Evaluation of biological safety in vitro and immunogenicity in vivo of recombinant Escherichia coli Shiga toxoids as candidate vaccines in cattle
The objectives of this study were to generate recombinant Shiga toxoids (rStx1mut & rStx2mut) by site-directed mutagenesis and to assess their immunomodulatory, antigenic, and immunogenic properties. Cultures of bovine primary immune cells were used as test systems. In ileal intraepithelial lymphocytes both, recombinant wild type Stx1 (rStx1WT) and rStx2WT significantly induced transcription of IL-4 mRNA. rStx1WT and rStx2WT reduced the expression of Stx-receptor CD77 (syn. Globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) on B and T cells from peripheral blood and of CD14 on monocyte-derived macrophages. At the same concentrations, rStx1mu...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 10, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Changes in cellular microRNA expression induced by porcine circovirus type 2-encoded proteins
Abstract Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which leads to serious economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. While the molecular basis of PCV2 replication and pathogenicity remains elusive, it is increasingly apparent that the microRNA (miRNA) pathway plays a key role in controlling virus-host interactions, in addition to a wide range of cellular processes. Here, we employed Solexa deep sequencing technology to determine which cellular miRNAs were differentially regulated after expression of each of three PCV2-encoded open reading fr...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 10, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Different clinical, virological, serological and tissue tropism outcomes of two new and one old Belgian type 1 subtype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) isolates
In this study, the pathogenic behavior of PRRSV 13V091 and 13V117, isolated in 2013 from two different Belgian farms with enzootic respiratory problems shortly after weaning in the nursery, were compared with the Belgian strain 07V063 isolated in 2007. Full-length genome sequencing was performed to identify their origin. Twelve weeks-old pigs were inoculated intranasally (IN) with 13V091, 13V117 or 07V063 (9 pigs/group). At 10 days post inoculation (dpi), 4 animals from each group were euthanized and tissues were collected for pathology, virological and serological analysis. 13V091 infection resulted in the highest re...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 21, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Mycoplasma iowae : relationships among oxygen, virulence, and protection from oxidative stress
Abstract The poultry-associated bacterium Mycoplasma iowae colonizes multiple sites in embryos, with disease or death resulting. Although M. iowae accumulates in the intestinal tract, it does not cause disease at that site, but rather only in tissues that are exposed to atmospheric O2. The activity of M. iowae catalase, encoded by katE, is capable of rapid removal of damaging H2O2 from solution, and katE confers a substantial reduction in the amount of H2O2 produced by Mycoplasma gallisepticum katE transformants in the presence of glycerol. As catalase-producing bacteria are often beneficial to hosts with inflamm...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 21, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Tritrichomonas foetus infection, a cause of chronic diarrhea in the domestic cat
Abstract Tritrichomonas foetus is a very intriguing trichomonad protozoan with respect to its varied choice of residence in the different host species. It is an obligate parasite of the reproductive and the gastrointestinal tract of bovine and feline host respectively, leading to trichomonosis. Bovine trichomonosis is a sexually transmitted disease whereas feline trichomonosis is a disease with a purported fecal-oral route of spread. Further, the trichomonad is a commensal in the nasal passages, stomach, cecum and colon of swine host. Advances have been exponential in understanding the trichomonad bio...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of cytokine transcript profiles within mediastinal lymph node compartments of pigs after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome genotype 1 strains differing in pathogenicity
In this study, we investigated the cytokine transcriptional profiles in different compartments of the mediastinal lymph node of pigs infected with three genotype 1 PRRSV strains of differing pathogenicity: the low virulence prototype Lelystad virus (LV), and UK field strain 215–06 and the highly virulent subtype 3 SU1-Bel isolate from Belarus. We have used a combination of laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) followed by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of immune cell markers (CD3, CD79a and MAC387) and RT-qPCR quantification of PRRSV and cytokine transcripts. Compared to m...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Monoclonal antibody specific to HA2 glycopeptide protects mice from H3N2 influenza virus infection
In this study, seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CIV JS/10 (an H3N2 subtype virus) were produced and characterized. Among them, mAb D7, which is specific for the HA2 glycopeptide (gp), induced the highest neutralization titers. The protection provided by mAb D7 was evaluated in BALB/c mice challenged with homologous or heterologous strains of H3N2 influenza virus, including two strains of CIV and one strain of swine influenza virus (SIV). The data show that mAb D7 protected the mice from infection with the three viral strains, especially the homologous strain, which was indicated by the recovery of body weight, re...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Glutamine starvation enhances PCV2 replication via the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, as promoted by reducing glutathione levels
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of glutamine on PCV2 replication and its underlying mechanisms in vitro. The results show that glutamine promoted PK-15 cell viability. Surprisingly, glutamine starvation significantly increased PCV2 replication. The promotion of PCV2 replication by glutamine starvation disappeared after fresh media with 4 mM glutamine was added. Likewise, promotion of PCV2 was observed after adding buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Glutamine starvation or BSO treatment increased the level of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and PCV2 replication in PK-15 cells. Meanwhile, p38 MAPK phosphorylatio...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 18, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Role of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter suis and Helicobacter pylori infections
Abstract Helicobacter (H.) suis can colonize the stomach of pigs as well as humans, causing chronic gastritis and other gastric pathological changes including gastric ulceration and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Recently, a virulence factor of H. suis, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), has been demonstrated to play an important role in the induction of human gastric epithelial cell death and modulation of lymphocyte proliferation depending on glutamine and glutathione catabolism. In the present study, the relevance of GGT in the pathogenesis of H. suis infection was studied i...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 13, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Epidemiology and pathology of avian malaria in penguins undergoing rehabilitation in Brazil
Abstract Seabird rehabilitation is a valuable strategy to mitigate the impacts of oil pollution and other anthropogenic factors, and can significantly contribute to the conservation of penguins. However, infectious diseases such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) can hamper the success of rehabilitation efforts. We combined morphological and molecular diagnostic methods to investigate the epidemiology and pathology of Plasmodium in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at rehabilitation centers along 2500 km of the coastline of Brazil. True prevalence of malarial parasites was estimated between 6.6% ...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 13, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The early intestinal immune response in experimental neonatal ovine cryptosporidiosis is characterized by an increased frequency of perforin expressing NCR1 + NK cells and by NCR1 − CD8 + cell recruitment
Abstract Cryptosporidium parvum, a zoonotic protozoan parasite, causes important losses in neonatal ruminants. Innate immunity plays a key role in controlling the acute phase of this infection. The participation of NCR1+ Natural Killer (NK) cells in the early intestinal innate immune response to the parasite was investigated in neonatal lambs inoculated at birth. The observed increase in the lymphocyte infiltration was further studied by immunohistology and flow cytometry with focus on distribution, density, cellular phenotype related to cytotoxic function and activation status. The frequency of NCR1+...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 11, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A novel panel of monoclonal antibodies against Schmallenberg virus nucleoprotein and glycoprotein Gc allows specific orthobunyavirus detection and reveals antigenic differences
Abstract A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the nucleocapsid (N) protein or the glycoprotein Gc of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel member of the Simbu serogroup (genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae), was produced and used to analyze antigenic differences among members of this serogroup. Reactivity with various SBV-isolates and other Simbu serogroup viruses was assessed by an indirect immunofluorescence test and by immunoblotting. The Gc-specific mAbs detected different SBV isolates as well as two closely related members of the Simbu serogroup. In addition, one mAb showed a highly speci...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 11, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

TGF-β superfamily members from the helminth Fasciola hepatica show intrinsic effects on viability and development
Abstract The helminth Fasciola hepatica causes fasciolosis throughout the world, a major disease of livestock and an emerging zoonotic disease in humans. Sustainable control mechanisms such as vaccination are urgently required. To discover potential vaccine targets we undertook a genome screen to identify members of the transforming growth factor (TGF) family of proteins. Herein we describe the discovery of three ligands belonging to this superfamily and the cloning and characterisation of an activin/TGF like molecule we term FhTLM. FhTLM has a limited expression pattern both temporally across the parasite stages...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 11, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) replicates in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) erythrocytes ex vivo
This study demonstrates that PRV replicates in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes ex vivo. The ex vivo infection model closely reflects the situation in vivo and can be used to study the infection and replication mechanisms of PRV, as well as the antiviral immune responses of salmonid erythrocytes. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - March 6, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Interactions of highly and low virulent Flavobacterium columnare isolates with gill tissue in carp and rainbow trout
Abstract The interactions of Flavobacterium columnare isolates of different virulence with the gills of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) were investigated. Both fish species were exposed to different high (HV) or low virulence (LV) isolates and sacrificed at seven predetermined times post-challenge. Histopathological and ultrastructural examination of carp and rainbow trout inoculated with the HV-isolate disclosed bacterial invasion and concomitant destruction of the gill tissue, gradually spreading from the filament tips towards the base, with outer membrane vesicles surr...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 6, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Eimeria bovis -triggered neutrophil extracellular trap formation is CD11b-, ERK 1/2-, p38 MAP kinase- and SOCE-dependent
Abstract Eimeria bovis is an important coccidian parasite that causes high economic losses in the cattle industry. We recently showed that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) react upon E. bovis sporozoite exposure by neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We focused here on the molecular mechanisms that are involved in this process. The sporozoite encounter led to an enhanced surface expression of neutrophil CD11b suggesting a potential role of this receptor in E. bovis-mediated NETosis. Antibody-mediated blockage of CD11b confirmed this assumption and led to a significantly decreased sporozo...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 5, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genetic subgroup of small ruminant lentiviruses that infects sheep homozygous for TMEM154 frameshift deletion mutation A4 Δ 53
In this study, a novel SRLV subgroup was identified that naturally infected sheep with various TMEM154 diplotypes, including those homozygous for a rare frameshift mutation (A4 delta53), which is predicted to abolish TMEM154 protein function. Thus, these SRLVs may infect sheep that lack functional TMEM154, and may not be restricted by TMEM154 diplotypes in establishing infections. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - March 5, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Host-specific exposure and fatal neurologic disease in wild raptors from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 during the 2006 outbreak in Germany
Abstract Raptors may contract highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 by hunting or scavenging infected prey. However, natural H5N1 infection in raptors is rarely reported. Therefore, we tested raptors found dead during an H5N1 outbreak in wild waterbirds in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, in 2006 for H5N1-associated disease. We tested 624 raptors of nine species—common buzzard (385), Eurasian sparrowhawk (111), common kestrel (38), undetermined species of buzzard (36), white-tailed sea eagle (19), undetermined species of raptor (12), northern goshawk (10), peregrine falcon (6), red kite (3), r...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 5, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The oral and conjunctival microbiotas in cats with and without feline immunodeficiency virus infection
Abstract The oral and conjunctival microbiotas likely play important roles in protection from opportunistic infections, while also being the source of potential pathogens. Yet, there has been limited investigation in cats, and the impact of comorbidities such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has not been reported. Oral and conjunctival swabs were collected from cats with FIV infection and FIV-uninfected controls, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene (V4) PCR and next generation sequencing. 9,249 OTUs were identified from conjunctival swabs, yet the most common 20 (0.22%) OTUs accounted for 76% of sequen...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 3, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

PCV2 vaccination induces IFN-γ/TNF-α co-producing T cells with a potential role in protection
In this study we analysed antigen-specific T cell responses against PCV2 in a controlled vaccination and infection experiment. We focused on the ability of CD4+ T cells to produce cytokines using multicolour flow cytometry (FCM). Vaccination with a PCV2 subunit vaccine (Ingelvac CircoFLEX®) induced PCV2-specific antibodies only in five out of 12 animals. Conversely, vaccine-antigen specific CD4+ T cells which simultaneously produced IFN-γ and TNF-α and had a phenotype of central and effector memory T cells were detected in all vaccinated piglets. After challenge, seroconversion occurred earlier in vaccinate...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 2, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesional development and parasite distribution in experimental ovine neosporosis
Abstract Neospora caninum is considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, yet recent studies have also emphasised its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. In order to gain deeper insight into the pathogenesis of ovine neosporosis, pregnant ewes were intravenously inoculated with 106 tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at days 40, 90 or 120 of gestation. Infection during the first term resulted in the death of all foetuses between days 19 and 21 post-infection, showing mainly necrotic lesions in foetal liver and the highest parasite DNA detection and burden in both placenta an...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 2, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of microRNAs in PCV2 subclinically infected pigs by high throughput sequencing
The objective of this study was to identify the miRNA expression pattern in PCV2 subclinically infected and non-infected pigs. For this purpose an experimental PCV2 infection was carried out and small-RNA libraries were constructed from tonsil and mediastinal lymph node (MLN) of infected and non-infected pigs. High throughput sequencing determined differences in miRNA expression in MLN between infected and non-infected while, in tonsil, a very conserved pattern was observed. In MLN, miRNA 126-3p, miRNA 126-5p, let-7d-3p, mir-129a and mir-let-7b-3p were up-regulated whereas mir-193a-5p, mir-574-5p and mir-34a down-regulated...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 2, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immunoproteomic identification of immunodominant antigens independent of the time of infection in Brucella abortus 2308-challenged cattle
This study examined novel immunogenic proteins that can be used to detect Brucella abortus infection or as an effective subcellular vaccine. In an immunoproteomic assay, 55 immunodominant proteins from B. abortus 544 were observed using two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and immunoblot profiles with antisera from B. abortus-infected cattle at the early (week 3), middle (week 7), and late (week 10) periods, after excluding protein spots reacting with antisera from Yersinia enterocolitica O:9-infected and non-infected cattle. Twenty-three selected immunodominant proteins whose spots were observed at all three infection pe...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria
This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Field and experimental data indicate that the eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus ) is susceptible to infection with European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) virus and not with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus
Abstract The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is an American lagomorph. In 1966, it was introduced to Italy, where it is currently widespread. Its ecological niche is similar to those of native rabbits and hares and increasing overlap in distribution brings these species into ever closer contact. Therefore, cottontails are at risk of infection with the two lagoviruses endemically present in Italy: Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus (RHDV) and European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus (EBHSV). To verify the susceptibility of Sylvilagus to these viruses, we analyzed 471 sera and 108 individuals from cottontail po...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of host – Peste des petits ruminants vaccine viral transcriptome uncovers transcription factors modulating immune regulatory pathways
Abstract Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is an acute transboundary viral disease of economic importance, affecting goats and sheep. Mass vaccination programs around the world resulted in the decline of PPR outbreaks. Sungri 96 is a live attenuated vaccine, widely used in Northern India against PPR. This vaccine virus, isolated from goat works efficiently both in sheep and goat. Global gene expression changes under PPR vaccine virus infection are not yet well defined. Therefore, in this study we investigated the host-vaccine virus interactions by infecting the peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from goa...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity
Abstract Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimentally induced lameness in turkeys inoculated with a newly emergent turkey reovirus
This study was undertaken to determine if TARV infection at an early age can lead to clinical lameness in birds as they age. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with a TARV (strain TARV-O’Neil) and monitored for the development of gait defects until 16 weeks of age. At 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, a subset of birds was euthanized followed by the collection of gastrocnemius tendon, digital flexor tendon, and intestines for virus detection by rRT-PCR and for histologic inflammation scoring. Clinical lameness was first displayed in TARV-infected turkeys at 8 weeks of age and ruptured gastrocnemius tendons ...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies
Abstract Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitope...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The potential spread of severe footrot in Norway if no elimination programme had been initiated: a simulation model
Abstract When severe footrot was detected in Norway in 2008, a surveillance programme was initiated and followed by an elimination programme. By 2013 the disease had spread to two of 19 counties and a total of 119 (1%) sheep flocks had been diagnosed with severe footrot. A simulation model was developed to estimate the potential spread of severe footrot in Norway and to estimate the relative importance of the different spreading routes. The model parameters were based on the rate of spread of the first 38 diagnosed cases and the management and climatic factors particular for Norway. The model showed that by 2013,...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 20, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Functional analysis of bovine TLR5 and association with IgA responses of cattle following systemic immunisation with H7 flagella
Abstract Flagellin subunits are important inducers of host immune responses through activation of TLR5 when extracellular and the inflammasome if cytosolic. Our previous work demonstrated that systemic immunization of cattle with flagella generates systemic and mucosal IgA responses. The IgA response in mice is TLR5-dependent and TLR5 can impact on the general magnitude of the adaptive response. However, due to sequence differences between bovine and human/murine TLR5 sequences, it is not clear whether bovine TLR5 (bTLR5) is able to stimulate an inflammatory response following interaction with flagellin. To addre...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 19, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Breed differences in humoral and cellular responses of lambs to experimental infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta
Abstract While Texel lambs have increased resistance to infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta compared to Suffolk lambs, the underlying resistance mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to compare parasitological, humoral and cellular responses of Texel and Suffolk lambs over time following a single experimental infection with T. circumcincta. Gastrointestinal nematode free (but not naïve) lambs received a single oral dose of 3 × 104 infective T. circumcincta larvae. The variables examined included worm burden, mucosal and serum IgA, aboma...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 17, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of systemic immune response markers through metabolomic profiling of plasma from calves given an intra-nasally delivered respiratory vaccine
This study for the first time demonstrates the ability of untargeted UPLC-MS metabolomic profiling to identify metabolite immune correlates characteristic of immune responses following mucosal vaccination in calves. Male Holstein Friesian calves were vaccinated with Pfizer Rispoval® PI3 + RSV intranasal vaccine and metabolomic profiling of post-vaccination plasma revealed 12 metabolites whose peak intensities differed significantly from controls. Plasma levels of glycocholic acid, N-[(3α,5β,12α)-3,12-Dihydroxy-7,24-dioxocholan-24-yl]glycine, uric acid and biliverdin were found to be significantly eleva...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 14, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Localization of annexins A1 and A2 in the respiratory tract of healthy calves and those experimentally infected with Mannheimia haemolytica
Abstract Annexins A1 and A2 are proteins known to function in the stress response, dampening inflammatory responses and mediating fibrinolysis. We found, in healthy cattle recently arrived to a feedlot, that lower levels of these proteins correlated with later development of pneumonia. Here we determine the localization of annexin A1 and A2 proteins in the respiratory tract and in leukocytes, in healthy calves and those with Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia. In healthy calves, immunohistochemistry revealed cytoplasmic expression of annexin A1 in the surface epithelium of large airways, tracheobronchial glands and...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 14, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immune responses associated with homologous protection conferred by commercial vaccines for control of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in turkeys
Abstract Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infections are a serious impediment to sustainable poultry production worldwide. Licensed vaccines are available, but the immunological basis of protection is ill-defined and a need exists to extend cross-serotype efficacy. Here, we analysed innate and adaptive responses induced by commercial vaccines in turkeys. Both a live-attenuated APEC O78 ΔaroA vaccine (Poulvac® E. coli) and a formalin-inactivated APEC O78 bacterin conferred significant protection against homologous intra-airsac challenge in a model of acute colibacillosis. Analysis of expression l...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 23, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sialylation of Helicobacter bizzozeronii lipopolysaccharides modulates Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 mediated response
In this study H. bizzozeronii LPS is shown to activate the TLR2 in a dose and strain dependent manner in the in vitro HEK-293 cells model expressing TLR2, but not the cells expressing TLR4. These results indicate that TLR2 is the specific receptor for H. bizzozzeronii LPS, as previously described for H. pylori. To further explore the role of sialylation of H. bizzozeronii LPS on TLR2 response, H. bizzozeronii Δhbs2 mutant strains deficient in sialyltransferase activity were constructed by homologous recombination. LPS from H. bizzozeronii Δhbs2 strains enhanced the NF-ĸB induction via TLR2 compared to the resp...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 21, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The innate immune response of equine bronchial epithelial cells is altered by training
Abstract Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier against airborne infections and plays an essential role in the lung innate immune response mainly through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in vitro and to explore EBEC innate immune responses in trained horses. Bronchial epithelial biopsies were taken from 6 adult horses during lower airway endoscopy....
Source: Veterinary Research - January 17, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on milk neutrophil function and the milk lymphocyte profile
Abstract The effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) on the immune response have been extensively investigated; however, its effects on mammary gland immunity are only speculative. Although BLV has a tropism for B cells, it can affect both adaptive and innate immunities because these systems share many effector mechanisms. This scenario is the basis of this investigation of the effects of BLV on mammary gland immunity, which is largely dependent upon neutrophilic functions. Thus, the present study sought to examine neutrophilic functions and the lymphocyte profile in the milk of naturally BLV-infected cows. The vi...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 17, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Lack of a type-2 glycosyltransferase in the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum determines pleiotropic changes and loss of virulence
Abstract Flavobacterium psychrophilum is an important fish pathogen, responsible for Cold Water Disease, with a significant economic impact on salmonid farms worldwide. In spite of this, little is known about the bacterial physiology and pathogenesis mechanisms, maybe because it is difficult to manipulate, being considered a fastidious microorganism. Mutants obtained using a Tn4351 transposon were screened in order to identify those with alteration in colony morphology, colony spreading and extracellular proteolytic activity, amongst other phenotypes. A F. psychrophilum mutant lacking gliding motility...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 13, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Plant-based solutions for veterinary immunotherapeutics and prophylactics
Abstract An alarming increase in emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens worldwide has become a serious threat to our ability to treat infectious diseases according to the World Health Organization. Extensive use of antibiotics by livestock producers promotes the spread of new resistant strains, some of zoonotic concern, which increases food-borne illness in humans and causes significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Furthermore, consumer preferences for meat/poultry/fish produced without the use of antibiotics shape today’s market demand. So, it is viewed as inevitable by the One Health...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 31, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia is a heritable trait of the dam rather than the calf and correlates with the magnitude of vaccine induced maternal alloantibodies not the MHC haplotype
Abstract Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), a bleeding syndrome of neonatal calves, is caused by alloantibodies absorbed from the colostrum of particular cows. A commercial BVD vaccine is the likely source of alloantigens eliciting BNP associated alloantibodies. We hypothesized that the rare occurrence of BNP in calves born to vaccinated dams could be associated with genetic differences within dams and calves. We found that the development of BNP within calves was a heritable trait for dams, not for calves and had a high heritability of 19%. To elucidate which genes play a role in the development of BNP we seque...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 16, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Safety and immunogenicity of a delta inulin-adjuvanted inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine in pregnant mares and foals
Abstract In 2011, following severe flooding in Eastern Australia, an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in South-Eastern Australia, caused by Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and a new variant strain of Kunjin virus, a subtype of West Nile virus (WNVKUN). This prompted us to assess whether a delta inulin-adjuvanted, inactivated cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine (JE-ADVAX™) could be used in horses, including pregnant mares and foals, to not only induce immunity to JEV, but also elicit cross-protective antibodies against MVEV and WNVKUN. Foals, 74–...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 16, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Novel H5 clade 2.3.4.6 viruses with both α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptor binding properties may pose a pandemic threat
Abstract The emerging H5 clade 2.3.4.6 viruses of different NA subtypes have been detected in different domestic poultry in China. We evaluated the receptor binding property and transmissibility of four novel H5 clade 2.3.4.6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The results show that these viruses bound to both avian-type (α-2,3) and human-type (α-2,6) receptors. Furthermore, we found that one of these viruses, GS/EC/1112/11, not only replicated but also transmitted efficiently in guinea pigs. Therefore, such novel H5 subtype viruses have the potential of a pandemic threat. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - December 16, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Absence of a set of plasmid-encoded genes is predictive of reduced pathogenic potential in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
Abstract The gene content of 14 strains of the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was compared using a DNA microarray. A consistent difference occurred in a block of four genes on the ~36 Kb plasmid, with these being present in six virulent strains and absent in eight strains with reduced pathogenic potential. These genes encoded a predicted radical S-adenosylmethionine domain protein, a glycosyl transferase group 1-like protein, an NAD dependant epimerase and a dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 2–5 epimerase: they may be involved in rhamnose biosynthesis and glycosylation. The absence of these plasmid ...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 16, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Polymorphisms in the feline TNFA and CD209 genes are associated with the outcome of feline coronavirus infection
This study aimed at evaluating cytokine-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), receptor-associated SNPs, i.e., C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD209), and the five FIP-associated SNPs identified from Birman cats of USA and Denmark origins and their associations with the outcome of FCoV infection in 71 FIP cats and 93 FCoV infected non-FIP cats in a genetically more diverse cat populations. A promoter variant, fTNFA - 421 T, was found to be a disease-resistance allele. One SNP was identified in the extracellular domain (ECD) of fCD209 at position +1900, a G to A subst...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 16, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome
The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant females infected with type 2 PRRSv (NVSL 97–7895) and to analyze potential relationships with viral load and fetal mortality rate. PRRSv infection caused a massive, acute drop in total leukocyte counts affecting all PBMC populations by two days post infection. Except for B cells, cell counts started to rebound by day six post infection. Our data also show a greater decrease of naïve B cells, T-helper cells and cytolytic T cells than their respective effector or memory count...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 14, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal interactions between wild boar and cattle: implications for cross-species disease transmission
Abstract Controlling infectious diseases at the wildlife/livestock interface is often difficult because the ecological processes driving transmission between wildlife reservoirs and sympatric livestock populations are poorly understood. Thus, assessing how animals use their environment and how this affects interspecific interactions is an important factor in determining the local risk for disease transmission and maintenance. We used data from concurrently monitored GPS-collared domestic cattle and wild boar (Sus scrofa) to assess spatiotemporal interactions and associated implications for bovine tuberculosis (TB...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 12, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of benzimidazole resistance in the ovine parasite Nematodirus battus
Abstract Benzimidazole resistance is common amongst many ovine trichostrongylid nematodes species globally. Although anthelmintics have been used for over half a century in some areas of the world for the control of Nematodirus battus, resistance has never been detected. Veterinary investigations conducted in 2010 demonstrated reduced efficacy in a flock that had been treated previously with fenbendazole (FBZ), suggesting probable resistance in N. battus. Infective larvae (L3; designated MNba2) were generated from the original material to conduct a controlled efficacy test (CET). Faecal egg counts showed an avera...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 9, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pre-parturition staphylococcal mastitis in primiparous replacement goats: persistence over lactation and sources of infection
Abstract This investigation reported for the first time the occurrence of intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus in primiparous replacement goats before parturition and the persistence of clinical Staphylococcus aureus infection during the lactation period. Subclinical infections, mainly caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), did not persist during lactation. Genotyping analysis indicated that environment seems to play a moderate role as source of intramammary infections to goats before parturition, but causative agents of mastitis in lactating animals are not genotypically related to enviro...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 9, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome
Abstract In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine responses to PRRSv in pregnant females exist, the objectives of this study were to compare host cytokine responses between PRRSv-infected and non-infected pregnant gilts, and to investigate relationships between cytokine levels in infected gilts and viral load or fetal mortality rate. Serum samples and supernatants o...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 6, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research