Activation of regulated cell death in the lung of piglets infected with virulent PRRSV-1 Lena strain occurs earlier and mediated by cleaved Caspase-8
AbstractPRRSV-1 virulent strains cause high fever, marked respiratory disease and severe lesions in lung and lymphoid organs. Regulated cell death (RCD), such as apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis, is triggered by the host to interrupt viral replication eliminating infected cells, however, although it seems to play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of PRRSV, there are significant gaps regarding their sequence and activation upon PRRSV-infection. The present study evaluated RCD events by means of  caspases expression in the lung of PRRSV-1-infected pigs and their impact on pulmonary macrophage subpopulat...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides have bactericidal effects against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
AbstractInfection withMycobacterium avium subspeciesparatuberculosis (MAP) is complex, but little is known about the role that natural killer (NK) cells play. In the present study, four bovine NK-lysin peptides were synthesized to evaluate their bactericidal activity against MAP. The results demonstrated that bNK-lysin peptides were directly bactericidal against MAP, with bNK1 and bNK2A being more potent than bNK2B and bNK2C. Mechanistically, transmission electron microscopy revealed that the incubation of MAP with bNK2A resulted in extensive damage to cell membranes and cytosolic content leakage. Furthermore, the addition...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 21, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sero- and apx -typing of German Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field isolates from 2010 to 2019 reveals a predominance of serovar 2 with regular apx -profile
In this study, 213 GermanA. pleuropneumoniae field isolates retrieved for diagnostic purposes from outbreaks of porcine pleuropneumonia between 2010 and 2019 were genetically serotyped and analyzed regarding theirapx-toxin gene profile using molecular methods. Serotyping revealed a prominent role of serovar 2 in clinical cases (64% of all isolates) and an increase in the detection of this serovar since 2010 in German isolates. Serovar 9/11 followed as the second most frequent serovar with about 15% of the isolates. Furthermore, very recently described serovars 16 (n  = 2) and 18 (n = 8) wer...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 20, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

DDX1 from Cherry valley duck mediates signaling pathways and anti-NDRV activity
AbstractNovel duck reovirus (NDRV) causes severe economic losses to the duck industry, which is characterized by hemorrhagic spots and necrotic foci of the livers and spleens. DEAD-box helicase 1 (DDX1) plays a critical role in the innate immune system against viral infection. However, the role of duck DDX1 (duDDX1) in anti-RNA virus infection, especially in the anti-NDRV infection, has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of duDDX1 (2223  bp encode 740 amino acids) was firstly cloned from the spleen of healthy Cherry valley ducks, and the phylogenetic tree indicated that the duDDX1 has the...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 20, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

N-linked glycosylation at site 158 of the HA protein of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is important for viral biological properties and host immune responses
AbstractSince 2014, clade has become the dominant epidemic branch of the Asian lineage H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in southern and eastern China, while the H5N6 subtype is the most prevalent. We have shown earlier that lack of glycosylation at position 158 of the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein due to the T160A mutation is a key determinant of the dual receptor binding property of clade H5NX subtypes. Our present study aims to explore other effects of this site among H5N6 viruses. Here we report that N-linked glycosylation at site 158 facilitated the assembly of virus-like par...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 13, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Upregulation of DUSP6 impairs infectious bronchitis virus replication by negatively regulating ERK pathway and promoting apoptosis
In conclusion, these data suggest that MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway facilitates IBV infection, probably by promoting cell survival; meanwhile, induction of DUSP6 forms a negative regulation loop to restrict ERK1/2 signaling, correlated with increased apoptosis and reduced viral load. Consequently, components of the ERK pathway, such as MEK1/2 and DUSP6, represent excellent targets for the development of antiviral drugs. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - January 11, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The serine-48 residue of nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin-1 plays critical role in subcellular localization and interaction with porcine circovirus type 3 capsid protein
AbstractThe transport of circovirus capsid protein into nucleus is essential for viral replication in infected cell. However, the role of nucleolar shuttle proteins during porcine circovirus 3 capsid protein (PCV3 Cap) import is still not understood. Here, we report a previously unidentified nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) of PCV3 Cap, which hijacks the nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1) to facilitate nucleolar localization of PCV3 Cap. The NoLS of PCV3 Cap and serine-48 residue of N-terminal oligomerization domain of NPM1 are essential for PCV3 Cap/NPM1 interaction. In addition, charge property of serine...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 7, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Biological properties and roles of a Trichinella spiralis inorganic pyrophosphatase in molting and developmental process of intestinal larval stages
AbstractInorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) participates in energy cycle and plays a vital role in hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) into inorganic phosphate (Pi). The aim of this study was to investigate the biological properties of aTrichinella spiralis PPase (TsPPase) and its role in larval molting and developmental process. The predicted TsPPase consisted of 367 amino acids with a molecular mass of 41.48  kDa and a pI of 5.76. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that the TsPPase gene encodes a functional family I soluble PPase with the same characteristics as prokaryotic, plant a...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 7, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Minimizing the number of origins in batches of weaned calves to reduce their risks of developing bovine respiratory diseases
This study investigated whether reducing the number of different origins per batch is a strategy to reduce the risk of BRD cases. We developed an algorithm aimed at creating batches with as few origins as possible, while respecting constraints on the number and breed of the calves. We tested this algorithm on a dataset of 137,726 weaned calves grouped into 9701 batches by a French organization. We also computed an index assessing the risks of developing BRD because of the batch composition by considering four pathogens involved in the BRD system. While increasing the heterogeneity of batches in calf bodyweight, which is no...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 7, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Protection studies of an excretory –secretory protein HcABHD against Haemonchus contortus infection
AbstractUnlike the successful immunization of nativeH. contortus antigens that contributed to the realization of the first commercial vaccine Barbervax, not many studies revealed the encouraging protective efficacies of recombinantH. contortus antigens in laboratory trials or under field conditions. In our preliminary study,H. contortusα/β-hydrolase domain protein (HcABHD) was demonstrated to be an immunomodulatory excretory–secretory (ES) protein that interacts with goat T cells. We herein evaluated the protective capacities of two HcABHD preparations, recombinant HcABHD (rHcABHD) antigen and anti-rHcABHD...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 6, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Dermal immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds and effects of anti-inflammatory dexamethasone treatment on the development of psoroptic mange
AbstractPsoroptic mange is a common disease of livestock, caused byPsoroptes ovis. Compared to Holstein –Friesian (HF) cattle, the Belgian Blue (BB) cattle breed is highly susceptible to the infestation. However, the mechanism for this difference is still unclear. To determine the factors responsible for this breed susceptibility, the immune response toP. ovis was studied in experimentally infested BB and HF cattle, using clinical signs, histology, immunohistochemical profiling and gene expression analysis of skin biopsies. The mite numbers and lesion area of BB cattle were greater than in HF during the whole study p...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Systemic and intestinal porcine epidemic diarrhea virus-specific antibody response and distribution of antibody-secreting cells in experimentally infected conventional pigs
AbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a coronavirus disease characterized by the rapid spread of severe diarrhea among pigs. PED virus (PEDV) infects and replicates mainly in the epithelial cells of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Serum or mucosal IgA antibody levels have been used to predict both vaccine efficacy and the level of protective immunity to enteric infectious diseases in individuals or herds. Details of the B-cell immune response upon PEDV infection, such as the systemic and mucosal PEDV IgA antibody response, the distribution of IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and their role in virus clearan...
Source: Veterinary Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Michel Br émont (1953–2020)
(Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - December 30, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Design, development, and evaluation of the efficacy of a nucleic acid-free version of a bacterial ghost candidate vaccine against avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) O78:K80 serotype
AbstractOne of the major bacterial infectious diseases in the poultry industry is avian pathogenicEscherichia coli (APEC), which causes colibacillosis in chickens. To develop a novel nucleic acid-free bacterial ghost (BG) vaccine against the O78:K80 serotype of APEC, in this study we constructed a plasmid that harbored E-lysis and S nuclease (SNUC). Following the expression, the O78:K80 bacteria lost all of their cytoplasmic content and nucleic acids by enzymatic digestion. The functionality of these two proteins in the production procedure of bacterial ghosts was confirmed by monitoring the number of colonies, scanning el...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 9, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Regulatory effects of chicken TRIM25 on the replication of ALV-A and the MDA5-mediated type I interferon response
This study focuses on the immunoregulatory effects of chicken TRIM25 on the replication of subgroup A of avian leukosis virus (ALV-A) and the MDA5-mediated type I interferon response. The ALV-A-SDAU09C1 strain was inoculated into DF1 cells and 1-day-old SPF chickens, and the expression of TRIM25 was detected at different time points after inoculation. A recombinant overexpression plasmid containing the chicken TRIM25 gene (TRIM25-GFP) was constructed and transfected into DF1 cells to analyse the effects of the overexpression of chicken TRIM25 on the replication of ALV-A and the expression of MDA5, MAVS and IFN- β. A s...
Source: Veterinary Research - December 9, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) fiber-based vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) provides type-specific protection guided by humoral immunity and regulation of B and T cell response
In conclusion, within FAdV-E, recombinant fiber represents a vaccine candidate to control the adverse effects of homotypic infection by eliciting an effective humoral immunity and regulating B and T cell response, whereas the failure of heterotypic protection suggests a primordial role of humoral immunity for this vaccine. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - December 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of carp seminal plasma Wap65-2 and its participation in the testicular immune response and temperature acclimation
This study expands the understanding of the mechanism of carp testicular immunity against bacterial challenge and temperature changes, in which Wap65-2 seems to be involved and highlights their potential usefulness as biomarkers of inflammation and temperature acclimation. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - November 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Infection of bovine well-differentiated airway epithelial cells by Pasteurella multocida : actions and counteractions in the bacteria –host interactions
AbstractPasteurella (P.) multocida is a zoonotic pathogen, which is able to cause respiratory disorder in different hosts. In cattle,P. multocida is an important microorganism involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) with a huge economic impact. We applied air –liquid interface (ALI) cultures of well-differentiated bovine airway epithelial cells to analyze the interaction ofP. multocida with its host target cells. The bacterial pathogen grew readily on the ALI cultures. Infection resulted in a substantial loss of ciliated cells. Nevertheless, the epithelial cell layer maintained its barrier function ...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cannabis -derived cannabidiol and nanoselenium improve gut barrier function and affect bacterial enzyme activity in chickens subjected to C. perfringens challenge
AbstractRevealing the multifocal mechanisms affecting cross-talk betweenClostridium perfringens pathogenesis and the host response is an urgent need in the poultry industry. Herein, the activity ofCannabis sativa-derived cannabidiol (CBD) and selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se) in modulating the host response toClostridium perfringens challenge was investigated in broiler chickens subjected to a mild infection model. The infected chickens exhibited no clinical manifestations, confirming the potential hazard of pathogen transmission to the food chain in the commercial sector. However, both CBD and Nano-Se affected the response...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

RNAi-mediated silencing of Trichinella spiralis serpin-type serine protease inhibitors results in a reduction in larval infectivity
This study aims to determine TsSPI functions in larval viability and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, as well as their development, survival, and fecundity in vivo via RNAi. TsSPI-specific siRNAs and dsRNA were transfected into ML by incubation. The silencing effect of TsSPI transcription and expression was determined using qPCR and western blot, respectively. After incubation in 60  ng/μL dsRNA–TsSPI for 3 days, larval TsSPI mRNA and protein expression levels were reduced by 68.7% and 68.4% (P 
Source: Veterinary Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Serotyping and pathotyping of Glaesserella parasuis isolated 2012 –2019 in Germany comparing different PCR-based methods
In this study, a collection of 308 isolates from carrier animals and individuals with respiratory or Glässer´s disease isolated 2012–2019 in Germany was analysed. Isolates were characterized for serovar impleme nting two different PCR methods. Additionally, two different PCR methods for pathotyping isolates were applied to the collection and results compared. Serovar 6 (p 
Source: Veterinary Research - November 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Eimeria acervulina modulates the functions of chicken dendritic cells to boost Th1 type immune response and stimulates autologous CD4 + T cells differentiation in-vitro
In this study, we tested the  immunogenic profiles of chicken DCs towards Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase fromEimeria acervulina (EaGAPDH). Immunoblot analysis showed that recombinant EaGAPDH (rEaGAPDH) protein was successfully recognized by rat sera generated against rEaGAPDH. Interaction and internalisation of rEaGAPDH by chicken splenic-derived DCs (chSPDCs) was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. Flow cytometry revealed that chSPDCs upregulated MHCII, CD1.1, CD11c, CD80, and CD86 cell-surface markers. Moreover, mRNA expressions of DC maturation biomarkers (CCL5, CCR7, and CD83) and TLR signalling ge...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Duck enteritis virus pUL47, as a late structural protein localized in the nucleus, mainly depends on residues 40 to 50 and 768 to 777 and inhibits IFN- β signalling by interacting with STAT1
In this study, we identified the DEV UL47 gene encoding a late structural protein located in the nucleus of infected cells. We further found that two domains of DEV pUL47, amino acids (aa) 40 to 50 and 768 to 777, could function as nuclear localization sequence (NLS) to guide the nuclear localization of pUL47 and nuclear translocation of heterologous proteins, including enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and beta-galactosidase ( β-Gal). Moreover, pUL47 significantly inhibited polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced interferon beta (IFN-β) production and downregulated interferon-stimulat...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 11, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Tomatidine inhibits porcine epidemic diarrhea virus replication by targeting 3CL protease
AbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes lethal diarrhea in suckling piglets, leading to severe economic losses worldwide. There is an urgent need to find new therapeutic methods to prevent and control PEDV. Not only is there a shortage of commercial anti-PEDV drugs, but available commercial vaccines fail to protect against highly virulent PEDV variants. We screened an FDA-approved library of 911 natural products and found that tomatidine, a steroidal alkaloid extracted from the skin and leaves of tomatoes, demonstrates significant inhibition of PEDV replication in Vero and IPEC-J2 cells in vitro. Molecular do...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 11, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pharmacological iron-chelation as an assisted nutritional immunity strategy against Piscirickettsia salmonis infection
AbstractSalmonid Rickettsial Septicaemia (SRS), caused byPiscirickettsia salmonis, is a severe bacterial disease in the Chilean salmon farming industry. Vaccines and antibiotics are the current strategies to fight SRS; however, the high frequency of new epizootic events confirms the need to develop new strategies to combat this disease. An innovative opportunity is perturbing the host pathways used by the microorganisms to replicate inside host cells through host-directed antimicrobial drugs (HDAD). Iron is a critical nutrient forP. salmonis infection; hence, the use of iron-chelators becomes an excellent alternative to be...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 28, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

An optimized secretory expression system and immunogenicity evaluation for glycosylated gp90 of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus
In this study, an optimized suspension culture system was developed and applied to secretory express the immunogenic surface antigen gp90. To achieve an optimal glycosylation, the gp90 was designed to secretory expressed into the supernatant of the cell culture, which also occurs in the natural protein maturation procedure of REV. Serum-free culture medium was introduced to simplify the purification process and reduce the production costs. Based on the purified glycosylated gp90, an oil-emulsion subunit REV vaccine candidate was developed and evaluated in chickens. The subunit gp90-based vaccine induced fast immune respons...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Analysis of the microRNA expression profiles of chicken dendritic cells in response to H9N2 avian influenza virus infection
AbstractMicroRNA (miRNA) plays a key role in virus-host interactions. Here, we employed deep sequencing technology to determine cellular miRNA expression profiles in chicken dendritic cells infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV). A total of 66 known and 36 novel miRNAs were differently expressed upon H9N2 infection, including 72 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated miRNAs. Functional analysis showed that the predicted targets of these miRNAs were significantly enriched in several pathways including endocytosis, notch, lysosome, p53, RIG-I-like and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways. These data provide valuable info...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic integration for optimal dosage of cefquinome against Streptococcus equi subsp. equi in foals
In conclusion, based on AUC24h/MIC values and pharmacokinetic parameters, cefquinome when administered by intramuscularly at a dosage of 0.53  mg/kg every 24 h, would be effective against infection caused byS. equi in foals. Further studies may be necessary to confirm its therapeutic efficacy in a clinical environment. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Type 3 immunity: a perspective for the defense of the mammary gland against infections
AbstractType 3 immunity encompasses innate and adaptive immune responses mediated by cells that produce the signature cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F. This class of effector immunity is particularly adept at controlling infections by pyogenic extracellular bacteria at epithelial barriers. Since mastitis results from infections by bacteria such as streptococci, staphylococci and coliform bacteria that cause neutrophilic inflammation, type 3 immunity can be expected to be mobilized at the mammary gland. In effect, the main defenses of this organ are provided by epithelial cells and neutrophils, which are the main terminal effect...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Correction to: Unexpected high frequency of neurofibroma in the celiac ganglion of German cattle
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Integrated time-serial transcriptome networks reveal common innate and tissue-specific adaptive immune responses to PRRSV infection
AbstractPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is the most important viral disease causing severe economic losses in the swine industry. However, mechanisms underlying gene expression control in immunity-responsible tissues at different time points during PRRSV infection are poorly understood. We constructed an integrated gene co-expression network and identified tissue- and time-dependent biological mechanisms of PRRSV infection through bioinformatics analysis using three tissues (lungs, bronchial lymph nodes [BLNs], and tonsils) via RNA-Seq. Three groups with specific expression patterns (i...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Zinc uptake system ZnuACB is essential for maintaining pathogenic phenotype of F4ac + enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) under a zinc restricted environment
AbstractZinc is the second trace element of living organisms after iron. Given its crucial importance, mammalian hosts restrict the bioavailability of Zinc ions (Zn2+) to bacterial pathogens. As a countermeasure, pathogens utilize high affinity Zn2+ transporters, such as ZnuACB to compete with the host for zinc. It is essential for bacteria to maintain zinc homeostasis and thus maintain their physiology and pathogenesis. In an attempt to uncover the zinc transporter in F4+ enterotoxigenicE. coli (ETEC) C83902, we analyzed two RNA-seq data sets of bacteria samples when different zinc treatments (restriction or abundance) we...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 6, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Epidemiology of age-dependent prevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 (BoHV-1) in dairy herds with and without vaccination
AbstractMany studies report age as a risk factor for BoHV-1 infection or seropositivity. However, it is unclear whether this pattern reflects true epidemiological causation or is a consequence of study design and other issues. Here, we seek to understand the age-related dynamics of BoHV-1 seroprevalence in seasonal calving Irish dairy herds and provide decision support for the design and implementation of effective BoHV-1 testing strategies. We analysed seroprevalence data from dairy herds taken during two Irish seroprevalence surveys conducted between 2010 and 2017. Age-dependent seroprevalence profiles were constructed f...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a Trichinella spiralis serine proteinase
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the biological characteristics and functions of aTrichinella spiralis serine proteinase (TsSerp) during larval invasion and development in the host. The full-length TsSerp cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed inEscherichia coli BL21. The results of RT-PCR, IFA and western blotting analyses showed that TsSerp was a secretory protein that was highly expressed at theT. spiralis intestinal infective larva and muscle larva stages and primarily located at the cuticle, stichosome and intrauterine embryos of the parasite. rTsSerp promoted the larval invasion of intestinal epitheli...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A transient increase in MHC-II low monocytes after experimental infection with Avibacterium paragallinarum (serovar B-1) in SPF chickens
The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic effects ofAvibacterium paragallinarum (serovar B-1) infection on immune cells in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The current study revealed the presence of a transient circulating monocyte population endowed with high phagocytic ability and clear downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) surface expression. In human and mouse studies, this monocyte population (identified as tolerant monocytes) has been correlated with a dysfunctional immune response, increasing the risk of secondary infections and mortality. Consistent with this dysf...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Differential expression of microRNA between normally developed and underdeveloped female worms of Schistosoma japonicum
In this study, the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of 25d MF and 25d SF were investigated through Solexa deep-sequencing technology to explore the developmental mechanisms of schistosome female worms. There were 36 differentially expressed miRNA, 20 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated found in MF/SF worms, including some development related miRNA such as bantam (ban), let-7, miR-124, miR-8, miR-1, miR-7. There were 166 target genes of up-regulated miRNA and 201 target genes of down-regulated miRNA after comparing the target gene prediction software results with RNA-Seq transcriptome results. Analysis of the target gene...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The immunomodulatory effect of cathelicidin-B1 on chicken macrophages
In conclusion, our results show for the first time that CATH-B1 has several immunomodulatory activities and thereby could be an important factor in the chicken immune response. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Phylogenomic analysis of Mycoplasma bovis from Belgian veal, dairy and beef herds
AbstractM. bovis is one of the leading causes of respiratory disease and antimicrobial use in cattle. The pathogen is widespread in different cattle industries worldwide, but highest prevalence is found in the veal industry. Knowledge onM. bovis strain distribution over the dairy, beef and veal industries is crucial for the design of effective control and prevention programs, but currently undocumented. Therefore, the present study evaluated the molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness ofM. bovis isolates obtained from Belgian beef, dairy and veal farms, and how these relate toM. bovis strains obtained worldwide. Ful...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 22, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Chicken bromodomain-containing protein 2 interacts with the Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and promotes viral replication
In this study, we first confirmed the interaction between the M protein and chBRD2 protein using fluorescence co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. Intracellular binding studies indicated that the C-terminus (aa 264 –313) of the M protein and the extra-terminal (ET) domain (aa 619–683) of the chBRD2 protein were responsible for interactions with each other. Interestingly, although two amino acids (T621 and S649) found in the chBRD2/ET domain were different from those in the human BRD2/ET domain and in that of other mammals, they did not disrupt the BRD2-M interaction or the chBRD2-M inte...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 21, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

PRV UL13 inhibits cGAS –STING-mediated IFN-β production by phosphorylating IRF3
AbstractCyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is an intracellular sensor of cytoplasmic viral DNA created during virus infection, which subsequently activates the stimulator of interferon gene (STING)-dependent type I interferon response to eliminate pathogens. In contrast, viruses have developed different strategies to modulate this signalling pathway. Pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alphaherpesvirus, is the causative agent of Aujeszky ’s disease (AD), a notable disease that causes substantial economic loss to the swine industry globally. Previous reports have shown that PRV infection induces cGAS-dependent IFN-β...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 14, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Adiaspore development and morphological characteristics in a mouse adiaspiromycosis model
We examined infection with a few spores, which revealed that adiaspores in the mouse lung pro gressed from intratracheal infection of at least 400 spores. Moreover, we developed adiaspores in vitro by culture in fetal bovine serum. Although most spores broke, some large spores were intact. They reached about 50 μm diameter. Thick cell walls and dense granules were found as common points be tween in vitro adiaspores and in vivo adiaspores. These models are expected to be useful for additional investigations ofE. crescens adiaspores and adiaspiromycosis. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 14, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Re-calculating the cost of coccidiosis in chickens
AbstractCoccidiosis, caused byEimeria species parasites, has long been recognised as an economically significant disease of chickens. As the global chicken population continues to grow, and its contribution to food security intensifies, it is increasingly important to assess the impact of diseases that compromise chicken productivity and welfare. In 1999, Williams published one of the most comprehensive estimates for the cost of coccidiosis in chickens, featuring a compartmentalised model for the costs of prophylaxis, treatment and losses, indicating a total cost in excess of £38 million in the United Kingdom (UK) in...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Enterotropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 from the 2016/2017 epidemic in some wild bird species
AbstractIn 2016/2017, H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the Goose/Guangdong lineage spread from Asia to Europe, causing the biggest and most widespread HPAI epidemic on record in wild and domestic birds in Europe. We hypothesized that the wide dissemination of the 2016 H5N8 virus resulted at least partly from a change in tissue tropism from the respiratory tract, as in older HPAIV viruses, to the intestinal tract, as in low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses, allowing more efficient faecal-oral transmission. Therefore, we determined the tissue tropism and associated lesions in wild birds found d...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Acute and long-term effects of antibiotics commonly used in laboratory animal medicine on the fecal microbiota
AbstractBiomedical research relies on the use of animal models, and the animals used in those models receive medical care, including antibiotics for brief periods of time to treat conditions such as dermatitis, fight wounds, and suspected bacterial pathogens of unknown etiology. As many mouse model phenotypes are sensitive to changes in the gut microbiota, our goal was to examine the effect of antibiotics commonly administered to mice. Therefore, four treatment groups (subcutaneous enrofloxacin for 7  days, oral enrofloxacin for 14 days, oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 14 days, and topical triple anti...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immune responses upon experimental Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection of na ïve and vaccinated chickens
In conclusion, the ER infection elicited prompt acute innate responses in all chickens. Vaccinated chickens did not have high IgY tit ers to ER prior to infection but did however show lower levels of bacteraemia and their acute immune responses were of shorter duration. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pathobiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses H7N1 and H5N8 in different chicken breeds and role of Mx 2032 G/A polymorphism in infection outcome
In this study, we evaluated the pathogenesis of two HPAIVs (H7N1 and H5N8) and assessed the susceptibility to the infection of local and commercial chicken breeds from Spain. Eight chicken breeds were intranasally inoculated with 105 ELD50 of A/Chicken/Italy/5093/1999 (H7N1) or A/Goose/Spain/IA17CR02699/2017 (H5N8 clade B) and monitored during 10  days. Chickens were highly susceptible to both HPAIVs, but H7N1 was considerably more virulent than H5N8 as demonstrated by the highest mortality rates and shortest mean death times (MDT). Both HPAIVs produced severe necrosis and intense viral replication in the cen...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 9, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Construction of polycistronic baculovirus surface display vectors to express the PCV2 Cap(d41) protein and analysis of its immunogenicity in mice and swine
AbstractTo increase expression levels of the PCV2 Cap(d41) protein, novel baculovirus surface display vectors with multiple expression cassettes were constructed to create recombinant baculoviruses BacSC-Cap(d41), BacDD-2Cap(d41), BacDD-3Cap(d41), and BacDD-4Cap(d41). Our results reveal that the recombinant baculovirus BacDD-4Cap(d41) was able to express the highest levels of Cap(d41) protein. Optimum conditions for expressing the PCV2 Cap(d41) protein were determined, and our results show that 107 of Sf-9 infected with the recombinant baculovirus BacDD-4Cap(d41) at an MOI of 5 for 3  days showed the highest level of ...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 8, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel peptidase from Trichinella spiralis and protective immunity elicited by the peptidase in BALB/c mice
The objective of this study was to investigate the biological properties and functions of TsP in larval intrusion and protective immunity induced by immunization with rTsP. The complete TsP cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed. The results of RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) and western blotting revealed that TsP is a surface and secretory protein expressed inT. spiralis at different stages (muscle larvae, IIL, AWs and newborn larvae) that is principally localized at the epicuticle of the nematode. rTsP facilitated the larval intrusion of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and intestinal mucosa, whereas a...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Canine Parvovirus is diagnosed and neutralized by chicken IgY-scFv generated against the virus capsid protein
This study revealed the feasibility of a novel functional antibody fragment development strategy by generating diversified avian IgY-scFv libraries towards the pathogenic target of interest for both detection and therapeutic purposes in veterinary medicine. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

First European report of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica isolation from a domestic cat
AbstractFrancisella tularensis subsp.holarctica is a select agent causing life-threatening tularemia. It has been isolated from humans and animals, mainly lagomorphs and rodents, rarely other wild carnivore species. Increasing numbers of human tularemia cases have been reported during the last 5  years in Switzerland. Here we report the first isolation ofFrancisella tularensis subsp.holarctica from a domestic cat in Europe and compare its genome sequence with other Swiss isolates. The cat isolate shows a close phylogenetic relationship with a contemporary hare isolate from close geographic proximity, indicating a poss...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 30, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research