Proteomic analysis of bovine mammary epithelial cells after in vitro incubation with S. agalactiae : potential biomarkers
AbstractStreptococcus agalactiae is one of the causative agents of subclinical mastitis, a common disease of dairy cows that causes great economic losses in the industry worldwide. It is thought that pathology is mainly due to inflammatory damage of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs); however, the mechanism by whichS. agalactiae damages the bMECs is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory effects ofS. agalactiae on bMECs and the resulting changes in protein profiles. The bMECs were incubated withS. agalactiae for different times and assayed for cell viability by MTT assay, apoptosis by annexi...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 3, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Toward better control of classical swine fever in wild boars: susceptibility of boar-pig hybrids to a recent Japanese isolate and effectiveness of a bait vaccine
AbstractWe analyzed the pathogenicity of a recent Japanese classical swine fever virus (CSFV) to wild boars via an experimental infection using boar-pig hybrids as an alternative to wild boars. We also investigated the effectiveness of a bait vaccine against the CSFV. Na ïve boar-pig hybrids and pigs showed clinical signs such as fever, leucopenia, anorexia and conjunctivitis following the experimental infection. In contrast, the boar-pig hybrids administered the bait vaccine did not show any clinical signs. Our data indicated that boar-pig hybrids and domestic pig s have similar susceptibility to the recent Japanese ...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of the reproductive system development and egg-laying performance of hens infected with TW I-type infectious bronchitis virus
In this study, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens infected with TW I-type IBV were continuously observed for 200  days. TW I-type IBV affected the respiratory, urinary, and female reproductive systems, resulting in a mortality rate of 10% as well as a decrease in egg quantity and an increase in inferior eggs. During the monitoring period, serious lesions occurred in the female reproductive system, such as yol k peritonitis, a shortened oviduct, and cysts of different sizes with effusion in the degenerated right oviduct. The infective viruses persisted in vivo for a long time, and due to the stress of layi...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The Glaesserella parasuis phosphoglucomutase is partially required for lipooligosaccharide synthesis
In conclusion, our results preliminarily described the functions ofHAPS_0849 inG. parasuis, and this gene was partially required for LOS synthesis. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sub-lethal doses of albendazole induce drug metabolizing enzymes and increase albendazole deactivation in Haemonchus contortus adults
AbstractThe efficacy of anthelmintic therapy of farm animals rapidly decreases due to drug resistance development in helminths. In resistant isolates, the increased expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), e.g. cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) and P-glycoprotein transporters (P-gps), in comparison to sensitive isolates have been described. However, the mechanisms and circumstances of DMEs induction are not well known. Therefore, the present study was designed to find the changes in expression of CYPs, UGTs and P-gps in adult parasitic nematodesHaemonchus contortus exposed to sub-...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A multivalent vaccine candidate targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae for broadly protecting against porcine post-weaning diarrhea
AbstractFimbriae-mediated initial adherence is the initial and critical step required for enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli (ETEC) infection. Therefore, vaccine candidates have been developed that target these fimbriae and induce specific anti-fimbriae antibodies to block initial ETEC attachment. While this vaccine effectively protects against ETEC-associated post-weaning diarrhea (PWD), developing a broadly effective vaccine against initial ETEC attachment remains a challenging problem, owing to the immunological heterogeneity among these antigens. Here, we applied multi-epitope fusion antigen (MEFA) technology to construct...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Development of attenuated live vaccine candidates against swine brucellosis in a non-zoonotic B. suis biovar 2 background
AbstractBrucella is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that cause brucellosis. B. abortus andB. melitensis infect domestic ruminants whileB. suis (biovars 1 –3) infect swine, and all these bacteria butB. suis biovar 2 are zoonotic. Live attenuatedB. abortus S19 andB. melitensis Rev1 are effective vaccines in domestic ruminants, though both can infect humans. However, there is no swine brucellosis vaccine. Here, we investigated the potential use as vaccines ofB. suis biovar 2 rough (R) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants totally lacking O-chain (Bs2 ΔwbkF) or only producing internal O-chain precursors (Bs2 Δwz...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Intercellular transmission of Seneca Valley virus mediated by exosomes
This study reveals a new transmission route of SVV and provides clear evidence regarding the pathogenesis of SVV, information which can also be useful for identifying therapeutic interventions. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

EtMIC3 and its receptors BAG1 and ENDOUL are essential for site-specific invasion of Eimeria tenella in chickens
In this study, the binding ability ofE. tenella MICs (EtMICs) to different intestinal tissue was observed by immunofluorescence to identify the key surface molecule on the parasite responsible for the site specificity. Subsequently, we identified the corresponding host-cell receptors by yeast two-hybrid screening and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down experiments and the distribution of these receptors was observed by immunofluorescence in chicken intestinal tissues. Finally, we evaluated the efficacy of receptor antiserum against the infection ofE. tenella in chickens. The results showed that EtMIC3 could only bind to th...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Exploring heterologous prime-boost vaccination approaches to enhance influenza control in pigs
AbstractInfluenza A viruses evolve rapidly to escape host immunity. In swine, this viral evolution has resulted in the emergence of multiple H1 and H3 influenza A virus (IAV) lineages in the United States (US) pig populations. The heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy is a promising way to deal with diverse IAV infection in multiple animal models. However, whether or not this vaccination strategy is applicable to US swine to impart immunity against infection from North American strains of IAV is still unknown. We performed a vaccination-challenge study to evaluate the protective efficacy of using multivalent inacti...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 9, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Avian Metapneumovirus subtype B around Europe: a phylodynamic reconstruction
AbstractAvian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) has been recognized as a respiratory pathogen of turkey and chickens for a long time. Recently, a crescent awareness of aMPV, especially subtype B, clinical and economic impact has risen among European researchers and veterinarians. Nevertheless, the knowledge of its epidemiology and evolution is still limited. In the present study, the broadest available collection of partial G gene sequences obtained from European aMPV-B strains was analyzed using different phylodynamic and biostatistical approaches to reconstruct the viral spreading over time and the role of different hosts on its ev...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Innate immune responses to duck Tembusu virus infection
AbstractThe disease caused by duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is characterized by severe egg-drop in laying ducks. Currently, the disease has spread to most duck-raising areas in China, leading to great economic losses in the duck industry. In the recent years, DTMUV has raised some concerns, because of its expanding host range and increasing pathogenicity, as well as the potential threat to public health. Innate immunity is crucial for defending against invading pathogens in the early stages of infection. Recently, studies on the interaction between DTMUV and host innate immune response have made great progress. In the review,...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pathogenic characteristics of a QX-like infectious bronchitis virus strain SD in chickens exposed at different ages and protective efficacy of combining live homologous and heterologous vaccination
AbstractContinued reports of infections with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants have occurred since its first isolation in the 1930s. Currently, QX-like IBVs are the predominant circulating genotype around the world. Here, the pathogenicity of QX-like IBV strain SD was characterized in chickens at different ages of exposure to the virus, and the protection efficacy of available vaccine combinations against IBV was evaluated. The results revealed that QX-like IBV strain SD was severely pathogenic in chickens, causing respiratory, urinary and reproductive infections, irrespective of age, based on clinical observation...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Population structure, genetic diversity and pathotypes of Streptococcus suis isolated during the last 13  years from diseased pigs in Switzerland
In this study, a detailed characterization of 88 porcineS. suis isolates was performed by analyzing capsular (cps) types, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and investigation of the minimum core genome (MCG). In order to focus on the virulence potential of presumable invasive disease-associatedS. suis isolates, virulence-associated gene profiles were assessed followed by screening a chosen subset ofS. suis strains with a molecular pathotyping tool. Results showed a high genetic variability within this strain collection. In total, seventeencps types were identified with a predominance ofcps type 9 (15.9%) and 6 (14.8%). MLST...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Newcastle disease virus induces testicular damage and disrupts steroidogenesis in specific pathogen free roosters
In this study, we selected a representative strain (i.e. ZJ1) of the most common genotype (i.e. VII) of NDV to investigate whether NDV can induce histological, hormonal, and inflammatory responses in the testes of specific pathogen free (SPF) roosters. NDV infection increased the expression of toll like receptor TLR3, TLR7, MDA5, IFN- α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-8, and CXCLi1 in the testes of NDV-infected roosters at 5 days post-infection (dpi). Severe histological changes, including decrease in the number of Sertoli cells and individualized, shrunken spermatogonia with pyknotic nuclei, were observed at ...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 29, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Crosstalk between Neospora caninum and the bovine host at the maternal-foetal interface determines the outcome of infection
AbstractNeospora caninum is an apicomplexan cyst-forming parasite that is considered one of the main causes of abortion. The pathogenic mechanisms associated with parasite virulence at the maternal-foetal interface that are responsible for the outcome of infection are largely unknown. Here, utilizing placentomes from cattle experimentally infected with high-virulence (Nc-Spain7) and low-virulence (Nc-Spain1H) isolates, we studied key elements of the innate and adaptive immune responses, as well as components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), at 10 and 20  days post-infection (dpi). The low-virulence isolate elicited ...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Unexpected high frequency of neurofibroma in the celiac ganglion of German cattle
AbstractIn a study originally designed to find potential risk factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) we examined tissues from 403 Holstein Frisian cattle in total. These included 20 BSE cattle and their 236 birth- and feeding cohort animals plus 32 offspring, 103 age, breed and district-matched control cattle and further twelve cattle with neurological signs. In addition to the obex, we examined the celiac ganglion, cervical cranial ganglion, trigeminal ganglion and proximal ganglion of the vagus nerve using histological techniques. Unexpectedly, we found a high number of neurofibroma, a benign peripheral nerve...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Climate change implications for the distribution of the babesiosis and anaplasmosis tick vector, Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus ) microplus
This study illustrates how ecological niche modeling can be used to explore probable effects of climate change on disease vectors, and the possible consequences on economic dimensions. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - June 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Coinfections and their molecular consequences in the porcine respiratory tract
AbstractUnderstudied, coinfections are more frequent in pig farms than single infections. In pigs, the term “Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex” (PRDC) is often used to describe coinfections involving viruses such as swine Influenza A Virus (swIAV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), and Porcine CircoVirus type 2 (PCV2) as well as bacteria likeActinobacillus pleuropneumoniae,Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae andBordetella bronchiseptica. The clinical outcome of the various coinfection or superinfection situations is usually assessed in the studies while in most of cases there is no clear eluci...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of a Trichinella spiralis aminopeptidase and its participation in invasion, development and fecundity
AbstractATrichinella spiralis aminopeptidase (TsAP) has been identified in intestinal infectious larvae (IIL) and adult worms (AW), but its biological function in theT. spiralis life cycle is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize TsAP and ascertain its functions in the invasion, development and fecundity ofT. spiralis. Recombinant TsAP (rTsAP) was expressed and purified. rTsAP has strong immunogenicity. qPCR and western blotting show that TsAP was transcribed and expressed at allT. spiralis lifecycle stages, but the expression level of TsAP mRNA and proteins at IIL and AW stages was obviously higher than those...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 15, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The role of O-polysaccharide chain and complement resistance of Escherichia coli in mammary virulence
AbstractMastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is a common disease of dairy animals. The disease is caused by bacterial infection ascending through the teat canal and mammary pathogenicEscherichia coli (MPEC) are common etiology. In the first phase of infection, virulence mechanisms, designated as niche factors, enable MPEC bacteria to resist innate antimicrobial mechanisms, replicate in milk, and to colonize the mammary gland. Next, massive replication of colonizing bacteria culminates in a large biomass of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 15, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in rabbits orally infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi
AbstractEncephalitozoonosis is a common infectious disease widely spread among rabbits.Encephalitozoon cuniculi, is considered as a zoonotic and emerging pathogen capable of infecting both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. The aim of the study was to describe in detail the spread of theE. cuniculi in a rabbit organism after experimental infection and the host humoral and cellular immune response including cytokine production. For that purpose, healthy immunocompetent rabbits were infected orally in order to simulate the natural route of infection and euthanised at 2, 4, 6 and 8-weeks post-infection. Disseminatio...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 15, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Fasciola hepatica coinfection modifies the morphological and immunological features of Echinococcus granulosus cysts in cattle
AbstractPolyparasitism occurs when animals harbour multiple parasites concomitantly. It is a common occurrence but is generally understudied in wild and domestic animals.Fasciola hepatica andEchinococcus granulosus, which are helminths of ungulates, frequently coinfect cattle. The effects of this particular type of polyparasitism are not well documented. The metacestode ofEchinococcus granulosus is surrounded by the adventitial layer, which constitutes the host immune response to the parasite. This layer in cattle is produced by a granulomatous reaction and is involved in echinococcal cyst (EC) fertility. Due to the system...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Defining immune correlates during latent and active chlamydial infection in sheep
AbstractOvine enzootic abortion (OEA) caused by the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogenChlamydia abortus (C. abortus), is an endemic disease in most sheep-rearing countries worldwide. Following infection,C. abortus establishes a complex host –pathogen interaction with a latent phase in non-pregnant sheep followed by an active disease phase in the placenta during pregnancy leading to OEA. Improved knowledge of the host–pathogen interactions at these different phases of disease will accelerate the development of new diagnostic tests a nd vaccines to control OEA. Current evidence indicates that cellular immu...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 1, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental Coxiella burnetii infection in non-pregnant goats and the effect of breeding
AbstractQ fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacteriumCoxiella burnetii. In Europe, small ruminants are the main source of human Q fever. Small ruminant herds can be infectious during several lambing seasons. However, it is not clear how infection is maintained in a herd and what role non-pregnant animals play in the transmission ofC. burnetii. We therefore inoculated nulliparous goats withC. burnetii, isolated from the outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands, to gain a better understanding of the role of non-pregnant goats. Seroconversion and excretion ofC. burnetii were monitored after inoculation. To study t...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of splenic MRC1 hi MHCII lo and MRC1 lo MHCII hi cells from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of White Leghorn chickens
AbstractMonocytes/macrophages, which are found in a variety of organs, maintain tissue homeostasis at a steady state and act as the first line of defence during pathogen-induced inflammation in the host. Most monocyte/macrophage lineage studies in chickens have been largely performed using cell lines, while few studies using primary cells  have been conducted. In the present study, the phenotypic and functional characteristics of splenic monocyte/macrophage lineage cells during steady state and inflammatory conditions were examined. Splenic monocyte/macrophage lineage cells could be identified as MRC1loMHCIIhi and MRC...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 27, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Dihydromyricetin attenuates Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced ileum injury in chickens by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome and TLR4/NF- κB signalling pathway
In this study, DHM significantly attenuated LPS-induced alteration in diamine oxidase, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels in chicken plasma and ileum. Histology evaluation showed that the structure of blood vessels in ileum was seriously fragmented and presence of necrotic tissue in the lumen in the LPS group. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the surface of the villi was rough and uneven, the structure was chaotic, and the normal finger shape was lost in the LPS group. In contrast, 0.05% and 0.1% DHM treatment partially alleviated the abnormal...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The cysteine protease ATG4B of Trichinella spiralis promotes larval invasion into the intestine of the host
In this study, we analysed the cysteine protease ATG4B ofTrichinella spiralis (TsATG4B) isolated from the soluble proteins ofTrichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) adult worms to ascertain its biochemical properties and functions during invasion into the intestine of the host. The 43  kDa recombinant cysteine protease ATG4B protein (rTsATG4B) consists of a conserved peptidase_C54 domain and was expressed inEscherichia coli. Gelatine zymography showed that rTsATG4B could hydrolyse gelatine and that the hydrolytic activity was prevented by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 (pH 5.2). Immunofluorescence assays showed that ...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Systematic identification of chicken type I, II and III interferon-stimulated genes
AbstractInterferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) play an important role in antiviral innate immune responses. Although many ISGs have been identified in mammals, researchers commonly recognize that many more ISGs are yet to be discovered. Current information is still very limited particularly for the systematic identification of type III ISGs. Similarly, current research on ISGs in birds is still in its infancy. The aim of this study was to systematically identify chicken type I (IFN- α), II (IFN-γ) and III (IFN-λ) ISGs and analyze their respective response elements. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was employed to id...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bacillus subtilis spores as adjuvants against avian influenza H9N2 induce antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses in White Leghorn chickens
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect ofB. subtilis spores as adjuvants in chickens administered inactivated avian influenza virus H9N2. Herein, the adjuvanticity ofB. subtilis spores in chickens was demonstrated by enhancement of H9N2 virus-specific IgG responses.B. subtilis spores enhanced the proportion of B cells and the innate cell population in splenocytes from chickens administered both inactivated H9N2 andB. subtilis spores (Spore  + H9N2). Furthermore, the H9N2 and spore administration induced significantly increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of a new effector-immunity pair of Aeromonas hydrophila type VI secretion system
In conclusion, we identified a T6SS effector-immunity pair and verified its function, which lays the foundation for future research on the role of T6SS in the pathogenic mechanism ofA. hydrophila. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - May 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of local and systemic immune responses in pigs experimentally challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
AbstractThe host-associated defence system responsible for the clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from infected pigs is currently poorly understood. To better understand the dynamics of host –pathogen interactions, seventy-five of 100 pigs infected with PRRSV-JA142 and 25 control pigs were euthanized at 3, 10, 21, 28 and 35 days post-challenge (dpc). Blood, lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and bronchial lymph node (BLN) samples were collected to evaluate the cellular immune respons es. The humoral responses were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-PRRSV IgG and serum...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Proteomic analysis revealed T cell hyporesponsiveness induced by Haemonchus contortus excretory and secretory proteins
In this study, we identified 114H. contortus ES proteins (HcESPs) interacting with host T cells and 15 T cell binding receptors via co-immunoprecipitation and shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Based on bioinformatics analysis, we demonstrated that HcESPs could inhibit T cell viability, induce cell apoptosis, suppress T cell proliferation and cause cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, the stimulation of HcESPs exerted critical control effects on T cell cytokine production profiles, predominantly promoting the secretion of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17A and transforming growth factor- β1 and inhib...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Interleukin 4 inducible 1 gene (IL4I1) is induced in chicken phagocytes by Salmonella Enteritidis infection
AbstractIn attempt to identify genes that are induced in chickens bySalmonella Enteritidis we identified a new highly inducible gene, interleukin 4 induced 1 gene (IL4I1). IL4I1 reached its peak expression (458 × induction) in the cecum of newly hatched chickens 4 days post-infection and remained upregulated for an additional 10 days. IL4I1 was expressed and induced in macrophages and granulocytes, both at the mRNA and protein level. IL4I1 was expressed and induced also in CD4 and γδ T-lymphocytes t hough at a 50-fold lower level than in phagocytes. Expression of IL4I1 was not detected in...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

RNA-Seq analysis of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) infected with nodavirus reveals powerful modulation of the stress response
AbstractNodavirus, or nervous necrosis virus (NNV), is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a severe disease affecting numerous fish species worldwide. European sea bass, a cultured species of great economic importance, is highly susceptible to the disease. To better understand the response of this organism to NNV, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis of the brain and head kidney from experimentally infected and uninfected sea bass juveniles at 24 and 72  hours post-infection (hpi). Contrary to what was expected, we observed modest modulation of immune-related genes in the brain, the target orga...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 12, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

First record of experimentally induced salmon gill poxvirus disease (SGPVD) in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)
AbstractSalmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) infection is a common denominator in many cases of complex gill disease in the Norwegian salmon farming industry and may, as a single agent infection, result in salmon poxvirus disease (SGPVD). Experiences from the field suggest that stress may be a decisive factor for the induction of SGPVD. Here we investigated the effect of stress hormone treatment on SGPV kinetics and disease development. In our experiment, Atlantic salmon were divided into four groups. Two groups of fish received an intraperitoneal injection of hydrocortisone dissolved in a fatty vehicle, whereas fish in the other t...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 7, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genetic diversity and population structure of Tenacibaculum maritimum , a serious bacterial pathogen of marine fish: from genome comparisons to high throughput MALDI-TOF typing
AbstractTenacibaculum maritimum is responsible for tenacibaculosis, a devastating marine fish disease. This filamentous bacterium displays a very broad host range and a worldwide geographical distribution. We analyzed and compared the genomes of 25T. maritimum strains, including 22 newly draft-sequenced genomes from isolates selected based on available MLST data, geographical origin and host fish. The genome size (~3.356  Mb in average) of all strains is very similar. The core genome is composed of 2116 protein-coding genes accounting for ~75% of the genes in each genome. These conserved regions harbor a modera...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 7, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Distinct transcriptome signatures of Helicobacter suis and Helicobacter heilmannii strains upon adherence to human gastric epithelial cells
AbstractThe porcineHelicobacter suis and canine-felineH. heilmannii are gastricHelicobacter species with zoonotic potential. However, little is known about the pathogenesis of human infections with theseHelicobacter species. To gain more insight into the interactions of both zoonoticHelicobacter species with human gastric epithelial cells, we investigated bacterial genes that are differentially expressed in aH. suis andH. heilmannii strain after adhesion to the human gastric epithelial cell line MKN7. In vitroHelicobacter-MKN7 binding assays were performed to obtain bacterial RNA for sequencing analysis.H. suis andH. heilm...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 7, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Porcine DNAJB6 promotes PCV2 replication via enhancing the formation of autophagy in host cells
AbstractHsp40/DnaJ family proteins play important roles in the infection process of various viruses. Porcine DNAJB6 (pDNAJB6) is a major member of this family, but its role in modulating the replication of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is still unclear. In the present study, pDNAJB6 was found to be significantly upregulated by PCV2 infection, and confirmed to be interacted with PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein and co-localized at both cytoplasm and nucleus in the PCV2-infected cells. Knockout of pDNAJB6 significantly reduced the formation of autophagosomes in PCV2-infected cells or in the cells expressing Cap protein, whereas ...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 7, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Precise location of linear epitopes on the capsid surface of feline calicivirus recognized by neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies
We report the generation, characterization and epitope mapping of a panel of 26 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the VP1 capsid protein of feline calicivirus (FCV). Two close but distinct linear epitopes were identified at the capsid outermost surface (P2 subdomain) of VP1, within the E5 ′HVR antigenic hypervariable region: one spanning amino acids 431-435 (PAGDY), highly conserved and recognized by non-neutralizing MAbs; and a second epitope spanning amino acids 445-451 (ITTANQY), highly variable and recognized by neutralizing MAbs. These antibodies might be valuable for diagnost ic applications, as well as for ...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 1, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Hayes Yard virus: a novel ephemerovirus isolated from a bull with severe clinical signs of bovine ephemeral fever is most closely related to Puchong virus
AbstractBovine ephemeral fever is a vector-borne disease of ruminants that occurs in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. The disease is caused by a rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), which occurs as a single serotype globally. Although several other closely related ephemeroviruses have been isolated from cattle and/or arthropods, only kotonkan virus from Nigeria and (tentatively) Mavingoni virus from Mayotte Island in the Indian Ocean have been previously associated with febrile disease. Here, we report the isolation of a novel virus (Hayes Yard virus; HYV) from blood collected i...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 29, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Influenza NG-34 T cell conserved epitope adjuvanted with CAF01 as a possible influenza vaccine candidate
AbstractConserved epitopes are targets commonly researched to be part of universal vaccine candidates against influenza viruses (IV). These conserved epitopes need to be cross-protecting against distinct IV subtypes and to have a strong immunogenic potential. Nevertheless, subunit vaccines generally require a strong adjuvant to enhance their immunological effects. Herewith, we compare four different adjuvants differing in their immunological signatures that may enhance efficacy of a conserved hemagglutinin (HA)-epitope from IV, the NG-34, to define the most efficient combination of antigen/adjuvant to combat IV infections....
Source: Veterinary Research - April 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of in feed administration of different butyrate formulations on Salmonella Enteritidis colonization and cecal microbiota in broilers
In conclusion, formulations that increase cecal butyrate concentrations are superior in protecting againstSalmonella Enteritidis colonization. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - April 19, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Capsulized faecal microbiota transplantation ameliorates post-weaning diarrhoea by modulating the gut microbiota in piglets
AbstractEarly weaning-induced stress causes diarrhoea, thereby reducing the growth performance of piglets. Gut bacterial dysbiosis has emerged as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhoea. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of capsulized faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on the gut bacterial community, immune response and gut barrier function of piglets. Thirty-two weaned barrows were randomly divided into two groups. The recipient group was inoculated orally with capsulized faecal microbiota of healthy Tibetan pigs during the whole period of the trial, while the control group was given an empty capsul...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 16, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The presence of Mycoplasma bovis in colostrum
AbstractIn herds withMycoplasma bovis circulation, colostrum is often considered infectious. However, in contrast to milk, the presence ofM. bovis in colostrum was not previously evidenced. In this survey, the presence ofM. bovis DNA was determined with real-time PCR in 368 colostrum samples from 17 herds, recently infected withM. bovis. Only 1.9% of the samples tested positive, with 13 herds having no positive samples and an overall within-herd prevalence of 3.2% (SD: 4.9%; Range: 0 –30.0%). These results show that in infected herdsM. bovis DNA can be retrieved in colostrum. To what extend colostrum is infectious re...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 16, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Newcastle disease virus RNA-induced IL-1 β expression via the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome
This study showed that overexpressio n of NLRP3 resulted in increased IL-1β expression, whereas inhibition of NLRP3 or caspase-1 caused a significant reduction in IL-1β expression, indicating that the NLRP3/caspase-1 axis is involved in NDV-induced IL-1β expression. Moreover, ultraviolet-inactivated GM (chicken/Guangdong/GM/2014) ND V failed to induce the expression of IL-1β. We then collected virus from GM-infected cell culture supernatant using ultracentrifugation, extracted the viral RNA, and stimulated the cells further with GM RNA. The results revealed that RNA alone was capable of inducing IL-1&be...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Scoring pleurisy in slaughtered pigs using convolutional neural networks
AbstractDiseases of the respiratory system are known to negatively impact the profitability of the pig industry, worldwide. Considering the relatively short lifespan of pigs, lesions can be still evident at slaughter, where they can be usefully recorded and scored. Therefore, the slaughterhouse represents a key check-point to assess the health status of pigs, providing unique and valuable feedback to the farm, as well as an important source of data for epidemiological studies. Although relevant, scoring lesions in slaughtered pigs represents a very time-consuming and costly activity, thus making difficult their systematic ...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Mycoplasma gallisepticum triggers immune damage in the chicken thymus by activating the TLR-2/MyD88/NF- κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome
AbstractPrevious studies reported thatMycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) causes immune dysregulation in chickens. However, the underlying mechanisms of immune dysregulation in chickens are still unclear. The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ where the proliferation, differentiation and selection of T-lymphocytes occur, whereas T-lymphocytes play a crucial role in innate immune responses. To evaluate the effects of MG-infection on chicken thymus, White Leghorn chickens were divided into (1) control group and (2) MG-infection group. ATPase activities were detected by commercial kits. The hallmarks of inflammation, autophagy and ...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The effect of different dietary ratios of lysine and arginine in diets with high or low methionine levels on oxidative and epigenetic DNA damage, the gene expression of tight junction proteins and selected metabolic parameters in Clostridium perfringens -challenged turkeys
AbstractTwo experiments were performed to investigate the effect of different ratios of arginine (Arg) to lysine (Lys) in diets with low (30% Lys; Experiment 1) and high (45% Lys; Experiment 2) methionine (Met) levels on selected metabolic parameters, oxidative and epigenetic DNA damage, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal barrier integrity in turkeys challenged withClostridium perfringens. In each experiment, 108 one-day-old Hybrid Converter female turkeys were placed in 6 pens (18 birds per pen) and reared for 42  days. At 34, 36 and 37 days of age, half of the birds were subjected toC. perfringens challen...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 7, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparison of pathogenicity of subtype H9 avian influenza wild-type viruses from a wide geographic origin expressing mono-, di-, or tri-basic hemagglutinin cleavage sites
AbstractAn intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of>  1.2 in chickens or, in case of subtypes H5 and H7, expression of a polybasic hemagglutinin cleavage site (HACS), signals high pathogenicity (HP). Viruses of the H9N2-G1 lineage, which spread across Asia and Africa, are classified to be of low pathogenicity although, in the field, they became asso ciated with severe clinical signs and epizootics in chickens. Here we report on a pre-eminent trait of recent H9N2-G1 isolates from Bangladesh and India, which express a tribasic HACS (motif PAKSKR-GLF; reminiscent of an HPAIV-like polybasic HACS) and compare their f...
Source: Veterinary Research - March 31, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research