in the brain are largely identical,” Khakh said. “We’ve now discovered that astrocytes in different circuits in the brain are different, and we’ve developed a comprehensive toolkit to explore astrocyte biology and diversity. ”Unlike neurons, astrocytes in the brain don ’t directly process information, store memories or control the body’s movements. Instead, astrocytes — which have been described as glue-like — are known to compose the blood-brain barrier, give the brain structure, carry nutrients to neurons, and regulate the concentration of certain molecu les between neurons. They also play a ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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A SIMPLE scan can accurately predict whether someone will suffer a potentially fatal stroke.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
STROKE risk could be predicted after experts developed a new and potentially life-saving MRI scan.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
ConclusionsThe predictive value of demonstrable SUI in symptomatically continent women undergoing vaginal prolapse repair is limited. Urodynamics added no value. The twenty‐eight percent POSUI risk must be balanced against the increased complication risk if a prophylactic midurethral sling is considered.
Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL CLINICAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine can effectively reduce the release of inflammatory factors in patients that received the radical resection of gastric cancer, and the anti-inflammation effect may be exerted through downregulating the expression of NF-κB. Besides, dexmedetomidine can also alleviate the reduction in subgroups of CD3+ and CD4+, thereby ameliorating the impaired immune functions. PMID: 28829488 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
HEART attacks or strokes could be prevented by scanning people's brains for signs of stress, according to new research.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Ochiumi Y, Suzuki Y, Oba Y Abstract A 70-year-old man, who had undergone the placement of an endovascular aneurysm repair graft for an abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years previously, presented to our facility with the separation of a left iliac stent-graft limb from the main-body stent-graft, resulting in a type III endoleak. An attempt was made to repair the disconnected stent-graft limb with endovascular intervention. An extension stent-graft was successfully deployed using a pulled-through technique to connect the main-body stent-graft with the disconnected stent-graft limb. Endovascular intervention may ...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Authors: Fierini F, Poggesi A, Pantoni L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leukoaraiosis (LA) is one of the neuroimaging features of cerebral small vessel disease and is associated with poor long-term prognosis. Areas covered: This narrative review focuses on the predictive role of LA on the evolution of the ischemic brain damage and on the clinical outcome in the subacute phase of stroke and in the short-term period afterwards. Expert commentary: In acute stroke, LA is associated with a less favorable fate of brain infarct and is a marker of increased risk of thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic transformation. The impaired cerebra...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
Using slow-resorbing biosynthetic mesh, rather than macroporous synthetic polypropylene mesh, for open ventral hernia repair may yield higher rates of surgical-site infections, surgical-site complications requiring intervention, and reoperation within 30 days.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: General Surgery News Source Type: news
Abstract Ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis (KIC) initially damaged the bladder mucosa and induced contracted bladder thereafter. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid; HA) instillation to the bladder has been used to treat KIC. The present study investigated bladder injury by urothelial defect and HA degeneration and bladder repair by urothelium proliferation and differentiation. This work was based on the hypothesis that HA treatment altered the bladder urothelial layer and the expression of hyaluronan-metabolizing enzymes and/or HA receptors in KIC. Cystometrogram study and tracing analysis of voiding behavior revealed...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research
Back in 400 B.C., Hippocrates wrote, “Eating alone will not keep a man well. He must also exercise.” But only 20 percent of Americans get the recommended 150 minutes of strength and cardiovascular physical activity per week, and 80 million Americans are entirely inactive. A recent Time magazine cover story examined the new science of exercise and how it can be used as medicine for even the sickest patients. Time’s Mandy Oaklander writes, “If there were a drug that could do for human health everything that exercise can, it would likely be the most valuable pharmaceutical ever developed...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Alternative and Nutritional Supplements Depression Exercise & Fitness Habits Mental Health and Wellness Research Self-Help active lifestyle Cardio Depressive Episode Fitness Training Mood Disorder working out Source Type: blogs
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