Not all astrocytes in the brain are the same, study finds

From afar, the billions of stars in our galaxy look indistinguishable, just as the billions of star-shaped astrocytes in our brains appear the same as each other. But UCLA researchers have now revealed that astrocytes, a type of brain cell that supports and protects neurons, aren ’t all the same. While stars might be categorized by their size, age and heat, the supportive brain cells vary when it comes to shape, molecular machinery and functioning.The findings,published today in the journal  Neuron, should make it easier for researchers to study how astrocytes relate to disease, or to develop drugs that aim to target small subsets of astrocytes, said Baljit Khakh, a UCLA professor of physiology and neurobiology and the study’s senior author.“For 50 years, the textbooks have said that astrocytes everywhere in the brain are largely identical,” Khakh said. “We’ve now discovered that astrocytes in different circuits in the brain are different, and we’ve developed a comprehensive toolkit to explore astrocyte biology and diversity. ”Unlike neurons, astrocytes in the brain don ’t directly process information, store memories or control the body’s movements. Instead, astrocytes — which have been described as glue-like — are known to compose the blood-brain barrier, give the brain structure, carry nutrients to neurons, and regulate the concentration of certain molecu les between neurons. They also play a ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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In conclusion, ET improves autonomic modulation in COPD with additional benefits for strength and cardiorespiratory capacity similar to conventional training. PMID: 30003108 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Conclusions: The present study strongly showed that lower GFR is an independently predictor of HT; in addition, large infarct volume, AF, and HA are also important risks of HT for AIS patients without TT, which offered a practical information that risk factors should be paid attention or eliminated to prevent HT for stroke patients though the level of evidence seems to be unstable. PMID: 29998881 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The main findings of fMRI applied to MS are strongly related to the demyelinating nature of the disease and provide an adequate insight into the mechanisms that underlie functional alterations reported in this disease. fMRI also appears to be useful for studying disease evolution and response to treatment in MS and other disorders. PMID: 29999173 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista de Neurologia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
Conclusions: These findings suggest that action observation is lateralized to the dominant, rather than ipsilesional, hemisphere, which may reflect an interaction between the lesioned hemisphere and the dominant hemisphere in driving lateralization of brain activity after stroke. Hemispheric dominance and laterality should be carefully considered when characterizing poststroke neural activity. PMID: 29997648 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Neural Plasticity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2018Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 8Author(s): Calvin Ke, Rajeev Gupta, Denis Xavier, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Prashant Mathur, Yogeshwar V Kalkonde, Patrycja Kolpak, Wilson Suraweera, Prabhat Jha, Shazia Allarakha, Dharmappa Basavarajappa, Vikas Dhimar, Harsh Jaiswal, Shrikant Kalaska, Geetha Memon, Saritha Nair, Vishnu Rao, Reeta Rasaily, Damodar Sahu, Shweta SharmaSummaryIntroductionIndia accounts for about a fifth of cardiovascular deaths globally, but nationally representative data on mortality trends are not yet available. In this nationwide mortality study, we aimed to assess...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
A 25-year-old man developed a gastric perforation after ingesting a homemade drink containing liquid nitrogen. Surgical repair had to be postponed to seek consultations with experts because the available practitioners in this case, including emergency phys...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Burns, Electricity, Explosions, Fire, Scalds Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: When determining the appropriate hypogastric preservation strategy, several factors should be considered. Anatomic criteria, life-expectancy as well as physical and sexual activity are the most important criteria. Procedure complexity and cost should also be accounted for. PMID: 30001612 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Angiology - Category: Cardiology Tags: Int Angiol Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports, Volume 36Author(s): Ethan A. Litman, Tyler D. Robinson, Upender K. Munshi, Christine WhyteAbstractThe fetus of a 29 year old G2P1 was diagnosed on routine prenatal ultrasound in the early second trimester with gastroschisis. Classically, gastroschisis is a right-sided periumbilical abdominal wall defect. Our case is highly unusual because the gastroschisis defect was on the left. None of the current theories of the embryogenesis of right sided gastroschisis adequately explain how the defect can arise on the left. Associated congenital anomal...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Lisa Finkel, Katharina Hogrefe, Scott H. Frey, Georg Goldenberg, Jennifer RanderathAbstractFor over a century, pantomime of tool use has been employed to diagnose limb apraxia, a disorder of motor cognition primarily induced by left brain damage. While research consistently implicates damage to a left fronto-temporo-parietal network in limb apraxia, findings are inconsistent regarding the impact of damage to anterior versus posterior nodes within this network on pantomime. Complicating matters is the fact that tool use pantomime can be affected and eva...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Brainin M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cerebrolysin is a neuropeptide preparation with neurotrophic factor-like effects and promotes recovery after brain injury. Its preclinical profile promises wide applications due to multi-target effects. Currently, Cerebrolysin is used for treatment of cerebral ischemia and neurodegeneration. Areas covered: In stroke, early clinical trials with Cerebrolysin were performed mostly in mildly affected stroke populations, which usually have a favourable prognosis. Due to this selection, a likely floor or ceiling effect of recovery measures in the mild cases may have prevented to sho...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
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