Amphibian chytridiomycosis: a review with focus on fungus-host interactions
Abstract Amphibian declines and extinctions are emblematic for the current sixth mass extinction event. Infectious drivers of these declines include the recently emerged fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Chytridiomycota). The skin disease caused by these fungi is named chytridiomycosis and affects the vital function of amphibian skin. Not all amphibians respond equally to infection and host responses might range from resistant, over tolerant to susceptible. The clinical outcome of infection is highly dependent on the amphibian host, the fungal virulence and env...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental infection of a US spike-insertion deletion porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in conventional nursing piglets and cross-protection to the original US PEDV infection
In this study, 3–4 day-old conventional suckling piglets were inoculated with S-INDEL PEDV Iowa106 (4 pig litters) to study its virulence. Two litters of age-matched piglets were inoculated with either the original US PEDV PC21A or mock as positive and negative controls, respectively. Subsequently, all pigs were challenged with the original US PEDV PC21A on 21–29 days post-inoculation (dpi) to assess cross-protection. All S-INDEL Iowa106- and the original US PC21A-inoculated piglets developed diarrhea. However, the severity of clinical signs, mortality (0–75%) and fecal PEDV RNA shedding ti...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 20, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Transcriptomic analysis of the host response to an iridovirus infection in Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus
In this study, de novo sequencing was used to obtain abundant high-quality ESTs and investigate differentially-expressed genes in the spleen of Chinese giant salamanders that were either infected or mock infected with GSIV. Comparative expression analysis indicated that 293 genes were down-regulated and 220 genes were up-regulated. Further enrichment analysis showed that the most enriched pathway is “complement and coagulation cascades”, and significantly enriched diseases include “inherited thrombophilia”, “immune system diseases”, “primary immunodeficiency”, “compleme...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 20, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Live attenuated African swine fever viruses as ideal tools to dissect the mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis and immune protection
In this study we compared the course of the in vivo infection caused by two homologous ASFV strains: the virulent E75 and the cell cultured adapted strain E75CV1, obtained from adapting E75 to grow in the CV1 cell-line. Interestingly, the kinetics of both viruses not only differed on the clinical signs that they caused and in the virus loads found, but also in the immunological pathways activated throughout the infections. Furthermore, E75CV1 confirmed its protective potential against the homologous E75 virus challenge and allowed the demonstration of poor cross-protection against BA71, thus defining it as heterologous. Th...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 20, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds with different susceptibility to mange
Abstract The sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, is a major problem in the beef cattle industry, especially in Belgian Blue (BB) cattle. This breed is naturally more predisposed to psoroptic mange but reasons for this high susceptibility remain unknown. Different immune responses could be a potential cause; thus in this study, the cutaneous immune response and in vitro cellular immune response after antigen re-stimulation were examined in naturally infested BB. Cytokine production in the skin and in circulating re-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) demonstrated a mixed pro-inflammatory Th2/Th17 pro...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Interleukin-10 production at the early stage of infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus related to the likelihood of persistent infection in cattle
Abstract The factors leading to persistent infection of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus in ruminants are not well defined. This paper provides evidence of the presence of interleukin-10 (IL-10) early in the course of infection (1–4 days) as a factor in the development of persistence of FMD virus in cattle. Results showed that serum IL-10 in carrier cattle infected with FMD virus type O (n = 4) was detected and peaked at 1 or 2 days post infection and rapidly declined thereafter. In contract, serum IL-10 levels in non-carrier cattle (n = 21) were very low or undetectable duri...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Protective effect of anti-SUAM antibodies on Streptococcus uberis mastitis
Abstract In the present study, the effect of anti-recombinant Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) antibodies against S. uberis intramammary infections (IMI) was evaluated using a passive protection model. Mammary quarters of healthy cows were infused with S. uberis UT888 opsonized with affinity purified anti-rSUAM antibodies or hyperimmune sera. Non-opsonized S. uberis UT888 were used as a control. Mammary quarters infused with opsonized S. uberis showed mild-to undetectable clinical symptoms of mastitis, lower milk bacterial counts, and less infected mammary quarters as compared to mammary quarters inf...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of the pathogenicity of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strains in a SPF chicken model of infection: NS3-249Pro mutation is neither sufficient nor necessary for conferring virulence
Abstract Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains were reported for the first time in Europe in 2004. Despite an almost silent circulation around their entry point in Hungary, an upsurge of pathogenicity occurred in 2010 as 262 people suffered from neuroinvasive disease in Greece. This increase in virulence was imputed to the emergence of a His249Pro mutation in the viral NS3 helicase, as previously evidenced in American crows experimentally infected with the prototype lineage 1 North-American WNV strain. However, since 2003, WNV strains bearing the NS3Pro genotype are regularly isolated in Western-Mediterranean c...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 30, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis -complex excretion and characterization of super-shedders in naturally-infected wild boar and red deer
Abstract Wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) are the main maintenance hosts for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in continental Europe. Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) excretion routes is crucial to define strategies to control bTB in free-ranging populations, nevertheless available information is scarce. Aiming at filling this gap, four different MTC excretion routes (oronasal, bronchial-alveolar, fecal and urinary) were investigated by molecular methods in naturally infected hunter-harvested wild boar and red deer. In addition MTC concentrations were estimated by the Most Pr...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 30, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever
Abstract Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle
Abstract Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal environment and the fate of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Therefore, knowledge on the vaginal microbiota is urgently needed for the minipig model. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of the anterior vagina by 16 s rRNA gene sequencing in prepuber...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Dynamics of the natural transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy within an intensively managed sheep flock
Abstract Sheep are susceptible to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent and in the UK they may have been exposed to BSE via contaminated meat and bone meal. An experimental sheep flock was established to determine whether ovine BSE could be naturally transmitted under conditions of intensive husbandry. The flock consisted of 113 sheep of different breeds and susceptible PRNP genotypes orally dosed with BSE, 159 sheep subsequently born to them and 125 unchallenged sentinel controls. BSE was confirmed in 104 (92%) orally dosed sheep and natural transmission was recorded for 14 of 79 (18%) lambs born to B...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Multifunctional roles of leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suppressing host antiviral responses
Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader protein (Lpro) is a papain-like proteinase, which plays an important role in FMDV pathogenesis. Lpro exists as two forms, Lab and Lb, due to translation being initiated from two different start codons separated by 84 nucleotides. Lpro self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. In addition to its role as a viral proteinase, Lpro also has the ability to antagonize host antiviral effects. To promote FMDV replication, Lpro can suppress host antiviral responses by three different mechanisms: (1) cleavage of eukaryotic...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Haemophilus parasuis : infection, immunity and enrofloxacin
Abstract Haemophilus parasuis is an early colonizer of the porcine upper respiratory tract and is the etiological agent of Glasser’s disease. The factors responsible for H. parasuis colonization and systemic infection are not yet well understood, while prevention and control of Glasser’s disease continues to be challenging. Recent studies on innate immunity to H. parasuis have demonstrated that porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) are able to differentially up-regulate several genes related to inflammation and phagocytosis, and several pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced by porcine ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Correlation of hypothetical virulence traits of two Streptococcus uberis strains with the clinical manifestation of bovine mastitis
Abstract Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Several virulence mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the species’ ability to cause disease. Here, virulence characteristics were compared between S. uberis strains FSL Z1-048, which consistently caused clinical mastitis in a challenge model, and FSL Z1-124, which consistently failed to cause disease in the same model, to ascertain whether in vitro virulence characteristics were related to clinical outcome. Macrophages derived from bovine blood monocytes failed to kill FSL Z1-048 ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

F4 + ETEC infection and oral immunization with F4 fimbriae elicits an IL-17-dominated immune response
Abstract Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in piglets. Porcine-specific ETEC strains possess different fimbrial subtypes of which F4 fimbriae are the most frequently associated with ETEC-induced diarrhea in piglets. These F4 fimbriae are potent oral immunogens that induce protective F4-specific IgA antibody secreting cells at intestinal tissues. Recently, T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have been implicated in the protection of the host against extracellular pathogens. However, it remains unknown if Th17 effector responses are needed to clear ETEC infections. I...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 21, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon
Abstract All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challe...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 21, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Free exopolysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides possesses anti-inflammatory properties
In this study we explored the immunomodulatory properties of highly purified free galactan, the soluble exopolysaccharide secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Galactan was shown to bind to TLR2 but not TLR4 using HEK293 reporter cells and to induce the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in bovine macrophages, whereas low IL-12p40 and no TNF-α, both pro-inflammatory cytokines, were induced in these cells. In addition, pre-treatment of macrophages with galactan substantially reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- and IL-12p40 while increa...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 21, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep
In conclusion, the SBV specific IgM response probably eliminates SBV from the blood and the protective immunity induced by SBV infection protects sheep against reinfection for at least 16 months. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 15, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

HtpG contributes to Salmonella Typhimurium intestinal persistence in pigs
Abstract Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) contamination of pork, is one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. The bacterium is able to persist and hide in asymptomatic carrier animals, generating a reservoir for Salmonella transmission to other animals and humans. Mechanisms involved in Salmonella persistence in pigs remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the Salmonella htpG gene, encoding a homologue of the eukaryotic heat shock protein 90, contributes to Salmonella Typhimurium ...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 14, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection
Abstract Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspecti...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immunization routes in cattle impact the levels and neutralizing capacity of antibodies induced against S. aureus immune evasion proteins
Abstract Vaccines against S. aureus bovine mastitis are scarce and show limited protection only. All currently available vaccines are applied via the parenteral (usually intramuscular) route. It is unknown, however, whether this route is the most suitable to specifically increase intramammary immunity to combat S. aureus at the site of infection. Hence, in the present study, immunization via mucosal (intranasal; IN), intramuscular (triangle of the neck; IM), intramammary (IMM) and subcutaneous (suspensory ligament; SC) routes were analyzed for their effects on the quantity of the antibody responses in serum and m...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

An in vitro model to assess the immunosuppressive effect of tick saliva on the mobilization of inflammatory monocyte-derived cells
Abstract Tick-borne pathogens cause potent infections. These pathogens benefit from molecules contained in tick saliva that have evolved to modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses. This is called “saliva-activated transmission” and enables tick-borne pathogens to evade host immune responses. Ticks feed on their host for relatively long periods; thus, mechanisms counteracting the inflammation-driven recruitment and activation of innate effector cells at the bite site, are an effective strategy to escape the immune response. Here, we developed an original in vitro model to evaluate and to cha...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal trends in the discovery of new swine infectious agents
Abstract A literature review was conducted to assess the spatiotemporal trend and diversity of infectious agents that were newly found in pigs between 1985 and 2010. We identified 173 new variants from 91 species, of which 73 species had not been previously described in pigs. These new species, of which one third was zoonotic, were taxonomically diverse. They were identified throughout the study period, predominantly in the main pork producing countries, with the rate of discovery of new virus variants doubling within the last 10 years of the study period. Whilst infectious agent species newly detected in hi...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 28, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Phenotypic and functional analysis of monocyte populations in cattle peripheral blood identifies a subset with high endocytic and allogeneic T-cell stimulatory capacity
Abstract Circulating monocytes in several mammalian species can be subdivided into functionally distinct subpopulations based on differential expression of surface molecules. We confirm that bovine monocytes express CD172a and MHC class II with two distinct populations of CD14+CD16low/-CD163+ and CD14−CD16++CD163low- cells, and a more diffuse population of CD14+CD16+CD163+ cells. In contrast, ovine monocytes consisted of only a major CD14+CD16+ subset and a very low percentage of CD14−CD16++cells. The bovine subsets expressed similar levels of CD80, CD40 and CD11c molecules and mRNA encoding CD115. Ho...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Keratin and S100 calcium-binding proteins are major constituents of the bovine teat canal lining
In this study, TCL collected from six healthy lactating dairy cows was subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. The abundance and location of selected identified proteins were determined by western blotting and fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The variability of abundance among individual cows was also investigated. Two dominant clusters of proteins were detected in the TCL, comprising members of the keratin and S100 families of proteins. The S100 proteins were localised to the teat canal keratinocytes and were particularly predominant in the cornified outermost layer of the teat canal e...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Assessment of population genetic structure in the arbovirus vector midge , Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), using multi-locus DNA microsatellites
Abstract Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a major pathogen of ruminants that is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Australian BTV serotypes have origins in Asia and are distributed across the continent into two distinct episystems, one in the north and another in the east. Culicoides brevitarsis is the major vector of BTV in Australia and is distributed across the entire geographic range of the virus. Here, we describe the isolation and use of DNA microsatellites and gauge their ability to determine population genetic connectivity of C. brevitarsis within Australia and with countries to the north. Eleven DN...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Modelling of paratuberculosis spread between dairy cattle farms at a regional scale
Abstract Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes Johne’s disease, with large economic consequences for dairy cattle producers worldwide. Map spread between farms is mainly due to animal movements. Locally, herd size and management are expected to influence infection dynamics. To provide a better understanding of Map spread between dairy cattle farms at a regional scale, we describe the first spatio-temporal model accounting simultaneously for population and infection dynamics and indirect local transmission within dairy farms, and between-farm transmission through animal tra...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Maternal and fetal predictors of fetal viral load and death in third trimester, type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected pregnant gilts
Abstract Minimal research has focused on understanding mechanisms underlying porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) induced reproductive failure. We have completed a large-scale project investigating phenotypic and genotypic predictors of reproductive PRRS severity in which numerous clinical, pathological, immunologic and viral responses were characterized in dams and fetuses. The goal was to determine which phenotypic responses were associated with fetal viral load and death after experimental infection of pregnant gilts with type 2 PRRSV, thereby elucidating mechanisms of reproductive PRRS ...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Determination of the infectious titer and virulence of an original US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus PC22A strain
Abstract The infectious dose of a virus pool of original US PEDV strain PC22A was determined in 4-day-old, cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (CDCD) piglets. The median pig diarrhea dose (PDD50) of the virus pool was determined as 7.35 log10 PDD50/mL, similar to the cell culture infectious titer, 7.75 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. 100 PDD50 caused watery diarrhea in all conventional suckling piglets (n = 12) derived from a PEDV-naive sow, whereas 1000 and 10 000 PDD50 did not cause diarrhea in piglets derived from two PEDV-field exposed-recovered sows. This information is important for futu...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and characterisation of microsatellite DNA markers in order to recognise the WSSV susceptible populations of marine giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon
This study will be a very effective platform towards understanding the molecular pathogenesis of WSD for generation of disease free shrimp aquaculture industry. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Lack of cross-protection against Mycoplasma haemofelis infection and signs of enhancement in “ Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis”-recovered cats
In conclusion, the study suggests that a previous hemoplasma infection, even when the cat has ostensibly recovered, may influence subsequent infections, lead to an enhancement phenomenon and other differences in infection kinetics. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Yersinia ruckeri , the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease in fish
Abstract Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) is a serious septicemic bacterial disease of salmonid fish species. It is caused by Yersinia ruckeri, a Gram-negative rod-shaped enterobacterium. It has a wide host range, broad geographical distribution, and causes significant economic losses in the fish aquaculture industry. The disease gets its name from the subcutaneous hemorrhages, it can cause at the corners of the mouth and in gums and tongue. Other clinical signs include exophthalmia, darkening of the skin, splenomegaly and inflammation of the lower intestine with accumulation of thick yellow fluid. The bacterium en...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cross-protection against European swine influenza viruses in the context of infection immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus: studies in the pig model of influenza
In conclusion, infection with a live, wild type influenza virus may offer substantial cross-lineage protection against viruses of the same HA and/or NA subtype. True heterosubtypic protection, in contrast, appears to be minimal in natural influenza virus hosts. We discuss our findings in the light of the zoonotic and pandemic risks of SIVs. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles
Abstract In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens
In conclusion, previous infection of chickens with virulent NDV strains can reduce HPAIV replication, and consequently disease and mortality. This interference depends on the titer of the viruses used, the virulence of the NDV, and the timing of the infections. The information obtained from these studies helps to understand the possible interactions and outcomes of infection (disease and virus shedding) when HPAIV and NDV co-infect chickens in the field. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Fumonisins affect the intestinal microbial homeostasis in broiler chickens, predisposing to necrotic enteritis
This study aimed to investigate the effect of these feed contaminants on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition, and to evaluate whether FBs predispose broilers to necrotic enteritis. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into a group fed a control diet, and a group fed a FBs contaminated diet (18.6 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed). A significant increase in the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in the FBs-treated group (0.21 ± 0.016) compared to the control (0.14 ± 0.014) indicated disturbance of the sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, villus height and crypt depth of the ileum was significantly re...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Eimeria bovis infection modulates endothelial host cell cholesterol metabolism for successful replication
Abstract During first merogony Eimeria bovis forms large macromeronts in endothelial host cells containing>120 000 merozoites I. During multiplication, large amounts of cholesterol are indispensable for the enormous offspring membrane production. Cholesterol auxotrophy was proven for other apicomplexan parasites. Consequently they scavenge cholesterol from their host cell apparently in a parasite-specific manner. We here analyzed the influence of E. bovis infection on endothelial host cell cholesterol metabolism and found considerable differences to other coccidian parasites. Overall, free cholesterol signific...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Development of a helper cell-dependent form of peste des petits ruminants virus: a system for making biosafe antigen
Abstract Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of sheep and goats that is spreading through many countries in the developing world. Work on the virus is often restricted to studies of attenuated vaccine strains or to work in laboratories that have high containment facilities. We have created a helper cell dependent form of PPR virus by removing the entire RNA polymerase gene and complementing it with polymerase made constitutively in a cell line. The resultant L-deleted virus grows efficiently in the L-expressing cell line but not in other cells. Virus made with this system is indistinguishable from...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Metatranscriptomics reveals metabolic adaptation and induction of virulence factors by Haemophilus parasuis during lung infection
Abstract Haemophilus parasuis is a common inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract of pigs, and the causative agent of Glässer’s disease. This disease is characterized by polyserositis and arthritis, produced by the severe inflammation caused by the systemic spread of the bacterium. After an initial colonization of the upper respiratory tract, H. parasuis enters the lung during the early stages of pig infection. In order to study gene expression at this location, we sequenced the ex vivo and in vivo H. parasuis Nagasaki transcriptome in the lung using a metatranscriptomic approach. Com...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A broad spectrum screening of Schmallenberg virus antibodies in wildlife animals in Germany
Abstract To identify native wildlife species possibly susceptible to infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a midge-transmitted orthobunyavirus that predominantly infects domestic ruminants, samples from various free-living ruminants, but also carnivores, small mammals and wild boar were analyzed serologically. Before 2011, no SBV-specific antibodies were detectable in any of the tested species, thereafter, a large proportion of the ruminant population became seropositive, while every sample taken from carnivores or small mammals tested negative. Surprisingly, SBV-specific-antibodies were also present in a lar...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Oral administration of a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics generates Tr1 cells in weaned F4ab/acR − pigs challenged with an F4 + ETEC/VTEC/EPEC strain
Abstract Although breeding of F4 receptor − negative (F4R−) pigs may prevent post-weaning diarrhea, the underlying immunity is poorly understood. Here, various doses of a Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to F4ab/acR− pigs for 1 week before F4 (K88) − positive ETEC/VTEC/EPEC challenge. Administration of BLS-mix increased the percentage of Foxp3−IL-10+ T cells but not of Foxp3+IL-10+ regulatory T (Treg) cells among peripheral blood CD4+ T cells. A low dose of BLS-mix feeding resulted in increased th...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 17, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

phoP , SPI1, SPI2 and aroA mutants of Salmonella Enteritidis induce a different immune response in chickens
In conclusion, SPI1 and phoP mutants induced protective immunity without inducing an inflammatory response and antibody production. Inoculation of chickens with the SPI2 and aroA mutants also led to protective immunity but was associated with inflammation and antibody production. The differences in interaction between the mutants and chicken host can be used for a more detailed understanding of the chicken immune system. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 17, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) in red and melanised foci in white muscle of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )
Abstract Melanised focal changes (black spots) are common findings in the white skeletal muscle of seawater-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fillets with melanised focal changes are considered as lower quality and cause large economic losses. It has been suggested that red focal changes (red spots) precede the melanised focal changes. In the present work, we examined different populations of captive and wild salmon for the occurrence of both types of changes, which were investigated for the presence of different viruses by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. The occurrence of red or melanised foci varied signi...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 8, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bagaza virus is pathogenic and transmitted by direct contact in experimentally infected partridges, but is not infectious in house sparrows and adult mice
This study confirms that the red-legged partridge is a susceptible host for BAGV infection, and that this pathogen is transmitted by direct contact. Long-lasting viral loads detected in calami of immature feathers demonstrate that feather sampling could be a useful strategy in active surveillance programs for early detection of BAGV. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 4, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Ecological approaches in veterinary epidemiology: mapping the risk of bat-borne rabies using vegetation indices and night-time light satellite imagery
In conclusion, ecological niche modeling applications for mapping disease risk at coarse geographic scales have a promising future, especially with refinement and enrichment of models with additional information, such as night-time light data, which increased substantially the model’s ability to anticipate human rabies. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 4, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparison of the pathogenesis of the highly passaged MCMV Smith strain with that of the low passaged MCMV HaNa1 isolate in BALB/c mice upon oronasal inoculation
Abstract Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) Smith strain is widely used in mouse models to study HCMV infections. Due to high serial passages, MCMV Smith has acquired genetic and biological changes. Therefore, a low passaged strain would be more relevant to develop mouse models. Here, the pathogenesis of an infection with MCMV Smith was compared with that of an infection with a low passaged Belgian MCMV isolate HaNa1 in BALB/c adult mice following oronasal inoculation with either a low (104 TCID50/mouse) or high (106 TCID50/mouse) inoculation dose. Both strains were mainly replicating in nasal mucosa and submandibular...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 4, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Protective role of murine norovirus against Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute pneumonia
Abstract The murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered mouse pathogen, representing the most common contaminant in laboratory mouse colonies. Nevertheless, the effects of MNV infection on biomedical research are still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that MNV infection could alter immune response in mice with acute lung infection. Here we report that co-infection with MNV increases survival of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute lung injury and decreases in vivo production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that MNV infection can deeply modify the parameters studied in conventional model...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 4, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Should they stay, or should they go? Relative future risk of bovine tuberculosis for interferon-gamma test-positive cattle left on farms
Abstract Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a serious infectious disease that remains an ongoing concern for cattle farming worldwide. Tuberculin skin-tests are often used to identify infected animals (reactors) during test-and-cull programs, however, due to relatively poor sensitivity, additional tests can be implemented in parallel. For example, in Northern Ireland interferon-gamma (IFN-g) testing is used in high-risk herds. However, skin-test negative animals which are positive to the IFN-g test are not required by law to be slaughtered – therefore the final choice for these ani...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 4, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Veterinary Research reviewer acknowledgement 2014
Contributing reviewers The Veterinary Research editorial team would sincerely like to thank all of our reviewers who contributed to peer review for the journal in 2014. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 26, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research