Oral vaccination with Trichinella spiralis DNase II DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella induces a protective immunity in BALB/c mice
AbstractTrichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution, and it is necessary to develop a vaccine to interrupt transmission from animals to humans.Trichinella spiralis adult-specific DNase II-1 (TsDNase II) were identified by immunoproteomics in surface or excretory/secretory proteins of adult worms (AW) and intestinal infective larvae (IIL). The aim of this study was to investigate the systemic, mucosal responses and immune protection elicited by oral vaccination with TsDNase II DNA vaccine delivered by attenuatedSalmonella typhimurium strain ⊿cyaSL1344. Oral vaccinatio...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

First demonstration of the circulation of a pneumovirus in French pigs by detection of anti-swine orthopneumovirus nucleoprotein antibodies
In this study, we used the published sequence of the nucleoprotein (N) of the recently identified SwineOrthopneumovirus (SOV) to express and purify SOV N as a recombinant protein inEscherichia coli. This protein was purified as nanorings and used to set up an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which was used to analyse the presence of anti-pneumovirus N antibodies in swine sera. Sera collected from different pig farms in the West of France and from specific pathogen free piglets before colostrum uptake showed indirectly that a pneumovirus is circulating in pig populations with some variations between animals. Piglets befor...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of paucibacillary ileal lesions in sheep with subclinical active infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
In conclusion, we described several pathways altered in paucibacillary PTB, highlighted some proteomic differences among paucibacillary PTB cases, and identified potential markers for disease understanding, staging, and detection. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - December 4, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Interspecies transmission to bovinized transgenic mice uncovers new features of a CH1641-like scrapie isolate
This study provides new insight into the relationship between CH1641-like scrapie isolates and BSEs. In addition, interspecies transmission models such as we have demonstrated here could be a great help to investigate the origin and host range of animal prions. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - November 28, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular basis determining species specificity for TLR2 inhibition by staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3 (SSL3)
In this study we aimed to investigate the molecular basis of the interaction on the TLR2 side. The SSL3 binding region on murine TLR2 was compared to that of other species through sequence alignment and homology modeling, which identif ied interspecies differences. To examine whether this resulted in altered SSL3 activity on the corresponding TLR2s, bovine, equine, human, and murine TLR2 were stably expressed in HEK293T cells and the ability of SSL3 to inhibit TLR2 was assessed. We found that SSL3 was unable to inhibit bovine TLR2 . Subsequent loss and gain of function mutagenesis showed that the lack of inhibition is expl...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 28, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase encoded by a core gene of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae contributes to host cell adhesion
AbstractMycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an important respiratory pathogen that causes great economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Although some putative virulence factors have been reported, pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Herein, we evaluated the relative abundance of proteins in virulent 168 (F107) and attenuated 168L (F380)M. hyopneumoniae strains to identify virulence-associated factors by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Seven proteins were found to be ≥ 1.5-fold more abundant in 168, and protein–protein interaction network analysis revealed that all seven interact with putative vir...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Small ruminant lentivirus infection influences expression of acute phase proteins and cathelicidin genes in milk somatic cells and peripheral blood leukocytes of dairy goats
AbstractThe aim of the study was to analyze acute phase protein and cathelicidin gene responses to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection in goats. In uninfected goats, we found higherCp and lowerFb γ mRNA levels in blood leucocytes (BL) than in milk somatic cells (MSC), as well as lower SAA, Hp, and CRP and higher Cp and AGP concentrations in blood serum than in milk. In SRLV-infected goats, we found higherFb γ andMAP28 and lowerCp expression in MSC than in BL, and higher SAA, Hp, Fb, and MAP28 and lower AGP concentrations in milk than in blood serum. HigherSAA andHp expressions in BL andHp expression in M...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 13, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Gene silencing by RNA interference in the ectoparasitic mite, Psoroptes ovis
AbstractThe presence of components of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway inPsoroptes ovis, an ectoparasitic mite responsible for psoroptic mange, was investigated through interrogation of theP. ovis genome. Homologues of transcripts representing critical elements for achieving effective RNAi in the mite,Tetranychus urticae and the model organismsCaenorhabditis elegans andDrosophila melanogaster were identified and, following the development of a non-invasive immersion method of double stranded RNA delivery, gene silencing by RNAi was successfully demonstrated inP. ovis. Significant reductions in transcript levels were ach...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Alternate routes of influenza A virus infection in Mallard ( Anas platyrhynchos )
In this study we wanted to assess two alternativ e infection routes: cloacal drinking and preening. Using experimental infections, we assessed patterns of infection using a combination of virus shedding, as assessed by real-time PCR from cloacal swabs, and patterns of viral replication using virus-immunohistochemistry of gastrointestinal tissues. The cloacal drinking experiment consisted of two trials using cloacal inoculation at two different time points to account for age differences, as well as a trial whereby ducks were allowed to take up virus-laden water through the cloaca. All ducks became infected, and rather than ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of the zinc metalloprotease of Streptococcus suis serotype 2
AbstractStreptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and zoonotic agent responsible for meningitis and septic shock. Although several putative virulence factors have been described, the initial steps of theS. suis pathogenesis remain poorly understood. While controversial results have been reported for aS. suis serotype 2 zinc metalloprotease (Zmp) regarding its IgA protease activity, recent phylogenetic analyses suggested that this protein is homologous to the ZmpC ofStreptococcus pneumoniae, which is not an IgA protease. Based on the previously described functions of metalloproteases (including IgA protease and ZmpC), differen...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Associations between digital dermatitis lesion grades in dairy cattle and the quantities of four Treponema species
AbstractDigital dermatitis (DD) presents as painful, ulcerative or proliferative lesions that lead to bovine lameness affecting economic efficiency and animal welfare. Although DD etiological agent(s) have not been established, it is widely accepted that DD is a polymicrobial disease significantly associated with species ofTreponema and the non-linear disease progression may be attributed to interactions among infecting bacteria. We postulated the morphological changes associated with DD lesion grades are related to interactions among infecting species ofTreponema. We developed a novel species-specific qPCR that can identi...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The adjuvant G3 promotes a Th1 polarizing innate immune response in equine PBMC
AbstractThe immunomodulatory effect of a new particulate adjuvant, G3, alone or in combination with agonists to TLR2/1 or TLR5 was evaluated in cultures of equine PBMC. Exposure to the G3 adjuvant up-regulated genes encoding IFN- γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40 and IL-23p19 in the majority of the horses tested, indicating that the G3 adjuvant induced a pro-inflammatory and Th1 dominated profile. In accordance, genes encoding IL-13, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β remained unaffected and genes encoding IFN-α, IL-17A and TNF-α were only occasionally and weakly induced. The two TLR agonists Pam3CSK4 (TLR2/1) ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 22, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bottlenecks in the transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV1) to na ïve pigs and the quasi-species variation of the virus during infection in vaccinated pigs
AbstractThis paper describes the results of two experiments regarding porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV1): the first one studied the existence of bottlenecks in an experimental one-to-one model of transmission in pigs; while the second analysed the differences between viral quasi-species in vaccinated pigs that developed shorter or longer viraemias after natural challenge. Serum samples, as well as the initial inoculum, were deep-sequenced and a viral quasi-species was constructed per sample. For the first experiment, the results consistently reported a reduction in the quasi-species diversity afte...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Endogenous transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum during successive pregnancies across three generations of naturally infected sheep
In this study, involving three generations of ewes naturally infected byN. caninum, we demonstrated that endogenous transplacental transmission may also be highly efficient in the ovine host since transmission of infection occurred in 96.6% of gestations and the congenital infection rate ranged between 66.7 and 93%. Nevertheless, parasite burdens decreased gradually in consecutive generations. Reactivation of latent infections had a strong impact on the pregnancy outcome, with high mortality rates recorded in the offspring of the two first generations of ewes (21.4 –46.1%). Histological examination of the brain revea...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Safety and immunogenicity of plant-produced African horse sickness virus-like particles in horses
AbstractAfrican horse sickness (AHS) is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have encouraged attempts to develop new and safer recombinant vaccines. Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a plant-produced AHS serotype 5 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, which stimulated high titres of AHS serotype 5-specific neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. Here, we report a similar response to the vaccine in horses. This is the first repo...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Visualisation and characterisation of mononuclear phagocytes in the chicken respiratory tract using CSF1R -transgenic chickens
AbstractThe respiratory tract is a key organ for many avian pathogens as well as a major route for vaccination in the poultry industry. To improve immune responses after vaccination of chickens through increased uptake of vaccines and targeting to antigen presenting cells, a better understanding of the avian respiratory immune system is required. Transgenic MacReporter birds were used expressing a reporter gene (eGFP ormApple) under the control of theCSF1R promoter and enhancer in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) lineage to visualize the ontogeny of the lymphoid tissue, macrophages and dendritic cells, in the trach...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 10, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Newcastle disease virus V protein inhibits apoptosis in DF-1 cells by downregulating TXNL1
AbstractMany viral proteins are related to suppressing apoptosis in target cells and are hence beneficial to viral replication. The V protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one such protein that plays an important role in inhibiting apoptosis in a species-specific manner. However, to date, there have been no reports clarifying the antiapoptotic mechanisms of the V protein. The present study was undertaken to determine the apoptotic potential of the V protein in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1 cell) and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms of action. Here, a yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen the h...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Correction to: Annexin A2 binds to vimentin and contributes to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus multiplication
In the original publication of this article [1], the author found the brand of vimentin antibody was wrong in Fig.  3. The legend of Fig. 3, ‘mouse anti-vimentin mAb (Cell Signaling Technology) at 4 °C overnight’ should be ‘mouse anti-vimentin mAb (Sigma-Aldrich) at 4 °C overnight’. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival via treatment with methyl gallate alone and in combination with marbofloxacin
This study aimed to investigate the role of methyl gallate (MG) in adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival ofSalmonella Typhimurium in Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 cells via a gentamicin protection assay, confocal microscopy, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. MG (30  µg/mL) inhibited adhesion and invasion ofSalmonella Typhimurium by 54.01% and 60.5% in RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. The combination of MG with sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of marbofloxacin (MRB) inhibited the adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival by 70.49%, 67.36%, and 74%, respectively. Confoc...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 4, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Therapeutic and immunoregulatory effects of water-soluble alkaloids E2-a from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds as a novel potential agent against echinococcosis in experimentally protoscolex-infected mice
AbstractNovel compounds and more efficient treatment options are urgently needed for the treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused byEchinococcus granulosus. The decoction ofSophora moorcroftiana (Fabaceae) has been used to treat parasitosis for years in traditional Tibetan medicine. The aim of this study was to screen insecticidal water-soluble alkaloids fromS. moorcroftiana seeds and evaluate the therapeutic effects against CE and the immune response induced by the alkaloidal fraction. Low polarity compounds (E2-a) were isolated from water-soluble alkaloid (E2) and matrine and sophocarpine were identified ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 4, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival via treatment with methyl gallate alone and in combination with marbofloxacin
This study aimed to investigate the role of methyl gallate (MG) in adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival ofSalmonella Typhimurium in Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 cells via a gentamicin protection assay, confocal microscopy, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. MG (30  µg/mL) inhibited adhesion and invasion ofSalmonella Typhimurium by 54.01% and 60.5% in RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. The combination of MG with sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of marbofloxacin (MRB) inhibited the adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival by 70.49%, 67.36%, and 74%, respectively. Confoc...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 4, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Therapeutic and immunoregulatory effects of water-soluble alkaloids E2-a from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds as a novel potential agent against echinococcosis in experimentally protoscolex-infected mice
AbstractNovel compounds and more efficient treatment options are urgently needed for the treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused byEchinococcus granulosus. The decoction ofSophora moorcroftiana (Fabaceae) has been used to treat parasitosis for years in traditional Tibetan medicine. The aim of this study was to screen insecticidal water-soluble alkaloids fromS. moorcroftiana seeds and evaluate the therapeutic effects against CE and the immune response induced by the alkaloidal fraction. Low polarity compounds (E2-a) were isolated from water-soluble alkaloid (E2) and matrine and sophocarpine were identified ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 4, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of two residues within the NS1 of H7N9 influenza A virus that critically affect the protein stability and function
In this study, we compared NS1 amino acid sequences of H7N9 influenza A virus with those of other strains, and determined NS1 protein variability within the H7N9 virus and then evaluated the impact of amino acid substitutions on ability of the NS1 proteins to inhibit host innate immunity. Interestingly, the amino acid residue S212 was identified to have a profound effect on the primary function of NS1, since S212P substitution disabled H7N9 NS1 in suppressing the host RIG-I-dependent interferon response, as well as the ability to promote the virus replication. In addition, we identified another amino acid residue, I178, se...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Salmonella Gallinarum delivering M2eCD40L in protein and DNA formats acts as a bivalent vaccine against fowl typhoid and H9N2 infection in chickens
AbstractFowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused bySalmonella Gallinarum (SG), and H9N2 influenza infection are two economically important diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant (JOL967) to deliver highly conserved extracellular domains of H9N2 M2 (M2e) to induce protective immunity against both H9N2 infection and FT. To increase the immunogenicity of M2e, we physically linked it with CD40L and cloned the fusion gene into either prokaryotic constitutive expression vector pJHL65 or mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1+. Then pJHL65-M2eCD40L or pcDNA-M2eCD40L r...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of two residues within the NS1 of H7N9 influenza A virus that critically affect the protein stability and function
In this study, we compared NS1 amino acid sequences of H7N9 influenza A virus with those of other strains, and determined NS1 protein variability within the H7N9 virus and then evaluated the impact of amino acid substitutions on ability of the NS1 proteins to inhibit host innate immunity. Interestingly, the amino acid residue S212 was identified to have a profound effect on the primary function of NS1, since S212P substitution disabled H7N9 NS1 in suppressing the host RIG-I-dependent interferon response, as well as the ability to promote the virus replication. In addition, we identified another amino acid residue, I178, se...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Salmonella Gallinarum delivering M2eCD40L in protein and DNA formats acts as a bivalent vaccine against fowl typhoid and H9N2 infection in chickens
AbstractFowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused bySalmonella Gallinarum (SG), and H9N2 influenza infection are two economically important diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant (JOL967) to deliver highly conserved extracellular domains of H9N2 M2 (M2e) to induce protective immunity against both H9N2 infection and FT. To increase the immunogenicity of M2e, we physically linked it with CD40L and cloned the fusion gene into either prokaryotic constitutive expression vector pJHL65 or mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1+. Then pJHL65-M2eCD40L or pcDNA-M2eCD40L r...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Multi-organ spreading of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 7 in weaned pigs during the first week after experimental infection
AbstractActinobacillus (A.)pleuropneumoniae is normally considered strictly adapted to the respiratory tract of swine. Despite this, scattered case reports of arthritis, osteomyelitis, hepatitis, meningitis or nephritis exist, in whichA. pleuropneumoniae remained the only detectable pathogen. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether spreading to other organs than the lungs is incidental or may occur more frequently. For this, organ samples (blood, liver, spleen, kidney, tarsal and carpal joints, meninges, pleural and pericardial fluids) from weaners (n = 47) infected experimentally withA. p...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 25, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Analysis of peptide-SLA binding by establishing immortalized porcine alveolar macrophage cells with different SLA class II haplotypes
AbstractPrimary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) are useful for studying viral infections and immune response in pigs; however, long-term use of these cells is limited by the cells ’ short lifespan. We immortalized primary PAMs by transfecting them with bothhTERT andSV40LT and established two immortalized cell lines (iPAMs) actively proliferating even after 35 passages. These cells possessed the characteristics of primary PAMs, including strong expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes and the inability to grow anchorage-independently. We characterized their SLA genes and subsequently performed pep...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection decreases arginine uptake by downregulating CAT-1 expression
In this study, we evaluated the impact of TGEV infection on arginine uptake using the porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 as a model system. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed that TGEV infection leads to reduced arginine uptake at 48  hours post-infection (hpi). Expression of cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) was attenuated as well. TGEV infection induced activation of phospho-protein kinase C α (p-PKC α), phospho-epidermal growth factor receptor (p-EGFR), and enhanced the expression of caveolin-1, all of which appear to be involved in down-regulating a...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 20, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pathobiology of Avian avulavirus 1 : special focus on waterfowl
AbstractAvian avulaviruses serotype 1 (abbreviated as APMV-1 for the historical name avian paramyxovirus 1) are capable of infecting a wide spectrum of avian species with variable clinical symptoms and outcomes. Ease of transmission has allowed the virus to spread worldwide with varying degrees of virulence depending upon the virus strain and host species. The emergence of new virulent genotypes from global epizootics, and the year-to-year genomic changes in low and high virulence APMV-1 imply that distinct genotypes of APMV-1 are simultaneously evolving at different geographic locations across the globe. This vast genomic...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Porcine sapovirus Cowden strain enters LLC-PK cells via clathrin- and cholesterol-dependent endocytosis with the requirement of dynamin II
AbstractCaliciviruses in the genusSapovirus are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals. However, the mechanism of their entry into cells is not well characterized. Here, we determined the entry mechanism of porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden into permissive LLC-PK cells. The inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis using chlorpromazine, siRNAs, and a dominant negative (DN) mutant blocked entry and infection of PSaV Cowden strain, confirming a role for clathrin-mediated internalization. Entry and infection were also inhibited by the cholesterol-sequestering drug methyl- β-cyclodextrin...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The Riemerella anatipestifer M949_RS01035 gene is involved in bacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
This study presents evidence that theM949_RS01035 gene is involved in bacterial phenotype, virulence, and gene regulation inR. anatipestifer. The mutant strain RA1062 could be used as a cross-protective vaccine candidate. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Porcine sapovirus Cowden strain enters LLC-PK cells via clathrin- and cholesterol-dependent endocytosis with the requirement of dynamin II
AbstractCaliciviruses in the genusSapovirus are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals. However, the mechanism of their entry into cells is not well characterized. Here, we determined the entry mechanism of porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden into permissive LLC-PK cells. The inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis using chlorpromazine, siRNAs, and a dominant negative (DN) mutant blocked entry and infection of PSaV Cowden strain, confirming a role for clathrin-mediated internalization. Entry and infection were also inhibited by the cholesterol-sequestering drug methyl- β-cyclodextrin...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The Riemerella anatipestifer M949_RS01035 gene is involved in bacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
This study presents evidence that theM949_RS01035 gene is involved in bacterial phenotype, virulence, and gene regulation inR. anatipestifer. The mutant strain RA1062 could be used as a cross-protective vaccine candidate. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Oral immunization with a novel attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum encoding infectious bronchitis virus spike protein induces protective immune responses against fowl typhoid and infectious bronchitis in chickens
AbstractFowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused bySalmonella Gallinarum (SG), and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two economically important avian diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant, JOL967, to deliver spike (S) protein 1 of IB virus (V) to elicit protective immunity against both FT and IB in chickens. The codon optimized S1 nucleotide sequence was cloned in-frame into a prokaryotic constitutive expression vector, pJHL65. Subsequently, empty pJHL65 or recombinant pJHL65-S1 plasmid was electroporated into JOL967 and the resultant clones were designated as ...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative proteomic analysis reveals different responses in porcine lymph nodes to virulent and attenuated homologous African swine fever virus strains
AbstractAfrican swine fever (ASF) is a pathology of pigs against which there is no treatment or vaccine. Understanding the equilibrium between innate and adaptive protective responses and immune pathology might contribute to the development of strategies against ASFV. Here we compare, using a proteomic approach, the course of the in vivo infection caused by two homologous strains: the virulent E75 and the attenuated E75CV1. Our results show a progressive loss of proteins by day 7 post-infection (pi) with E75, reflecting tissue destruction. Many signal pathways were affected by both infections but in different ways and exte...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and assessment of virulence of a natural reassortant of infectious bursal disease virus
We report the genetic and phenotypic characterization of a field reassortant IBDV (designated as Bpop/03) that acquired segment A from very virulent IBDV and segment B from classical attenuated D78-like IBDV. Despite the mosaic genetic make-up, the virus caused high mortality (80%) in experimentally infected SPF chickens and induced lesions typical of the acute form of IBD. The in vivo study results are in contrast with the foregoing experimental investigations in which the natural reassortants exhibited an intermediate pathotype, and underline the complex nature of IBDV virulence. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Oral immunization with a novel attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum encoding infectious bronchitis virus spike protein induces protective immune responses against fowl typhoid and infectious bronchitis in chickens
AbstractFowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused bySalmonella Gallinarum (SG), and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two economically important avian diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant, JOL967, to deliver spike (S) protein 1 of IB virus (V) to elicit protective immunity against both FT and IB in chickens. The codon optimized S1 nucleotide sequence was cloned in-frame into a prokaryotic constitutive expression vector, pJHL65. Subsequently, empty pJHL65 or recombinant pJHL65-S1 plasmid was electroporated into JOL967 and the resultant clones were designated as ...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative proteomic analysis reveals different responses in porcine lymph nodes to virulent and attenuated homologous African swine fever virus strains
AbstractAfrican swine fever (ASF) is a pathology of pigs against which there is no treatment or vaccine. Understanding the equilibrium between innate and adaptive protective responses and immune pathology might contribute to the development of strategies against ASFV. Here we compare, using a proteomic approach, the course of the in vivo infection caused by two homologous strains: the virulent E75 and the attenuated E75CV1. Our results show a progressive loss of proteins by day 7 post-infection (pi) with E75, reflecting tissue destruction. Many signal pathways were affected by both infections but in different ways and exte...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and assessment of virulence of a natural reassortant of infectious bursal disease virus
We report the genetic and phenotypic characterization of a field reassortant IBDV (designated as Bpop/03) that acquired segment A from very virulent IBDV and segment B from classical attenuated D78-like IBDV. Despite the mosaic genetic make-up, the virus caused high mortality (80%) in experimentally infected SPF chickens and induced lesions typical of the acute form of IBD. The in vivo study results are in contrast with the foregoing experimental investigations in which the natural reassortants exhibited an intermediate pathotype, and underline the complex nature of IBDV virulence. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The effects of zinc amino acid complex supplementation on the porcine host response to Lawsonia intracellularis infection
In this study, we investigated the porcine host response toL. intracellularis infection when supplemented with a zinc-amino acid complex, a form of zinc that can lead to greater bioavailability when compared to traditional inorganic forms of zinc. Our results show that a zinc-amino acid complex supplementation with a final concentration of 125  ppm of zinc in feed significantly (p 
Source: Veterinary Research - September 10, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis in mice elicited by oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella -delivered TsSP1.2 DNA
In this study, the complete TsSP1.2 cDNA sequences were cloned into pcDNA3.1, and the rTsSP1.2 DNA was transformed into attenuatedSalmonella typhimurium strain ΔcyaSL1344. Oral vaccination of mice withSalmonella-delivered rTsSP1.2 DNA vaccine induced an obvious intestinal mucosal IgA response and a systemic Th1/Th2 immune response; the vaccinated mice showed a 33.45% reduction of intestinal adult worms and 71.84% reduction of muscle larvae afterT. spiralis larval challenge. The protection might be due to the rTsSP1.2-induced production of specific anti-TsSP1.2 sIgA, IgG, IgG1/IgG2a, and secretion of IFN- γ, IL-...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The CO 2 -dependence of Brucella ovis and Brucella abortus biovars is caused by defective carbonic anhydrases
AbstractBrucella bacteria cause brucellosis, a major zoonosis whose control requires efficient diagnosis and vaccines. Identification of classicalBrucella spp. has traditionally relied on phenotypic characterization, including surface antigens and 5 –10% CO2 necessity for growth (CO2-dependence), a trait ofBrucella ovis and mostBrucella abortus biovars 1 –4 strains. Although molecular tests are replacing phenotypic methods, CO2-dependence remains of interest as it conditions isolation and propagation and reflectsBrucella metabolism, an area of active research. Here, we investigated the connection of CO2-depende...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Betanodavirus infection in primary neuron cultures from sole
In this study, first we established a protocol for the primary culture of neurons from Senegalese sole, which made it possible to further study virus-host cell interactions. Then, we compared the replication of three NNV strains with different genotypes (SJNNV, RGNNV and a RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant strain) in sole neuron primary cultures and E-11 cells. In addition, to study how two amino acid substitutions at the c-terminal of the capsid protein (positions 247 and 270) affect the binding to cell receptors, a recombinant strain was also tested. The results show that sole neural cells enabled replication of all the tested NNV...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research