Gene expression in the chicken caecum in response to infections with non-typhoid Salmonella
Abstract Chickens can be infected with Salmonella enterica at any time during their life. However, infections within the first hours and days of their life are epidemiologically the most important, as newly hatched chickens are highly sensitive to Salmonella infection. Salmonella is initially recognized in the chicken caecum by TLR receptors and this recognition is followed by induction of chemokines, cytokines and many effector genes. This results in infiltration of heterophils, macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes and changes in total gene expression in the caecal lamina propria. The highest induction in expressio...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 5, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique
In conclusion, the SSM presented in this study is a fast and effective method to detect dead Trichinella larvae in frozen meat. We showed that the Trichinella prevalence in Dutch red fox was 0.27% (95% CI 0.065-1.5%), in contrast to 3.9% in the same study area fifteen years ago. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the efficacy of 5S PCR for identification of Trichinella britovi single larvae from frozen meat is not more than 8.3%. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - November 28, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens but not ducks is associated with elevated host immune and pro-inflammatory responses
Abstract Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses cause severe infection in chickens at near complete mortality, but corresponding infection in ducks is typically mild or asymptomatic. To understand the underlying molecular differences in host response, primary chicken and duck lung cells, infected with two HPAI H5N1 viruses and a low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H2N3 virus, were subjected to RNA expression profiling. Chicken cells but not duck cells showed highly elevated immune and pro-inflammatory responses following HPAI virus infection. HPAI H5N1 virus challenge studies in chickens and d...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 28, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Biofilm formation by virulent and non-virulent strains of Haemophilus parasuis
Abstract Haemophilus parasuis is a commensal bacterium of the upper respiratory tract of healthy pigs. It is also the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease, a systemic disease characterized by polyarthritis, fibrinous polyserositis and meningitis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofilm formation by well-characterized virulent and non-virulent strains of H. parasuis. We observed that non-virulent strains isolated from the nasal cavities of healthy pigs formed significantly (p 
Source: Veterinary Research - November 27, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3 - infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection in European wild boar and their role in HEV transmission to domestic pigs. To investigate the transmissibility and pathogenesis of wild boar-derived HEVgt3, we inoculated four wild boar and four miniature pigs intravenously. Using quantitative real-tim...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 26, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bovine herpesvirus glycoprotein D: a review of its structural characteristics and applications in vaccinology
Abstract The viral envelope glycoprotein D from bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and -5), two important pathogens of cattle, is a major component of the virion and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of herpesviruses. Glycoprotein D is essential for virus penetration into permissive cells and thus is a major target for virus neutralizing antibodies during infection. In view of its role in the induction of protective immunity, gD has been tested in new vaccine development strategies against both viruses. Subunit, DNA and vectored vaccine candidates have been developed using this glycoprotein as the prima...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 31, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and efficacy of fowlpox-vectored and inactivated avian influenza vaccines alone or in a prime-boost schedule in chickens with maternal antibodies
Abstract Inactivated and fowlpox virus (FP)-vectored vaccines have been used to control H5 avian influenza (AI) in poultry. In H5 AI endemic countries, breeder flocks are vaccinated and therefore, maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) are transferred to their progeny. Results of three immunogenicity and one efficacy studies performed in birds with or without MDA indicated that the immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine based on a H5N9 AI isolate (inH5N9) was severely impaired in chicks hatched from inH5N9-vaccinated breeders. This MDA interference was lower when breeders received only one administration of the sa...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 30, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immunity, safety and protection of an Adenovirus 5 prime - Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara boost subunit vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in calves
Abstract Vaccination is the most cost effective control measure for Johne’s disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) but currently available whole cell killed formulations have limited efficacy and are incompatible with the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis by tuberculin skin test. We have evaluated the utility of a viral delivery regimen of non-replicative human Adenovirus 5 and Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara recombinant for early entry MAP specific antigens (HAV) to show protection against challenge in a calf model and extensively screened for differential immunological marke...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 29, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Risk of tuberculosis cattle herd breakdowns in Ireland: effects of badger culling effort, density and historic large-scale interventions
Abstract Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) continues to be a problem in cattle herds in Ireland and Britain. It has been suggested that failure to eradicate this disease is related to the presence of a wildlife reservoir (the badger). A large-scale project was undertaken in the Republic of Ireland during 1997–2002 to assess whether badger removal could contribute to reducing risk of cattle herd breakdowns in four areas. During the period of that “four area” study, there was a significant decrease in risk in intensively culled (removal) areas relative to reference areas. In the present study, we revisit ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 26, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A B-cell targeting virus disrupts potentially protective genomic methylation patterns in lymphoid tissue by increasing global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels
Abstract The mechanisms by which viruses modulate the immune system include changes in host genomic methylation. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is the catalytic product of the Tet (Ten-11 translocation) family of enzymes and may serve as an intermediate of DNA demethylation. Recent reports suggest that 5hmC may confer consequences on cellular events including the pathogenesis of disease; in order to explore this possibility further we investigated both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5hmC levels in healthy and diseased chicken bursas of Fabricius. We discovered that embryonic B-cells have high 5mC content while 5hmC d...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 23, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Not all cows are epidemiologically equal: quantifying the risks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) transmission through cattle movements
Abstract Many economically important cattle diseases spread between herds through livestock movements. Traditionally, most transmission models have assumed that all purchased cattle carry the same risk of generating outbreaks in the destination herd. Using data on bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Scotland as a case example, this study provides empirical and theoretical evidence that the risk of disease transmission varies substantially based on the animal and herd demographic characteristics at the time of purchase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that purchasing pregnant heifers and ope...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 17, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

First identification of proteins involved in motility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum
We examined M. gallisepticum strains and clonal variants for motility and found that the cytadherence proteins GapA and CrmA were required for gliding. Loss of GapA or CrmA resulted in the loss of motility and hemadsorption and led to drastic changes in the characteristic flask-shape of the cells. To identify further genes involved in motility, a transposon mutant library of M. gallisepticum was generated and screened for motility-deficient mutants, using a screening assay based on colony morphology. Motility-deficient mutants had transposon insertions in gapA and the neighbouring downstream gene crmA. In addition, inserti...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 17, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Fine-tuned characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Newbould 305, a strain associated with mild and chronic mastitis in bovines
Abstract S. aureus is a major aetiological agent of ruminant mastitis worldwide. The chronic nature of S. aureus mastitis makes it difficult to cure and prone to resurgence. In order to identify the bacterial factors involved in this chronicity, Newbould 305 (N305), a strain that can reproducibly induce mild and chronic mastitis in an experimental setting, was characterized in depth. We employed genomic and proteomic techniques combined with phenotype characterization, in order to comprehensively analyse N305. The results were compared with data obtained on S. aureus RF122, a strain representative of ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 14, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparison of innate immune agonists for induction of tracheal antimicrobial peptide gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells of cattle
Abstract Bovine respiratory disease is a complex of bacterial and viral infections of economic and welfare importance to the beef industry. Although tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) has microbicidal activity against bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease, risk factors for bovine respiratory disease including BVDV and stress (glucocorticoids) have been shown to inhibit the induced expression of this gene. Lipopolysaccharide is known to stimulate TAP gene expression, but the maximum effect is only observed after 16 h of stimulation. The present study investigated other agonists of TAP gene ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 12, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative histopathological and immunological study of two field strains of chicken anemia virus
Abstract Infection of poultry with chicken anemia virus (CAV) is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks due to the immunosuppression generated and, consequently, the increased susceptibility to secondary infections. Recently, we have reported an increased occurrence of clinical cases caused by CAV strains distantly related to those commonly used for vaccination. In order to understand the behavior of two Argentinean CAV strains (CAV-10 and CAV-18) in two-week-old chickens, an immune and histopathological study was performed. Neither mortality nor clinical signs were observed in the infected or con...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 8, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 replication and host response in adult Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas
Abstract Since 2008, massive mortality outbreaks associated with OsHV-1 detection have been reported in Crassostrea gigas spat and juveniles in several countries. Nevertheless, adult oysters do not demonstrate mortality in the field related to OsHV-1 detection and were thus assumed to be more resistant to viral infection. Determining how virus and adult oyster interact is a major goal in understanding why mortality events are not reported among adult Pacific oysters. Dual transcriptomics of virus-host interactions were explored by real-time PCR in adult oysters after a virus injection. Thirty-nine viral genes and...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 8, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Differential modulation of host genes in the kidney of brown trout Salmo trutta during sporogenesis of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa)
This study suggests that cell stress and cell growth processes, signal transduction activities, erythropoiesis and calcium homeostasis of the host are modulated during sporogonic stages of parasite development, which may support the sporogenesis of T. bryosalmonae in the kidney of brown trout. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 4, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sensitivity and permissivity of Cyprinus carpio to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 during the early stages of its development: importance of the epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier
Abstract Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes a lethal disease in common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study investigated the ability of CyHV-3 to infect common carp during the early stages of its development (from embryos to fingerlings) after inoculation by immersion in water containing the virus. Fish were inoculated at different times after hatching with a pathogenic recombinant CyHV-3 strain expressing luciferase. The sensitivity and permissivity of carp to CyHV-3 were investigated using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The susceptibility of carp to CyHV-3 disease was investigated by measurin...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 4, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Gene-expression profiling of calves 6 and 9 months after inoculation with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
In conclusion, measuring the expression of these genes has potential for implementation in a diagnostic tool for the early detection of MAP infection. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 2, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus from 152 cases of bovine, ovine and caprine mastitis investigated by Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in ruminants. In the present retrospective study, we evaluated the potential interest of a previously described automated multiple loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Assay (MLVA) comprising 16 loci as a first line tool to investigate the population structure of S. aureus from mastitis. We determined the genetic diversity of S. aureus strains from cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle (n = 118, of which 16 were methicillin-resistant), sheep (n = 18) and goats (n&t...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 2, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Diversity of avipoxviruses in captive-bred Houbara bustard
Abstract Implementation of conservation breeding programs is a key step to ensuring the sustainability of many endangered species. Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of such initiatives especially since knowledge on pathogens affecting those species is usually scarce. Houbara bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations have declined over the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years. Avipoxviruses are of the highest concern for these species in captivity. Pox lesions were collected from breeding proje...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical and diagnostic features, and control of canine cardio-pulmonary angiostrongylosis
Abstract The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update on the biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of canine cardio-pulmonary angiostrongylosis. This cardiopulmonary disease is caused by infection by the metastrongyloid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum. The parasite has an indirect life cycle that involves at least two different hosts, gastropod molluscs (intermediate host) and canids (definitive host). A. vasorum represents a common and serious problem for dogs in areas of endemicity, and because of the expansion of its geographical boundaries to many areas...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 27, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission
Abstract African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly virulent swine pathogen that has spread across Eastern Europe since 2007 and for which there is no effective vaccine or treatment available. The dynamics of shedding and excretion is not well known for this currently circulating ASFV strain. Therefore, susceptible pigs were exposed to pigs intramuscularly infected with the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain to measure those dynamics through within- and between-pen transmission scenarios. Blood, oral, nasal and rectal fluid samples were tested for the presence of ASFV by virus titration (VT) and quantitative real-time ...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 26, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection
Abstract The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both ce...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 25, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Detection of RHDV strains in the Iberian hare ( Lepus granatensis ): earliest evidence of rabbit lagovirus cross-species infection
Abstract Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a highly lethal Lagovirus, family Caliciviridae, that threatens European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Although a related virus severely affects hares, cross-species infection was only recently described for new variant RHDV in Cape hares (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). We sequenced two strains from dead Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) collected in the 1990s in Portugal. Clinical signs were compatible with a Lagovirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid gene positioned them in the RHDV genogroup that circulated on the Iberian Peninsula a...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of livestock-associated MRSA isolates obtained from piglets from farrowing until slaughter age on four farrow-to-finish farms
In conclusion, molecular typing revealed that within a farm one or a few dominant strain(s) are widespread. Potential MRSA sources for piglets were mother sows, the environment and other piglets. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 13, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The comparative profile of lymphoid cells and the T and B cell spectratype of germ-free piglets infected with viruses SIV, PRRSV or PCV2
Abstract Lymphocyte subsets isolated from germ-free piglets experimentally infected with swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were studied and the profile of these subsets among these three infections was monitored. Germ-free piglets were used since their response could be directly correlated to the viral infection. Because SIV infections are resolved even by colostrum-deprived neonates whereas PRRSV and PCV2 infections are not, SIV was used as a benchmark for an effectively resolved viral infection. PRRSV caused a large incre...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 4, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Deciphering why Salmonella Gallinarum is less invasive in vitro than Salmonella Enteritidis
In this study we confirm that the S. Gallinarum strains tested were much less invasive than the S. Enteritidis strains tested in cells of avian or human origin. In addition, the S. Gallinarum T3SS-1-dependent ability to invade host cells was delayed by two to three hours compared to S. Enteritidis, indicating that T3SS-1-dependent entry is less efficient in S. Gallinarum than S. Enteritidis. This was neither due to a decreased transcription of T3SS-1 related genes when bacteria come into contact with cells, as transcription of hilA, invF and sipA was similar to that observed for S. Enteritidis, nor to a lack of functionali...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 30, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Heterogeneous pathological outcomes after experimental pH1N1 influenza infection in ferrets correlate with viral replication and host immune responses in the lung
In conclusion, this study confirmed that the clinicopathological outcomes of pH1N1 infection in ferrets were not only due to viral replication abilities but also depended on the hosts’ capacities to mount efficient immune responses to control viral infection of the lung. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 28, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Topology and biological function of enterovirus non-structural protein 2B as a member of the viroporin family
Abstract Viroporins are a group of transmembrane proteins with low molecular weight that are encoded by many animal viruses. Generally, viroporins are composed of 50–120 amino acid residues and possess a minimum of one hydrophobic region that interacts with the lipid bilayer and leads to dispersion. Viroporins are involved in destroying the morphology of host cells and disturbing their biological functions to complete the life cycle of the virus. The 2B proteins encoded by enteroviruses, which belong to the family Picornaviridae, can form transmembrane pores by oligomerization, increase the permeability of ...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 28, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Neospora caninum infection as a cause of reproductive failure in a sheep flock
This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the pathogen causing serious reproductive problems on a commercial sheep farm. Sera from all rams and ewes tested negative for antibodies against Border disease virus, Schmallenberg virus and Coxiella burnetii, and infections by these agents were therefore ruled out. Nevertheless, seropositivity to N. caninum and/or Toxoplasma gondii was detected, although the seroprevalence was higher in the case of N. caninum. The percentage of lambings and the number of lambs per dam were significantly lower in ewes that were seropositive to N. caninum while no effect on these param...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 26, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus)
Abstract The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 iso...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 26, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Phylodynamic reconstruction of O CATHAY topotype foot-and-mouth disease virus epidemics in the Philippines
In this study, a Bayesian phylogenetic framework was used to explore the phylodynamics and spatio-temporal dispersion of the O CATHAY topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) that caused epidemics in the Philippines between 1994 and 2005. Sequences of the FMDV genome encoding the VP1 showed that the O CATHAY FMD epizootic in the Philippines resulted from a single introduction and was characterised by three main transmission hubs in Rizal, Bulacan and Manila Provinces. From a wider regional perspective, phylogenetic reconstruction of all available O CATHAY VP1 nucleotide sequences identified three distinct sub-lineag...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 24, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Low virulent infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) replicates and initiates the immune response earlier than a highly virulent virus in Atlantic salmon gills
Abstract Observations from the field and experimental evidence suggest that different strains of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) can induce disease of varying severity in Atlantic salmon. Variation in host mortality and dissemination of ISAV isolates with high and low virulence was investigated using immersion challenge; from which mortality, pathological, immunohistochemical and preliminary molecular results have been previously published. Here, real-time RT-PCR analysis and statistical modelling have been used to further investigate variation in virus load and the response of four select immune genes. Ex...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 21, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls ( Chroicocephalus ridibundus )
Abstract Historically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental HPAIV H5N1 infection of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) to determine their susceptibility to infection and disease from this virus, pattern of viral shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes and viral tissue distribution. We inoculated sixteen black-headed gulls with 1 × 104 median tis...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 19, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Microscopy and genomic analysis of Mycoplasma parvum strain Indiana
Abstract Mycoplasma parvum [Eperythrozoon parvum] is the second hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) described in pigs. Unlike M. suis, its closest phylogenetic relative, M. parvum, is considered a non-pathogenic bacterium in this host species. Natural infection of a domestic, 6-month-old splenectomized pig with M. parvum strain Indiana is described herein. Light and scanning electron microscopy of the bacteria were performed in addition to whole genome sequencing, analysis, and comparison to the genome of M. suis strain Illinois. Neither clinical signs nor anemia were observed during the infection. Mi...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 13, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and detection of three new F17 fimbrial variants in Escherichia coli strains isolated from cattle
In conclusion, we identified three new F17-A and F17-G variants in cattle E. coli, which may also have significant impact on the development of new diagnostics and vaccination tools. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 10, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Twenty year experience of the oral rabies vaccine SAG2 in wildlife: a global review
Abstract The SAG2 vaccine (RABIGEN® SAG2) is a modified live attenuated rabies virus vaccine, selected from the SAD Bern strain in a two-step process of amino acid mutation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The strain is genetically stable and does not spread in vivo or induce a persistent infection. Its absence of residual pathogenicity was extensively demonstrated in multiple target and non target species (such as wild carnivores and rodent species), including non-human primates. The efficacy of SAG2 baits was demonstrated according to the EU requirements for the red fox and raccoon dog. The use of ...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 10, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Confirmation of spatial patterns and temperature effects in Bluetongue virus serotype-8 transmission in NW-Europe from the 2007 reported case data
In conclusion, despite the substantial differences between 2006 and 2007 in temperature patterns (2006 featured a heat wave in July, whereas 2007 was more regular) and spatial epidemic extent, both the minimum temperature required for transmission and the transmission kernel were similar to those estimated for the 2006 outbreak, indicating that they are robust properties, suitable for extrapolation to other years and similar regions. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 9, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research