Phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/PanAsia in Vietnam 2010 –2014
In this study, we investigated the phylogeny of FMDV O/PanAsia in Vietnam, reconstructing the virus ’ ancestral host species (pig, cattle or buffalo), clinical stage (subclinical carrier or clinically affected) and geographical location. Phylogenetic divergence time estimation and character state reconstruction analyses suggest that movement of viruses between species differ. While inferred tran smissions from cattle to buffalo and pigs and from pigs to cattle are well supported, transmission from buffalo to other species, and from pigs to buffalo may be less frequent. Geographical movements of FMDV O/PanAsia virus a...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 13, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Permissiveness of bovine epithelial cells from lung, intestine, placenta and udder for infection with Coxiella burnetii
AbstractRuminants are the main source of human infections with the obligate intracellular bacteriumCoxiella (C.)burnetii. Infected animals shed high numbers ofC. burnetii by milk, feces, and birth products. In goats, shedding by the latter route coincides withC. burnetii replication in epithelial (trophoblast) cells of the placenta, which led us to hypothesize that epithelial cells are generally implicated in replication and shedding ofC. burnetii. We therefore aimed at analyzing the interactions ofC. burnetii with epithelial cells of the bovine host (1) at the entry site (lung epithelium) which govern host immune response...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 12, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins in poultry and swine production
AbstractThe routine use of antibiotics in agriculture has contributed to an increase in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens in animals that can potentially be transmitted to humans. In 2000, the World Health Organization identified resistance to antibiotics as one of the most significant global threats to public health and recommended that the use of antibiotics as additives in animal feed be phased out or terminated, particularly those used to treat human infections. Research is currently being carried out to identify alternative antimicrobial compounds for use in animal production. A number of studies, mostly in vitro, ha...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 11, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Target organs for lymphocystis disease virus replication in gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata )
AbstractThe lymphocystis disease (LCD), the main viral pathology described in cultured gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), is a self-limiting condition characterized by the appearance of hypertrophied fibroblasts (named lymphocysts) in the connective tissue of fish, primarily in the skin and fins. The causative agent of the disease is the Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), a member of theIridoviridae family. In the present study, LCDV genome and transcripts were detected by real-time PCR in caudal fin, as well as in several internal organs, such as intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain, from asymptomatic, diseased and ...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 11, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Enhancing the toolbox to study IL-17A in cattle and sheep
AbstractThe development of methods to detect cytokine expression by T cell subsets in ruminants is fundamental to strategic development of new livestock vaccines for prevention of infectious diseases. It has been possible to detect T cell expression of IFN- γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in ruminants for many years but methods to detect expression of IL-17A are relatively limited. To address this gap in capability we have cloned bovine and ovine IL-17A cDNAs and expressed biologically-active recombinant proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. We used the tr ansfected CHO cells to screen commercially-available antibodies fo...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 8, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cytokine response to the RSV antigen delivered by dendritic cell-directed vaccination in congenic chicken lines
In this study, we verified the ability of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) antigens fused with streptavidin to be targeted by specific biotinylated monoclonal antibody (anti-CD205) into dendritic cells and induce virus-specific protective immunity. The method was tested in four congenic lines of chickens that are either resistant or susceptible to the progressive growth of RSV-induced tumors. Our analyses confirmed that the biot-anti-CD205-SA-FITC complex was internalized by chicken splenocytes. In the cytokine expression profile, several significant differences were evident between RSV-challenged progressor and regressor chicken ...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 5, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Structural integrity and viability of Fredericella sultana statoblasts infected with Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) under diverse treatment conditions
AbstractFredericella sultana is an invertebrate host ofTetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. The bryozoan produces seed-like statoblasts to facilitate its persistence during unfavourable conditions. Statoblasts from infected bryozoans can harborT. bryosalmonae and give rise to infected bryozoan colonies when conditions improve. We aimed in the present study to evaluate the integrity and viability ofT. bryosalmonae-infected statoblasts after a range of harsh treatment conditions. We tested if statoblasts could survive ingestion by either brown trout or common carp. ...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 5, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of Brucella abortus mutant strain Δ22915, a potential vaccine candidate
In this study, we constructed theBrucella abortus (B. abortus) S2308 mutant strain Δ22915, in which the putative lytic transglycosylase geneBAB_RS22915 was deleted. The biological properties of mutant strain Δ22915 were characterized and protection of mice against virulent S2308 challenge was evaluated. The mutant strain Δ22915 showed reduced survival within RAW264.7 cells and survival in vivo in mice. In addition, the mutant strain Δ22915 failed to escape fusion with lysosomes within host cells, and caused no observable pathological damage. RNA-seq analysis indicated that four genes associated with...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 4, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase acts as an adhesin in Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae adhesion to porcine endothelial cells and as a receptor in recruitment of host fibronectin and plasminogen
AbstractErysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is the causative agent of animal erysipelas and human erysipeloid. Previous studies suggested glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays a role in the pathogenesis ofE. rhusiopathiae infection. We studiedE. rhusiopathiae GAPDH interactions with pig vascular endothelial cells, fibronectin, and plasminogen. Recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH) was successfully obtained, and it was shown that it plays a role inE. rhusiopathiae adhesion to pig vascular endothelial cells. Moreover, rGAPDH could bind fibronectin and plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Dynamic changes in bronchoalveolar macrophages and cytokines during infection of pigs with a highly or low pathogenic genotype 1 PRRSV strain
AbstractPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replicates primarily in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and the resulting lung damage is influenced by strain virulence. To better understand the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection, we performed a longitudinal study of the PAM population and lung cytokines in specific pathogen-free pigs infected either with the highly pathogenic Lena strain or with the low pathogenic Finistere strain in comparison to uninfected pigs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood were collected to follow viral, cellular and cytokine changes in lung with respect to clinic...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

CCL2 and CCL5 driven attraction of CD172a + monocytic cells during an equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in equine nasal mucosa and the impact of two migration inhibitors, rosiglitazone (RSG) and quinacrine (QC)
AbstractEquine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. Besides epithelial cells, CD172a+ monocytic cells become infected with EHV-1 in the respiratory mucosa and transport the virus from the apical side of the epithelium to the lamina propria en route to the lymph and blood circulation. Whether CD172a+ monocytic cells are specifically recruited to the infection sites in order to pick up virus is unknown. In our study, equine nasal mucosa explants were inoculated with EHV-1 neurological strains 03P37 and 95P105 or the non-neurological strains 97P70 and 94P247 and...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Advanced biosensors for detection of pathogens related to livestock and poultry
AbstractInfectious animal diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses threaten the health and well-being of wildlife, livestock, and human populations, limit productivity and increase significantly economic losses to each sector. The pathogen detection is an important step for the diagnostics, successful treatment of animal infection diseases and control management in farms and field conditions. Current techniques employed to diagnose pathogens in livestock and poultry include classical plate-based methods and conventional biochemical methods as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Thes...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Counts of bovine monocyte subsets prior to calving are predictive for postpartum occurrence of mastitis and metritis
This study investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets counts in blood at 42 and 14  days prior to expected calving date to occurrence of metritis and mastitis within 2 weeks postpartum. In the enrolled prospective cohort of 27 German Holstein cows, housed at the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute Braunschweig, Germany,n = 13 developed metritis and/or mastitis postpartum. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between prepartum cell counts of monocyte subsets and neutrophils with postpartum disease. Our model revealed that higher cou...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental infections of different carp strains with the carp edema virus (CEV) give insights into the infection biology of the virus and indicate possible solutions to problems caused by koi sleepy disease (KSD) in carp aquaculture
AbstractOutbreaks of koi sleepy disease (KSD) caused bycarp edema virus (CEV) may seriously affect populations of farmed common carp, one of the most important fish species for global food production. The present study shows further evidence for the involvement of CEV in outbreaks of KSD among carp and koi populations: in a series of infection experiments, CEV from two different genogroups could be transmitted to several strains of na ïve common carp via cohabitation with fish infected with CEV. In recipient fish, clinical signs of KSD were induced. The virus load and viral gene expression results confirm gills as the...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genotyping and investigating capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene loci of non-serotypeable Streptococcus suis isolated from diseased pigs in Canada
This study provides further insight in understanding the genetic characteristics ofcps loci in non-serotypeableS. suis strains recovered from diseased animals. When using a combination of the previously described 35 serotypes and the complete NCL system, the number of untypeable strains recovered from diseased animals in Canada would be significantly reduced. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - February 20, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Rethinking the role of alpha toxin in Clostridium perfringens -associated enteric diseases: a review on bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis
AbstractBovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused byClostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when causing intestinal disease,C. perfringens relies upon specific, plasmid-encoded toxins, was recently challenged by the finding that alpha toxin, which is produced by allC. perfringens strains, is essential for necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, o...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 16, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Betanodavirus-like particles enter host cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cholesterol-, pH- and cytoskeleton-dependent manner
AbstractBetanodavirus, also referred to nervous necrosis virus (NNV), is the causative agent of the fatal disease, viral nervous necrosis and has brought significant economic losses in marine and freshwater cultured fish, especially larvae and juveniles. Here, we used an established invasion model with virus-like particle (VLP)-cells, mimicking orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), to investigate the crucial events of virus entry. VLP were observed in the perinuclear regions of Asian sea bass (SB) cells within 1.5  h after attachment. VLP uptake was strongly inhibited when cells were pretreated with b...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 8, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Frequency of Th17 cells correlates with the presence of lung lesions in pigs chronically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
AbstractPorcine contagious pleuropneumonia caused byActinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) remains one of the major causes of poor growth performance and respiratory disease in pig herds. While the role of antibodies against APP has been intensely studied, the porcine T cell response remains poorly characterized. To address this, pigs were intranasally infected with APP serotype 2 and euthanized during the acute phase [6 –10 days post-infection (dpi)] or the chronic phase of APP infection (27–31 dpi). Lymphocytes isolated from blood, tonsils, lung tissue and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were analyzed b...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 6, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Correlating bacterial shedding with fecal corticosterone levels and serological responses from layer hens experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium
AbstractSalmonella Enteriditis andSalmonella Typhimurium are commonly isolated during egg-related outbreaks of salmonellosis and represent a significant international public health issue. In Australia,Salmonella Typhimurium is the most common serovar identified in egg product related foodborne outbreaks. While a number of studies have investigatedSalmonella shedding and host responses to infection, they have been conducted over a short time period. The present study sought to characterise bacterial shedding and host responses to infection in hens infected with onlySalmonella Typhimurium or co-infected with bothSalmonella T...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 6, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The T160A hemagglutinin substitution affects not only receptor binding property but also transmissibility of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 avian influenza virus in guinea pigs
AbstractWe generated and characterized site-directed HA mutants on the genetic backbone of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 virus preferentially binding to α-2,3 receptors in order to identify the key determinants in hemagglutinin rendering the dual affinity to both α-2,3 (avian-type) and α-2,6 (human-type) linked sialic acid receptors of the current clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX subtype avian influenza reassortants. The results show that the T160A substitutio n resulted in the loss of a glycosylation site at 158N and led not only to enhanced binding specificity for human-type receptors but also transmissibility among guinea pigs, ...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 6, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Disruption of the M949_RS01915 gene changed the bacterial lipopolysaccharide pattern, pathogenicity and gene expression of Riemerella anatipestifer
AbstractRiemerella anatipestifer is an important pathogen that causes septicemia anserum exsudativa in ducks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered to be a major virulence factor ofR. anatipestifer. To identify genes involved in LPS biosynthesis, we screened a library of random Tn4351 transposon mutants using a monoclonal antibody againstR. anatipestifer serotype 1 LPS (anti-LPS MAb). A mutant strain RA1067 which lost the reactivity in an indirect ELISA was obtained. Southern blot and sequencing analyses indicated a single Tn4351 was inserted at 116  bp in theM949_RS01915 gene in the RA1067 chromosomal DNA. Silver st...
Source: Veterinary Research - February 6, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Escherichia coli O78 isolated from septicemic lambs shows high pathogenicity in a zebrafish model
In conclusion, the zebrafish lethality model provides further evidence thatE. coli K46 is highly pathogenic and might be useful in future studies to identify bacterial virulence factors. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - January 25, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Impact of diversity of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains on lung lesions in slaughter pigs
In conclusion, many differentM. hyopneumoniae strains were found, and batches of slaughter pigs with differentM. hyopneumoniae strains had a higher prevalence and severity ofMycoplasma-like lung lesions at slaughter, implying that reducing the number of different strains may lead to less lung lesions at slaughter and better respiratory health of the pigs. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Congenital infection with atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is associated with disease and viral persistence
AbstractIn 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets ( “shaking piglets”). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological examination of the CNS of affected piglets reveal ed moderate hypomyelination of the white substance in cerebellum and spinal cord. We detected a recently discovered pestivirus, termed atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in all these ca...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 6, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of natural porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infection and seroconversion dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages
In conclusion, under the present study conditions, the optimal time for PCV2 piglet vaccination was at either 3 or 6 weeks of age. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - December 3, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

p53 signaling modulation of cell cycle arrest and viral replication in porcine circovirus type 2 infection cells
AbstractPorcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies have shown that PCV2 infection induces host cell apoptosis through up-regulation of p53. To further identify the regulatory roles of p53 signaling in the process of PCV2 infection, we establishedp53 gene knockout PK15 cell lines using the genomic editor tool CRISPR/Cas9, and further investigated the roles of p53 in modulating the cell cycle and viral replication in this study. The results show that PCV2 infection induced obvious S phase accumulation in wild-type PK15 cells and a compromised S phase accumulati...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 29, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Marek ’s disease in chickens: a review with focus on immunology
AbstractMarek ’s disease (MD), caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), is a commercially important neoplastic disease of poultry which is only controlled by mass vaccination. Importantly, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity and inhibit virus transmission are lacking; such that vaccines are only capable of preventing neuropathy, oncogenic disease and immunosuppression, but are unable to prevent MDV transmission or infection, leading to emergence of increasingly virulent pathotypes. Hence, to address these issues, developing more efficacious vaccines that induce sterile immunity have become one of t he impo...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 28, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Heterogeneous antigenic properties of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid
In conclusion, this study highlights the variable antigenic properties of N among genotype 1 PRRSV strains. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Increased frequency of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus shedding and lesions in suckling pigs compared to nursery pigs and protective immunity in nursery pigs after homologous re-challenge
The objectives were to (1) compare the disease course following inoculation with PEDV isolate US/Colorado/2013 in naïve 10 day and 8 week-old pigs, and (2) contrast the naïve response to homologous challenge in 8 week-old pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned into group 1 (n = 40, no PEDV exposure), group 2 (n = 43, PEDV inoculation at 10 days of age) and group 3 (n = 48, PEDV inoculation at 8 weeks of age). Thirty-three group 2 pigs received a homologous challenge at 8 weeks of age. Following primary or secondary inoculation, 3–10 pigs were euthanized...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus
AbstractIn 2014 –2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/ or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5-week-old broilers, 8-week-old broilers, and>30-week-old broiler breeders. The mean bird lethal dose (BLD50) was 5.0 log10 mean egg infectious dose (EID50) for ...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Attenuation of the virulence of a recombinant influenza virus expressing the naturally truncated NS gene from an H3N8 equine influenza virus in mice
In this study, our results suggest that the C-terminal moiety of NS1 contains a number of virulence determinants and might be a suitable target for the development of a vaccine candidate against equine influenza. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - November 15, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immunomodulation in the canine endometrium by uteropathogenic Escherichia coli
This study was designed to evaluate the role ofE. coliα-hemolysin (HlyA) in the pathogenesis of canine pyometra, and on the immune response of canine endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. In Experiment 1, the clinical, hematological, biochemical and uterine histological characteristics of β-hemolytic and non-hemolyticE. coli pyometra bitches were compared. More (p 
Source: Veterinary Research - November 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

L-BSE experimentally transmitted to sheep presents as a unique disease phenotype
AbstractApart from prion protein genotype, the factors determining the host range and susceptiblity for specific transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents remain unclear. It is known that bovine atypical L-BSE can transmit to a range of species including primates and humanised transgenic mice. It is important, therefore, that there is as broad an understanding as possible of how such isolates might present in food animal species and how robust they are on inter- and intra-species transmission to inform surveillance sytems and risk assessments. This paper demonstrates that L-BSE can be intracerebrally transmitted to sh...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Oestrous cycle-dependent equine uterine immune response to induced infectious endometritis
This study has delineated a useful model of innate immunity in infectious endometritis of healthy animals. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Involvement of the different lung compartments in the pathogenesis of pH1N1 influenza virus infection in ferrets
This study aims to clarify this question by studying the different induction of innate immune molecules by the distinct lung anatomic compartments (vascular, alveolar and bronchiolar) of ferrets intratracheally infected with a human pH1N1 viral isolate, by means of laser microdissection techniques. The obtained results were then analysed in relation to viral quantification in the different anatomic areas and the histopathological lesions observed. More severe lung lesions were observed at 24  h post infection (hpi) correlating with viral antigen detection in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. However, high lev...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Combination of probiotics and coccidiosis vaccine enhances protection against an Eimeria challenge
AbstractCoccidiosis is endemic in the commercial broiler industry capable of inflicting devastating economic losses to poultry operations. Vaccines are relatively effective in controlling the disease; their efficacy could potentially be improved with concurrent use of probiotics as evaluated in this study using anEimeria challenge. Day of hatch 400 Cobb-500 male broilers were assigned to one of four treatment groups including control (CON), vaccine-only gel application (VNC), probiotic-only gel application (NPC), and vaccine-plus-probiotic gel application (VPC). Birds were placed in floor pens (6 replicate pens/treatment, ...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Transmission tree of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) epidemic in Israel, 2015
AbstractThe transmission tree of the Israeli 2015 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) was modelled by combining the spatio-temporal distribution of the outbreaks and the genetic distance between virus isolates. The most likely successions of transmission events were determined and transmission parameters were estimated. It was found that the median infectious pressure exerted at 1  km was 1.59 times (95% CI 1.04, 6.01) and 3.54 times (95% CI 1.09, 131.75) higher than that exerted at 2 and 5 km, respectively, and that three farms were responsible for all seven transmission events. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - November 4, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Review on the transmission porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus between pigs and farms and impact on vaccination
AbstractPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered to be one of the most costly diseases affecting intensive pig production worldwide. Control of PRRS is a complex issue and involves a combination of measures including monitoring, diagnosis, biosecurity, herd management, and immunization. In spite of the numerous studies dealing with PRRS virus epidemiology, transmission of the infection is still not fully understood. The present article reviews the current knowledge on PRRSV transmission between and within farm, and the impact of vaccination on virus transmission. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 28, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental Piscine orthoreovirus infection mediates protection against pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )
In conclusion, experimentally PRV infected salmon are less susceptible to secondary SAV infection and development of PD. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 21, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genetic loci of Mycoplasma agalactiae involved in systemic spreading during experimental intramammary infection of sheep
AbstractMycoplasmas are amongst the most successful pathogens of both humans and animals yet the molecular basis of mycoplasma pathogenesis is poorly understood. This is partly due to the lack of classical virulence factors and little similarity to common bacterial pathogenic determinants. UsingMycoplasma agalactiae as a model we initiated research in this direction by screening a transposon mutant library in the natural sheep host using a negative selection method. Having successfully identified putative factors involved in the colonization of local infection and lymphogenic sites, the current study assessed mutants unabl...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 20, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The 60S ribosomal protein L13 is the most preferable reference gene to investigate gene expression in selected organs from turkeys and chickens, in context of different infection models
In this study, eight candidate reference genes HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, VIM, TFRC, RPLP0, RPL13 and RPS7 were evaluated by five different algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper ©, delta CT, RefFinder) to assess their stability. In order to analyze a broad variation of tissues, spleen, liver, caecum and caecal tonsil of different aged specific pathogen free (SPF) layer chickens and commercial turkeys, uninfected or infected with the extracellular pathogenHistomonas meleagridis, were included. For tissue samples from SPF chickens RPL13 and TBP were found to be the most stable reference genes. Further testing of RPL13 and T...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 20, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Distinct immune responses and virus shedding in pigs following aerosol, intra-nasal and contact infection with pandemic swine influenza A virus, A(H1N1)09
AbstractInfluenza virus infection in pigs is a major farming problem, causing considerable economic loss and posing a zoonotic threat. In addition the pig is an excellent model for understanding immunity to influenza viruses as this is a natural host pathogen system. Experimentally, influenza virus is delivered to pigs intra-nasally, by intra-tracheal instillation or by aerosol, but there is little data comparing the outcome of different methods. We evaluated the shedding pattern, cytokine responses in nasal swabs and immune responses following delivery of low or high dose swine influenza pdmH1N1 virus to the respiratory t...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 20, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Distinct functional enrichment of transcriptional signatures in pigs with high and low IFN-gamma responses after vaccination with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)
AbstractLittle is known about the host factor in the response to PRRSV vaccination. For this purpose, piglets were immunized with a commercial PRRSV-live vaccine and classified as high responders (HR) or low responders (LR) as regards to the frequencies of virus-specific IFN- γ-secreting cells. Six weeks post vaccination, PBMCs isolated from three individuals with the most extreme responses in each HR and LR groups and 3 unvaccinated controls, were either stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, challenged with the vaccine or mock treated for 24 h, prior conducting transcr iptional studies, gene ontology and pathway...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 20, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Helicobacter suis affects the health and function of porcine gastric parietal cells
In conclusion, this study describes a successful approach for the isolation and culture of porcine gastric parietal cells. The results indicate thatH. suis affects the viability and function of this cell type. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 19, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Relationship between viral dose and outcome of infection in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., post-smolts bath-challenged with salmonid alphavirus subtype 3
AbstractSalmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD) and adversely affects salmonid aquaculture in Europe. A better understanding of disease transmission is currently needed in order to manage PD outbreaks. Here, we demonstrate the relationship between viral dose and the outcome of SAV3 infection in Atlantic salmon post-smolts using a bath challenge model. Fish were challenged at 12  °C with 3 different SAV3 doses; 139, 27 and 7 TCID50 L−1 of seawater. A dose of as little as 7 TCID50 L−1 of seawater was able to induce SAV3 infection in the challenged population with a sub...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 19, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immune protection of chickens conferred by a vaccine consisting of attenuated strains of Salmonella Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Infantis
In this study we therefore tested the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of attenuated strains ofSalmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Infantis against challenge with the same serovars and withS. Agona, Dublin and Hadar. We tested oral and aerosol administration of the vaccine, with or without co-administration of cecal microbiota from adult hens. The protective effect was determined by bacterial counts of the challenge strains up to week 18 of life and by characterizing the immune response using real-time PCR specific for 16 different genes. We have shown that a vaccine consisting of attenuatedS. Enterit...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 15, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Shotgun proteomic analysis of Yersinia ruckeri strains under normal and iron-limited conditions
AbstractYersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease of fish that causes significant economic losses, particularly in salmonids. Bacterial pathogens differentially express proteins in the host during the infection process, and under certain environmental conditions. Iron is an essential nutrient for many cellular processes and is involved in host sensing and virulence regulation in many bacteria. Little is known about proteomics expression ofY. ruckeri in response to iron-limited conditions. Here, we present whole cell protein identification and quantification for two motile and two non-motile strain...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 6, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genetic, histochemical and biochemical studies on goat TSE cases from Cyprus
AbstractScrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE ’s) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE’s. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie eradication program on Cyprus were genotyped and further characterized using BioRad TeSeE rapid test, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. In total 42 goats from 20 flocks were necropsied from which 25 goats show...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 6, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The impact of co-infections on fish: a review
We present a concise summary about the present knowledge regarding co-infections in fish. More research is needed to better understand the immune response of fish during mixed infections as these could have an important impact on the development of new strategies for disease control programs and vaccination in fish. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 4, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Acute and chronic infections with nonprimate hepacivirus in young horses
AbstractThe recently discovered nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) naturally infects horses and is the closest known homolog of hepatitis C virus to date. Within a follow-up study acute field infections were monitored in four young Thoroughbred horses until the ages of 12 –13 months. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of NPHV RNA and anti-NPHV NS3 antibodies and liver specific parameters were evaluated. The four young horses were not able to clear infection, but remained chronically infected for the entire monitored time period despite the presence of NP HV specific antibodies. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 22, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research