In-feed bambermycin medication induces anti-inflammatory effects and prevents parietal cell loss without influencing Helicobacter suis colonization in the stomach of mice
In conclusion, bambermycin did not affectH. suis colonization, but decreased gastric inflammation and inhibited the effects of aH. suis infection on parietal cell loss. Not only direct interaction ofH. suis with parietal cells, but also inflammation may play a role in death of these gastric acid producing cells. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - April 10, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Counting the dead to determine the source and transmission of the marine herpesvirus OsHV-1 in Crassostrea gigas
AbstractMarine herpesviruses are responsible for epizootics in economically, ecologically and culturally significant taxa. The recent emergence of microvariants ofOstreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) in Pacific oystersCrassostrea gigas has resulted in socioeconomic losses in Europe, New Zealand and Australia however, there is no information on their origin or mode of transmission. These factors need to be understood because they influence the way the disease may be prevented and controlled. Mortality data obtained from experimental populations ofC. gigas during natural epizootics of OsHV-1 disease in Australia were analysed qual...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 10, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Low sequence diversity of the prion protein gene ( PRNP ) in wild deer and goat species from Spain
AbstractThe first European cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging reindeer and wild elk were confirmed in Norway in 2016 highlighting the urgent need to understand transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in the context of European deer species and the many individual populations throughout the European continent. The genetics of the prion protein gene (PRNP) are crucial in determining the relative susceptibility to TSEs. To establishPRNP gene sequence diversity for free-ranging ruminants in the Northeast of Spain, the open reading frame was sequenced in over 350 samples from five species: Iberian r...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 10, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The putative amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein AapJ2 is necessary for Brucella virulence at the early stage of infection in a mouse model
In this study, we successfully constructed abab_RS27735 deletion mutant, Δ27735. Compared with the wild-type strain, the lipopolysaccharide pattern of the mutant was not changed, but the growth ability was slightly defected in the exponential phase. In tolerance tests, sensitivity of the Δ27735 mutant to oxidative stress, bactericidal peptides or low pH was not differe nt from that of the wild-type strain. Cell infection assay showed that the mutant was reduced survival within macrophages but could efficiently escape lysosome degradation. The results of a virulence test showed that the Δ27735 mutant was a...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Atrophy of primary lymphoid organs induced by Marek ’s disease virus during early infection is associated with increased apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation and a severe B-lymphopenia
AbstractMarek ’s disease is a multi-faceted highly contagious disease affecting chickens caused by the Marek’s disease alphaherpesvirus (MDV). MDV early infection induces a transient immunosuppression, which is associated with thymus and bursa of Fabricius atrophy. Little is known about the cellular processes involved in primary lymphoid organ atrophy. Here, by in situ TUNEL assay, we demonstrate that MDV infection results in a high level of apoptosis in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius, which is concomitant to the MDV lytic cycle. Interestingly, we observed that in the thymus most of the MDV infected cells at...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Piscine orthoreovirus infection in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) protects against subsequent challenge with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)
In conclusion, PRV-infection protects Atlantic salmon against IHNV infection and morbidity, most likely by inducing a protective innate antiviral response. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - March 13, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A novel monoclonal antibody efficiently blocks the infection of serotype 4 fowl adenovirus by targeting fiber-2
In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the fiber-2 prot ein of FAdV-4 was generated, mAb 3C2. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that mAb 3C2 neither reacted with serotype 8 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-8) nor reacted with the fiber-1 protein of FAdV-4; it specifically reacted with the fiber-2 protein of FAdV-4. Notably, mAb 3C2 could efficiently immunopr ecipitate the fiber-2 protein in chicken liver cells either infected with FAdV-4 or transfected with pcDNA3.1-Fiber2. Moreover, mAb 3C2 demonstrated marked neutralizing activity against FAdV-4 and could efficiently inhibit the infection of FAdV-4 in vit...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A synthesis of the patho-physiology of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in sheep to inform mathematical modelling of ovine paratuberculosis
AbstractThis literature review of exposure toMycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (MAP) in sheep enabled a synthesis of the patho-physiology of ovine paratuberculosis (PTB). These results could be used to inform subsequent modelling of ovine PTB. We reviewed studies of both experimental and natural exposure. They were generally comparable. Possible outcomes following exposure were latent infection, i.e. mere colonization without lesions; active infection, with inflammatory histopathology in the intestinal tissues resulting in mild disease and low faecal shedding; and affection, with severe intestinal pathology, reduc...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 7, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Decreased STEC shedding by cattle following passive and active vaccination based on recombinant Escherichia coli Shiga toxoids
This study provides first evidence, that transfer to and induction in young calves of Stx-neutralizing antibodies by Shiga toxoid vaccination offers the opportunity to reduce the incidence ofstx-positive fecal samples in a calf cohort. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - March 7, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Predicting the impact of selection for scrapie resistance on PRNP genotype frequencies in goats
AbstractThe European Union has implemented breeding programmes to increase scrapie resistance in sheep. A similar approach can be applied also in goats since the K222 allele provides a level of resistance equivalent to that ofARR in sheep. The European Food Safety Authority stated that breeding for resistance could be offered as an option for Member States to control classical scrapie in goats. We assessed the impact of different breeding strategies onPRNP genotype frequencies using a mathematical model that describes in detail the evolution ofK222 in two goat breeds, Chamois Coloured and Saanen. Different patterns of age ...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The antibody response in the bovine mammary gland is influenced by the adjuvant and the site of subcutaneous vaccination
In this study, α-toxoid was used as a model antigen and formulated in three different alum-based adjuvants: Alum–Saponin, Alum–Oil, and Alum–Saponin–Oil. Vaccines were administered near the suspensory ligament of the udder or in the lateral triangular area of the neck. At both immunization sites, immuniza tion with α-toxoid in Alum–Saponin–Oil resulted in higher specific antibody titers in milk and serum as compared with Alum–Oil and Alum–Saponin, without favoring an IgG1, IgG2, or IgA response. Furthermore, the neutralizing capacity of milk serum and serum follow...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of a novel mechanism of action of bovine IgG antibodies specific for Staphylococcus aureus
AbstractStaphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that causes subclinical mastitis associated with huge economic losses to the dairy industry. A few vaccines for bovine mastitis are available, and they are expected to induce the production ofS. aureus-specific antibodies that prevent bacterial adherence to host cells or promote opsonization by phagocytes. However, the efficacy of such vaccines are still under debate; therefore, further research focusing on improving the current vaccines by seeking additional mechanisms of action is required to reduce economic losses due to mastitis in the dairy industry. Here, we generated...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 26, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental infection model for vibriosis in Dover sole ( Solea solea ) larvae as an aid in studying its pathogenesis and alternative treatments
AbstractSevere economic losses due to diseases in marine larviculture may be linked to vibriosis. To better understand the pathogenesis of vibriosis and evaluate new ways to prevent and combat this important disease, there is a great need for reliable and reproducible experimental infection models. The present study aimed at developing a challenge model for vibriosis in Dover sole larvae and testing its applicability to study the effect of the probiotic treatment. For that purpose, larvae were challenged at 10  days post hatching withVibrio anguillarum WT,V. anguillarum HI610 orV. harveyi WT. Following administration ...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 26, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Binding determinants in the interplay between porcine aminopeptidase N and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae
AbstractThe binding of F4+ enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli (ETEC) and the specific receptor on porcine intestinal epithelial cells is the initial step in F4+ ETEC infection. Porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) is a newly discovered receptor for F4 fimbriae that binds directly to FaeG adhesin, which is the major subunit of the F4 fimbriae variants F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad. We used overlapping peptide assays to map the APN-FaeG binding sites, which has facilitated in the identifying the APN-binding amino acids that are located in the same region of FaeG variants, thereby limiting the major binding regions of APN to 13 peptides. To de...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 26, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Efficacy of different DNA and MVA prime-boost vaccination regimens against a Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) challenge in sheep 12  weeks following vaccination
In conclusion, these results suggest that vaccination strategies based on DNA priming were able to mount and maintain specific anti-RVFV glycoprotein immune responses upon homologous or heterologous booster doses, warranting further optimization in large animal models of infection. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - February 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Lysozyme improves gut performance and protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in neonatal piglets
AbstractDiarrhea remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally, with enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli (ETEC) constituting a major causative pathogen. The development of alternative treatments for diarrhea that do not involve chemotherapeutic drugs or result in antibiotic resistance is critical. Considering that lysozyme is a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide, in a previous study we developed a transgenic pig line that expresses recombinant human lysozyme (hLZ) in its milk. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of the consumption of this milk against ETEC infection in neonat...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 20, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of microRNA in the lung tissue of pigs with different susceptibilities to PCV2 infection
In this study, high-throughput sequencing was performed to determine the abundance and differential expression of miRNA in lung tissues from PCV2-infected and PCV2-uninfected LW and YL pigs . In total, 295 known and 95 novel miRNA were identified, and 23 known and 25 novel miRNA were significantly differentially expressed in the PCV2-infected vs. PCV2-uninfected LW pigs and/or the PCV2-infected vs. PCV2-uninfected YL pigs. The expression levels ofssc-miR-122,ssc-miR-192,ssc-miR-451,ssc-miR-486, andssc-miR-504 were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Analysis of the potential targets of the four up-regulated ...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Antigenic and functional profiles of a Lawsonia intracellularis protein that shows a flagellin-like trait and its immuno-stimulatory assessment
AbstractThe obligate intracellularLawsonia intracellularis (LI), the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), is an economically important disease in the swine industry. Due to extreme difficulty of in vitro culture of the pathogen, molecular characterization of protein components of LI that are targets of the immune system, is difficult; thus, the scientific evidence to drive the development of preventive measures is lacking. In this work, we investigated the antigenic and functional characteristics of a putative flagellar-associated protein, LI0570, using in silico computational approaches for epitope predict...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Analysis of the genetic diversity and mRNA expression level in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccinated pigs that developed short or long viremias after challenge
AbstractPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  (PRRSv) infection alters the host’s cellular and humoral immune response. Immunity against PRRSv is multigenic and vary between individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare several genes that encode for molecules involved in the immune response between two groups of vaccinated pigs t hat experienced short or long viremic periods after PRRSv challenge. These analyses include the sequencing of four SLA Class I, two Class II allele groups, and CD163, plus the analysis by quantitative realtime qRT-PCR of the constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

SeMet attenuates OTA-induced PCV2 replication promotion by inhibiting autophagy by activating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway
In conclusion, SeMet could block OTA-induced PCV2 replication promotion by inhibiting autophagy by activating the AKT/mTOR pathway. Therefore, SeMet supplementation could be an effective prophylactic strategy against PCV2 infections and autophagy may be a potential marker to develop novel anti-PCV2 drugs. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - February 13, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A novel CAV derived cell-penetrating peptide efficiently delivers exogenous molecules through caveolae-mediated endocytosis
In this study, the N terminus of VP1 from chicken anemia virus, designated as CVP1, was found to carry enriched arginine residues with α-helix. By confocal imaging, flow cytometry and MTT assay, we identified CVP1 as a novel, safe and efficient CPP. CVP1-FITC peptide could entry different types of cells tested with dose dependence, but without cytotoxic effects. Compared with TAT-FITC peptide, the CVP1-FITC peptide showed much hig her cell-penetrating activity. Moreover, CVP1 could successfully deliver β-glycosidase, poly (I:C) and plasmid into HCT116 cells. Inhibitors and temperature sensitivity analysis furthe...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 13, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Swinepox virus vector-based vaccines: attenuation and biosafety assessments following subcutaneous prick inoculation
In this study, to obtain a safer and more efficient SPV vector, three SPV mutants, Δ003, Δ010, and ΔTK were successfully constructed. A virus replication experiment showed that these SPV mutants had lower replication abilities compared to wtSPV in 10 different host-derived cell lines. Animal experiments with mouse and rabbit models demonstrate that these three mutants and wtSPV did not cause any clinical signs of dermatitis. No fatalities were observed during a peritoneal challenge assay with these mutants and wtSPV in a mouse model. Additionally, the three mutants and wtSPV were not infectious at 60 ...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 7, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Role in virulence of phospholipases, listeriolysin O and listeriolysin S from epidemic Listeria monocytogenes using the chicken embryo infection model
AbstractMost human listeriosis outbreaks are caused byListeria monocytogenes evolutionary lineage I strains which possess four exotoxins: a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA), a broad-range phospholipase C (PlcB), listeriolysin O (LLO) and listeriolysin S (LLS). The simultaneous contribution of these molecules to virulence has never been explored. Here, the importance of these four exotoxins of an epidemic lineage IL. monocytogenes strain (F2365) in virulence was assessed in chicken embryos infected in the allantoic cavity. We show that LLS does not play a role in virulence while LLO is required to i...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Recombinant chicken interleukin-7 as a potent adjuvant increases the immunogenicity and protection of inactivated infectious bursal disease vaccine
AbstractOur previous work showed that a plasmid-based chicken interleukin-7 (chIL-7) gene expression vector possessed potent adjuvant activity for a VP2 DNA vaccine against chicken infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Whether recombinant chIL-7 prepared in procaryotic expression system has the adjuvant activity for inactivated IBDV vaccine remains unknown. Here, we prepared recombinant chIL-7 using anE. coli expression system and analyzed its adjuvant activity for the inactivated IBDV vaccine. The results show that the recombinant chIL-7 was successfully prepared inE. coli using the pET20b vector, which possessed biolog...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Oral immunization with a novel attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium encoding influenza HA, M2e and NA antigens protects chickens against H7N9 infection
AbstractAttenuatedSalmonella strains constitute a promising technology for the development of efficient protein-based influenza vaccines. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is a major public health concern and currently there are no effective vaccines against this subtype. Herein, we constructed a novel attenuatedSalmonella Typhimurium strain for the delivery and expression of H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e). We demonstrated that the constructedSalmonella strains exhibited efficient HA, NA and M2e expressions, respectively, an...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Regulatory role of microRNA in mesenteric lymph nodes after Salmonella Typhimurium infection
In conclusion, our study identifies miRNA that could regulate critical networks for antigenic presentation, inflammatory response and cytoskeletal rearrangements. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effects of temperature on Veronaea botryosa infections in white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus and fungal induced cytotoxicity of fish cell lines
This study evaluated the effect of temperature onV. botryosa infectivity and dissemination following intramuscular injection challenge of white sturgeon maintained at 13 or 18  °C for 40 days. Daily mortality was recorded and persistence of the fungus in the livers of moribund and surviving fish was investigated using culture and histopathological analysis. Fish maintained at 18 °C developed systemic phaeohyphomycosis and had significantly greater mortality than cont rols and fish maintained at 13 °C (p 
Source: Veterinary Research - February 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evidence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) shedding in semen from infected specific pathogen-free boars
AbstractIn 2013, PED emerged for the first time in the United States (US). The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spread quickly throughout North America. Infection with PEDV causes watery diarrhea and up to 100% mortality in piglets, particularly for highly pathogenic non-InDel strains circulating in the US. PEDV is mainly transmitted by the fecal –oral route. Transmission via the venereal route has been suspected but not previously investigated. The aim of the study was to determine if PEDV could be detected in semen from infected specific pathogen-free (SPF) boars inoculated with a PEDV US non-InDel strain sug...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 24, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Binding and entry of peste des petits ruminants virus into caprine endometrial epithelial cells profoundly affect early cellular gene expression
In conclusion, this study demonstrates the early cellular gene expressi on in the caprine endometrial epithelial cells after the binding and entry of PPRV. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - January 24, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A hybrid protein containing MSP1a repeats and Omp7, Omp8 and Omp9 epitopes protect immunized BALB/c mice against anaplasmosis
AbstractAnaplasma marginale (A. marginale) has a remarkable impact on livestock production, and an effective vaccine is not currently available due to the inexistence of a small animal model. Recently, BALB/c mice were successfully infected withA. marginale, resulting in an acute and persistent anaplasmosis infection. Here, we designed a hybrid protein containing repeats of polypeptide 1a from major surface protein-1 complex (MSP1a) repeats and common epitopes of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) OMP7, OMP8 and OMP9 expressed inEscherichia coli. Our proof-of-concept assessed vaccinal effectiveness against a challenge with liv...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Respiratory explants as a model to investigate early events of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia infection
AbstractContagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe disease caused byMycoplasma mycoides subsp.mycoides (Mmm). Knowledge on CBPP pathogenesis is fragmented and hampered by the limited availability of laboratory animal and in vitro models of investigation. The purpose of the present study is to assess respiratory explants as useful tools to study the early stages of CBPP. Explants were obtained from trachea, bronchi and lungs of slaughtered cattle, tested negative forMycoplasma spp. and for the major bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens. The interaction ofMmm with explant cells was studied by immunohistochemis...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Host-specific differences in the response of cultured macrophages to Campylobacter jejuni capsule and O -methyl phosphoramidate mutants
In conclusion, differences in the response of macrophages of varying host origin toCampylobacter were detected. The absence of MeOPN modification on the capsule ofC. jejuni did not alter the levels of innate cytokine expression in both chicken and human macrophages compared to the 11168H WT, but affected phagocytosis by host macrophages. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - January 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Mycoplasma bovis co-infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine macrophages
AbstractSeveral studies suggest that synergisms betweenMycoplasma bovis and other microorganisms might exacerbate disease outcome of bovine mycoplasmosis. Screening several bovine cell types to assess their potential use as in vitro infection models forM. bovis, it was observed that a widely used cell line of bovine macrophages (Bomac cells) is in fact persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The cell line was first cured of this virus allowing comparative studies between both cell lines. Subsequently, uptake and co-culture of twoM. bovis strains of different clonal complexes with Bomac cells contamin...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genomic comparisons of Streptococcus suis serotype 9 strains recovered from diseased pigs in Spain and Canada
AbstractStreptococcus suis is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the porcine industry and also a zoonotic agent. Serotype 9 is becoming one of the most prevalent serotypes within theS. suis population in certain European countries. In the present study, serotype 9 strains isolated from a country where infection due to this serotype is endemic (Spain), were compared to those recovered from Canada, where this serotype is rarely isolated from diseased pigs. For comparison purposes, strains from Brazil and the only strain isolated from a human case, in Thailand, were also incorporated. Firstly, sequence types (ST...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vivo testing of novel vaccine prototypes against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
In this study we describe the in vivo testing of several vaccine prototypes for the prevention of infection by all knownA. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. Previously identified vaccine candidates, the recombinant proteins ApfA and VacJ, administered individually or in various combinations with the OMVs, were employed as vaccination strategies. Our data show that the addition of the OMVs in the vaccine formulations significantly increased the specific IgG titer against both ApfA and VacJ in the immunized animals, confirming the previously postulated potential of the OMVs as adjuvant. Unfortunately, the antibody response raised ...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis vector delivering SaoA antigen confers protection against Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 7 in mice and pigs
In this study, an improved recombinant attenuatedSalmonella Choleraesuis vector, rSC0016, was developed by incorporating asopB mutation to ensure adequate safety and maximal immunogenicity. In the spleens of mice, rSC0016 colonized less than rSC0011. rSC0016 and rSC0011 colonized similarly in Peyer ’s patches of mice. The recombinant vaccine rSC0016(pS-SaoA) induced stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses in mice and swine against SaoA, a conserved surface protein that is present in manyS. suis serotypes, than did rSC0011(pS-SaoA) withoutsopB or rSC0018(pS-SaoA), which is an avirulent, chemically att...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Detection of PrP BSE and prion infectivity in the ileal Peyer ’s patch of young calves as early as 2 months after oral challenge with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy
AbstractIn classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), an orally acquired prion disease of cattle, the ileal Peyer ’s patch (IPP) represents the main entry port for the BSE agent. In earlier C-BSE pathogenesis studies, cattle at 4–6 months of age were orally challenged, while there are strong indications that the risk of infection is highest in young animals. In the present study, unweaned calves aged 4–6  weeks were orally challenged to determine the earliest time point at which newly formed PrPBSE and BSE infectivity are detectable in the IPP. For this purpose, calves were culled 1 &nb...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 19, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A VP24-truncated isolate of white spot syndrome virus is inefficient in per os infection
AbstractWhite spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen of penaeid shrimp. Here we identified a new WSSV strain, WSSV-CN04, from naturally infectedMarsupenaeus japonicus. Whole genomic sequencing results indicate that the WSSV-CN04 genome was 281  054 bp in length, and encoded 157 hypothetic proteins. The genome sequence of WSSV-CN04 was most closely related to the low-virulent strain WSSV-CN03, sharing 97.5% sequence identity. Notably, in WSSV-CN04, the major envelop protein VP24 was not only truncated but also absent in the virions. Sinc e VP24 was previously reported to be essential for WSSVper os infecti...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 11, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Nanobodies targeting conserved epitopes on the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter as potential tools for control of Campylobacter colonization
AbstractCampylobacter infections are among the most prevalent foodborne infections in humans, resulting in a massive disease burden worldwide. Broilers have been identified as the major source of campylobacteriosis and reducingCampylobacter loads in the broiler caeca has been proposed as an effective measure to decrease the number of infections in humans. Failure of current methods to controlCampylobacter in broilers stresses the urgency to develop novel mitigation measures. We obtained six nanobodies with a broad specificity, that recognize strains belonging to the two most relevant species,Campylobacter jejuni andCampylo...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Gene expression in the chicken caecum is dependent on microbiota composition
In this study, we performed an unbiased study of protein expression in the caecum of germ-free and colonised chickens. The major difference between these two groups was in the expression of immunoglobulins which were essentially absent in the germ-free chickens. Microbiota also caused a minor decrease in the expression of focal adhesion and extracellular matrix proteins and an increase in the expression of argininosuccinate synthase ASS1, redox potential sensing, fermentative metabolic processes and detoxification systems represented by sulfotransferases SULT1C3 or SULT1E1. Since we also analysed expression in the caecum o...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 4, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

African and classical swine fever: similarities, differences and epidemiological consequences
AbstractFor the global pig industry, classical (CSF) and African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks are a constantly feared threat. Except for Sardinia, ASF was eradicated in Europe in the late 1990s, which led to a research focus on CSF because this disease continued to be present. However, ASF remerged in eastern Europe in 2007 and the interest in the disease, its control and epidemiology increased tremendously. The similar names and the same susceptible species suggest a similarity of the two viral diseases, a related biological behaviour and, correspondingly, similar epidemiological features. However, there are several essent...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 28, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Primary replication and invasion of the bovine gammaherpesvirus BoHV-4 in the genital mucosae
In this study, in vivo-related in vitro genital tract models were successfully established and the early stage of the p athogenesis of a genital infection was clarified: BoHV-4 starts with a productive infection of epithelial cells in the reproductive tract, forming small foci followed by a non-productive infection of surveilling monocytic cells which help BoHV-4 to invade into deeper tissues. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - November 28, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of bluetongue virus episystems in Australia and Indonesia
In this study, the genomes of 49 bluetongue viruses from th e eastern episystem and 13 from Indonesia were sequenced and analysed along with 27 previously published genome sequences from the northern Australian episystem. The results of this analysis confirm that the Australian BTV population has its origins in the South East Asian/Melanesian episystem, and that incursions into northern Australia occur with some regularity. In addition, the presence of limited genetic diversity in the eastern episystem relative to that found in the north supports the presence of substantial, but not complete, barriers to gene flow between ...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 23, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Glycosylation at 11Asn on hemagglutinin of H5N1 influenza virus contributes to its biological characteristics
In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate single or double mutant rSY- Δ10(10NNAT), rSY-Δ11(10NNSA), and rSY-Δ10/11(10NNAA) of the overlapping glycosylation site (10NNST) on the HA of A/Mallard/Huadong/S/2005(SY). By using Western blot analysis, we show that both rSY-Δ11 and rSY-Δ10/11 mutant viruses had significant delay on HA cleavage and a reduced HA molecular mass compared to the wild-type virus rSY, while the rSY-Δ10 mutant virus exhibited a similar HA molecular mass to that of the wild-type virus rSY. Interestingly, both rSY-Δ11 and rSY-Δ10/11 mutant...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Vaccination with recombinant adenovirus expressing peste des petits ruminants virus-F or -H proteins elicits T cell responses to epitopes that arises during PPRV infection
AbstractPeste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease that limits productivity in small domestic ruminants and often affects the livestock of the poorest populations in developing countries. Animals that survive PPRV develop strong cellular and humoral responses, which are probably necessary for protection. Vaccination should thus aim at mimicking these natural responses. Immunization strategies against this morbillivirus using recombinant adenoviruses expressing PPRV-F or -H proteins can protect PPRV-challenged animals and permit differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Littl...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Recent knowledge on hepatitis E virus in Suidae reservoirs and transmission routes to human
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) causes self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans that can eventually result in acute liver failures or progress to chronic infections. While in tropical and sub-tropical areas, HEV infections are associated with important waterborne epidemics, in Northern countries, HEV infections are autochthonous with a zoonotic origin. In the past decade, it has become clear that certain HEV genotypes are zoonotic and that swine, and more generally Suidae, are the main reservoir. Zoonotic transmissions of the virus may occur via direct contact with infected pigs, wild boars or consumption of contaminated me...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 from a fatal human case induces pneumonia in experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis )
AbstractAlthough avian paramyxovirus type 1 is known to cause mild transient conjunctivitis in human beings, there are two recent reports of fatal respiratory disease in immunocompromised human patients infected with the pigeon lineage of the virus (PPMV-1). In order to evaluate the potential of PPMV-1 to cause respiratory tract disease, we inoculated a PPMV-1 isolate (hPPMV-1/Netherlands/579/2003) from an immunocompromised human patient into three healthy cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and examined them by clinical, virological, and pathological assays. In all three macaques, PPMV-1 replication was restricted t...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Correction to: A review of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in the United States and the role of wild birds in viral persistence and spread
AbstractAfter publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that Newcastle disease virus was incorrectly labeled as a Tier 1 USDA Select Agent. Newcastle disease virus is a USDA Select Agent but it is not a Tier 1 agent. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - November 16, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Blocked expression of key genes of the angiogenic pathway in JSRV-induced pulmonary adenocarcinomas
AbstractJSRV (Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus) is a retrovirus inducing a transmissible lung adenocarcinoma in sheep and goats with predominantly lepidic and papillary lesions. This naturally occurring lung cancer in large animals shares many features with human pneumonic-type lung adenocarcinomas with predominant lepidic growth. The metastatic spread is rare in both human and animal cancers. This unique feature prompted us to decipher the angiogenesis pathway in these cancers. We focused on the levels of mRNA and proteins of genes implicated in the extension of JSRV-induced lung adenocarcinomas by studying their expression in...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 14, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of enriched housing on levels of natural (auto-)antibodies in pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
AbstractHousing of pigs in barren, stimulus-poor housing conditions may influence their immune status, including antibody responses to (auto-)antigens, and thus affect immune protection, which will influence the onset and outcome of infection. In the present study, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment versus barren housing on the level of natural (auto-)antibodies (NA(A)b) and their isotypes (IgM and IgG) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), myelin basic protein (MBP), and phosphorycholine conjugated to bovine serum albumin (PC-BSA) in pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndro...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 10, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research