Shotgun proteomic analysis of Yersinia ruckeri strains under normal and iron-limited conditions
AbstractYersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease of fish that causes significant economic losses, particularly in salmonids. Bacterial pathogens differentially express proteins in the host during the infection process, and under certain environmental conditions. Iron is an essential nutrient for many cellular processes and is involved in host sensing and virulence regulation in many bacteria. Little is known about proteomics expression ofY. ruckeri in response to iron-limited conditions. Here, we present whole cell protein identification and quantification for two motile and two non-motile strain...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 6, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genetic, histochemical and biochemical studies on goat TSE cases from Cyprus
AbstractScrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE ’s) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE’s. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie eradication program on Cyprus were genotyped and further characterized using BioRad TeSeE rapid test, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. In total 42 goats from 20 flocks were necropsied from which 25 goats show...
Source: Veterinary Research - October 6, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The impact of co-infections on fish: a review
We present a concise summary about the present knowledge regarding co-infections in fish. More research is needed to better understand the immune response of fish during mixed infections as these could have an important impact on the development of new strategies for disease control programs and vaccination in fish. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - October 4, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Acute and chronic infections with nonprimate hepacivirus in young horses
AbstractThe recently discovered nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) naturally infects horses and is the closest known homolog of hepatitis C virus to date. Within a follow-up study acute field infections were monitored in four young Thoroughbred horses until the ages of 12 –13 months. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of NPHV RNA and anti-NPHV NS3 antibodies and liver specific parameters were evaluated. The four young horses were not able to clear infection, but remained chronically infected for the entire monitored time period despite the presence of NP HV specific antibodies. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 22, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Goat K 222 -PrP C polymorphic variant does not provide resistance to atypical scrapie in transgenic mice
AbstractHost prion (PrPC) genotype is a major determinant for the susceptibility to prion diseases. The Q/K222-PrPC polymorphic variant provides goats and mice with high resistance against classical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); yet its effect against atypical scrapie is unknown. Here, transgenic mice expressing the goat wild-type (wt) or the K222-PrPC variant were intracerebrally inoculated with several natural cases of atypical scrapie from sheep and goat and their susceptibility to the prion disease was determined. Goat wt and K222-PrPC transgenic mice were 100% susceptible to all the atypical scra...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 22, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Erratum to: Maternally-derived antibodies do not prevent transmission of  swine influenza A virus between pigs
(Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 21, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

First case of chronic wasting disease in Europe in a Norwegian free-ranging reindeer
AbstractChronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal contagious prion disease in cervids that is enzootic in some areas in North America. The disease has been found in deer, elk and moose in the USA and Canada, and in South Korea following the importation of infected animals. Here we report the first case of CWD in Europe, in a Norwegian free-ranging reindeer in Southern Norway. The origin of the disease is unknown. Until now a low number of cervids, and among them a few reindeer, have been tested for CWD in Norway. Therefore the prevalence of CWD is unknown. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - September 15, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Two outer membrane proteins are bovine lactoferrin-binding proteins in Mannheimia haemolytica A1
AbstractMannheimia haemolytica is a Gram negative bacterium that is part of the bovine respiratory disease, which causes important economic losses in the livestock industry. In the present work, the interaction betweenM. haemolytica A1 and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) was studied. This iron-chelating glycoprotein is part of the mammalian innate-immune system and is present in milk and mucosal secretions; Lf is also contained in neutrophils secondary granules, which release this glycoprotein at infection sites. It was evidenced thatM. haemolytica was not able to use iron-charged BLf (BholoLf) as a sole iron source; nevertheless...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 6, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Membrane-associated GRP78 helps subgroup J avian leucosis virus enter cells
AbstractWe previously identified chicken Annexin A2 (chANXA2) as a novel receptor for retrovirus avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), using a DF1 cell line expressing the viral envelope (env) protein. To further probe whether other proteins participate in virus infection, we investigated several host proteins from co-immunoprecipitation with the DF1 cell line expressing viral env. Mass spectrometry analysis indicates that the chicken glucose-regulation protein 78 (chGRP78) of the DF1 membrane interacted with the ALV-J env protein. The results revealed that antibodies or siRNA to chGRP78 significantly inhibited ALV-J in...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 6, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of epitopes recognised by mucosal CD4 + T-cell populations from cattle experimentally colonised with Escherichia coli O157:H7
This study mapped the epitopes of 16 EHEC O157:H7 proteins recognised by rectal lymph node CD4+ T-cells from calves colonised with Shiga toxin producing EHEC O157:H7 strains. 20 CD4+ T-cell epitopes specific toE. coli from 7 of the proteins were identified. The highly conserved N-terminal region of Intimin, including the signal peptide, was consistently recognised by mucosal CD4+ T-cell populations from multiple animals of different major histocompatibility complex class II haplotypes. These T-cell epitopes are missing from many Intimin constructs used in published vaccine trials, but are relatively conserved across a rang...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 2, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A formalin-inactivated immunogen against viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) disease in European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ): immunological and protection effects
AbstractThe European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is an important farmed fish species in the Mediterranean area, very sensitive to the infection by encephalopathy and retinopathy virus (VERv), orBetanodavirus, which causes massive mortalities. Effective vaccines to fight the pathology are not yet available and in this work we describe a promising intraperitoneal immunization route against VERv of sea bass juveniles. We performed intraperitoneal and immersion immunization trials with a VERv (isolate 283.2009 RGNNV) inactivated by formalin, β-propiolactone and heat treatment. Interestingly, the intraperitoneal immuni...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 2, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The activation of p38MAPK and JNK pathways in bovine herpesvirus 1 infected MDBK cells
AbstractWe have shown previously that BHV-1 infection activates Erk1/2 signaling. Here, we show that BHV-1 provoked an early-stage transient and late-stage sustained activation of JNK, p38MAPK and c-Jun signaling in MDBK cells. C-Jun phosphorylation was dependent on JNK. These early events were partially due to the viral entry process. Unexpectedly, reactive oxygen species were not involved in the later activation phase. Interestingly, only activated JNK facilitated the viral multiplication identified through both chemical inhibitor and siRNA. Collectively, this study provides insight into our understanding of early stages...
Source: Veterinary Research - September 2, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pyruvate kinase is necessary for Brucella abortus full virulence in BALB/c mouse
In this study, we found that a carbon metabolism-related pyruvate kinase (Pyk) encoded bypyk gene (locus tag BAB_RS24320) was associated withBrucella virulence. Determination of bacterial growth curves and resistance to environmental stress factors showed that Pyk plays an important role inB. abortus growth, especially under the conditions of nutrition deprivation, and resistance to oxidative stress. Additionally, cell infection assay showed that Pyk is necessary forB. abortus survival and evading fusion with lysosomes within RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, animal experiments exhibited that the Pyk deletion significantly reduced...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 25, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cortisol directly impacts Flavobacterium columnare in vitro growth characteristics
AbstractTeleost fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis to release glucocorticoids, in particular cortisol, into the blood. For the majority of bacterial fish pathogens, stress is considered a key factor in disease outbreaks. Based upon studies in mammals, there is considerable evidence to suggest that, besides impairing the immune system, cortisol can have a direct effect on bacterial cells. Hitherto, this intriguing field of microbial endocrinology has remained largely unexplored in aquatic diseases. The present study investiga...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 17, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Variations in T cell transcription factor gene structure and expression associated with the two disease forms of sheep paratuberculosis
AbstractTwo different forms of clinical paratuberculosis in sheep are recognised, related to the level of bacterial colonization. Paucibacillary lesions are largely composed of lymphocytes with few bacteria, and multibacillary pathology is characterized by heavily-infected macrophages. Analysis of cytokine transcripts has shown that inflammatory Th1/Th17 T cells are associated with development of paucibacillary pathology and Th2 cytokines are correlated with multibacillary disease. The master regulator T cell transcription factorsTBX21,GATA3,RORC2 andRORA are critical for the development of these T cell subsets. Sequence v...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 17, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Maternally-derived antibodies do not prevent transmission of swine influenza A virus between pigs
AbstractA transmission experiment involving 5-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) piglets, with (MDA+) or without maternally-derived antibodies (MDA−), was carried out to evaluate the impact of passive immunity on the transmission of a swine influenza A virus (swIAV). In each group (MDA+/MDA−), 2 seeders were placed with 4 piglets in direct contact and 5 in indirect contact (3 replicates per group). Serological kinetics (ELISA) and individual viral shedding (RT-PCR) were monitored for 28  days after infection. MDA waning was estimated using a nonlinear mixed-effects model and survival analysis. Different...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 17, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Interactions between natural killer cells and dendritic cells favour T helper1-type responses to BCG in calves
This study provides novel evidence to demonstrate that NK cells phenotypically and functionally mature after interactions with DCs in the co ntext of BCG. Furthermore, through the production of IFN-γ and IL-12 by NK cells and DCs respectively, this interaction may drive protective Th1-type immune responses toMycobacteria. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 17, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Prevention of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis after oral vaccination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis Δ tolC and Δ acrABacrEFmdtABC mutants
In this study, the efficacy ofSalmonella EnteritidisΔtolC andΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains in laying hens as live vaccines was evaluated. The mutants are deficient in either the membrane channel TolC (ΔtolC) or the multi-drug efflux systems acrAB, acrEF and mdtABC (ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC). These strains have a decreased ability for gut and tissue colonization and are unable to survive in egg white, the latter preventing transmission of the vaccine strains to humans. Two groups of 30 laying hens were orally inoculated at day 1, 6  weeks and 16 weeks of age with 108 cfu of either vaccine strain,...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 12, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Data-driven network modelling of disease transmission using complete population movement data: spread of VTEC O157 in Swedish cattle
In this study, all Swedish livestock data (births, movements and slaughter) from July 1st 2005 to December 31st 2013 were included in the simulations. VerotoxigenicEscherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC O157) are capable of causing serious illness in humans. Cattle are considered to be the main reservoir of the bacteria. A better understanding of the epidemiology in the cattle population is necessary to be able to design and deploy targeted measures to reduce the VTEC O157 prevalence and, subsequently, human exposure. To explore the spread of VTEC O157 in the entire Swedish cattle population during the period under study, a within...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 11, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Baicalin suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κB) signaling during Haemophilus parasuis infection
This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of BA onH. parasuis-induced inflammatory responses via the NF- κB and NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in piglet mononuclear phagocytes (PMNP). Our data demonstrate that PMNP, when infected withH. parasuis, induced ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, promoted apoptosis, and initiated transcription expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, PGE2, COX-2 and TNF- α via the NF-κB signaling pathway, and IL-1β and IL-18 via the NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway. Moreover, when BA was administrated, we observed a reduction in ROS production, supp...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Passive immunization does not provide protection against experimental infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis
In conclusion, passive immunization does not prevent bacteremia and clinical disease following homologous challenge withMhf, but enhances RBC osmotic fragility and induces a pronounced immune response. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 5, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Vaccination sequence effects on immunological response and tissue bacterial burden in paratuberculosis infection in a rabbit model
In conclusion, vaccination against MAP shows positive effects in a rabbit model. However, vaccination after infection shows a slightly stronger protective effect compared to vaccination before infection, suggesting a therapeutic effect. This feature could be applied to previously infect ed adult animals under field conditions. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 5, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Vaccination against pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., reduces shedding of salmonid alphavirus
In this study, we demonstrate that vaccination against PD significantly reduces viral shedding from infected individuals. The results suggest that PD vaccination can be an important tool to reduce the infection pressure, a known key risk for PD outbreaks at neighbouring farms. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - August 5, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Chicken interferome: avian interferon-stimulated genes identified by microarray and RNA-seq of primary chick embryo fibroblasts treated with a chicken type I interferon (IFN- α)
This study focusses on the potentially anti-viral genes by identifying those induced just by interferon in primary chick embryo fibroblasts. Three transcriptomic technologies were exploited: RNA-seq, a classical 3′-biased chicken microarray and a high density, “sense target”, whole transcriptome chicken microarray, with each recognising 120–150 regulated genes (curated for duplication and inc orrect assignment of some microarray probesets). Overall, the results are considered robust because 128 of the compiled, curated list of 193 regulated genes were detected by two, or more, of the technologies. (...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 5, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Relationships of CD163 and CD169 positive cell numbers in the endometrium and fetal placenta with type 2 PRRSV RNA concentration in fetal thymus
The objectives of this study were to investigate associations between numbers of CD163 and CD169 positive macrophages, cathepsin positive areolae, and type 2 PRRSV load at the maternal –fetal interface in order to examine important factors related to transplacental infection. On gestation day 85 ± 1, naïve pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114) or were sham inoculated (n = 19). At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied. Samples of the maternal–fetal interface (uterus with fully attached placenta) ...
Source: Veterinary Research - August 5, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental bluetongue virus superinfection in calves previously immunized with bluetongue virus serotype 8
Abstract The effect of a superinfection with bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV1) was evaluated on two groups of four calves. One group received a commercial inactivated BTV serotype 8 (BTV8) vaccine. This group and the non-vaccinated group of calves were challenged twice (4  months apart) with the European BTV8 strain isolated during the 2006–2007 epidemics. Calves were then infected with a BTV1 inoculum which was found to be unexpectedly contaminated by BTV serotype 15 (BTV15). BTV1 and BTV15 single infections were performed on two other groups of three BTV naïve calves. A severe clinical picture was obtai...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 28, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Avian Tembusu virus infection effectively triggers host innate immune response through MDA5 and TLR3-dependent signaling pathways
In this study, we found that ATMUV infection significantly up-regulated the expression of type I and type III interferons (IFN) and some critical IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) in vivo and in vitro. This innate immune response was induced by genomic RNA of ATMUV. Furthermore, we observed that ATMUV infection triggered IFN response mainly through MDA5 and TLR3-dependent signaling pathways. Strikingly, shRNA-based disruption of IPS-1, IRF3 or IRF7 expression significantly reduced the production of IFN in the 293T cell model. Moreover, NF- κB was shown to be activated in both chicken and human cells during the ATMUV infecti...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 22, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Distinct immune responses of juvenile and adult oysters ( Crassostrea gigas ) to viral and bacterial infections
This study provides molecular evidence that oysters can mount distinct immune response to viral and bacterial pathogens and these responses differ depending on the age of the host. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - July 21, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Influence of orally fed a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics on intestinal T-cell migration in weaned MUC4 resistant pigs following Escherichia coli challenge
Abstract Efficient strategies for treating enteritis caused by F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)/verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)/enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in mucin 4 resistant (MUC4 RR; supposed to be F4ab/ac receptor–negative [F4ab/acR−]) pigs remain elusive. A low (3.9 × 108 CFU/day) or high (7.8 × 108 CFU/day) dose of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spore mixture (BLS-mix) was orally administered to MUC4 RR piglets for 1 week before F4+ ETEC/VTEC/EPEC challenge. Orally fed BLS-mix upregulated the expression of TLR4, NOD2, i...
Source: Veterinary Research - July 16, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Productive replication of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus in peripheral blood monocytic cells, a strategy for viral dissemination and kidney infection in chickens
In conclusion, only B1648 can easily disseminate to internal organs via a cell-free and -associated viremia with KUL01+ cells as important carrier cells. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - July 13, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The outcome of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) by fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) is crucially influenced by the genetic background of the host
Abstract In the present study, inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was experimentally induced by oral inoculation of two groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) broilers and two groups of SPF layers at day-old with either a fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV)-D or a FAdV-E strain. A substantial variation in the degree of susceptibility was observed with mortalities of 100 and 96% in the FAdV-E and D infected SPF broiler groups, respectively, whereas in the groups of infected SPF layers mortalities of only 20 and 8% were noticed. Significant changes in clinical chemistry analytes of all infected birds together with histopathologi...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 29, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

“Self-cleaving” 2A peptide from porcine teschovirus-1 mediates cleavage of dual fluorescent proteins in transgenic Eimeria tenella
In this study, we introduced a single 2A sequence of porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A) linked to two fluorescent protein genes, the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) gene and the red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene, in a single cassette into transgenic Eimeria tenella (EtER). As expected, we obtained two separated protein molecules rather than a fused protein, although the two molecules were translated from the same mRNA carrying a single “self-cleaving” 2A sequence. Importantly, RFP led by a secretion signal was secreted into parasitophorous vacuoles, while EYFP localized mainly to the nucleus of EtER. Our r...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 28, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pathogenicity of reassortant H9 influenza viruses with different NA genes in mice and chickens
Abstract To better understand the influence of different NA genes on pathogenicity of H9 viruses, three reassortant H9 viruses (rH9N1, H9N2 and rH9N3) were generated and characterized. All three viruses replicated efficiently in eggs and MDCK cells, whereas the rH9N1 and rH9N3 replicated more efficiently than H9N2 in A549 cells. The rH9N3 replicated more efficiently than rH9N1 and H9N2 viruses in mice, however, rH9N3 replicated and shed less efficiently than the H9N2 virus in chickens. Further studies indicate that N3 had higher NA activity and released virus from erythrocytes faster, which may improve the adapta...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 24, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Variation in hemolytic activity of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strains from pigs
Abstract Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the primary cause of swine dysentery, which is responsible for major economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. The hemolytic activity of 10 B. hyodysenteriae strains isolated from stools of pigs with mild to mucohemorrhagic diarrhea was compared and seven hemolysis associated genes were sequenced. Hemolysis induced by these strains varied from strong to near absent. One weakly hemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain showed sequence changes in five hemolysis associated genes (tlyA, tlyB, hemolysin III, hemolysin activation protein and hemolysin III channel pro...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 23, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The novel chicken interleukin 26 protein is overexpressed in T cells and induces proinflammatory cytokines
Abstract In the present study, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of chicken interleukin 26 (ChIL-26). ChIL-26, a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines by T cells. The ChIL-26 cDNA encodes an 82-amino-acid protein whose amino acid sequence has 22.63, 46.31 and 43.15% homology with human IL-26, pig IL-26 and canary IL-26, respectively. ChIL-26 signals through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of the IL-20R1 and IL-10R2 chains, which are expressed primarily in the CU91 T cell line as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Recombinant ChIL-26 pr...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 16, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Enhanced protective immunity of the chimeric vector-based vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2 against classical swine fever in pigs by a Salmonella bacterial ghost adjuvant
This study was designed to test the adjuvant effects of Salmonella enteritidis-derived bacterial ghosts (BG) to enhance the protective immunity of rAdV-SFV-E2 in pigs. Groups of 5-week-old pigs (n = 4) were immunized intramuscularly twice with 105 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) rAdV-SFV-E2 combined with 1010 colony forming units (CFU) BG, 106 or 105 TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 alone or 1010 CFU BG alone at an interval of 3 weeks, and challenged with the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain at 1 week post-booster immunization. The results show that the pigs inoculated with 105 TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 plu...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 14, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Epidemiological characteristics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV): a review
Abstract Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV, Rhabdoviridae), is the causative agent of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), a disease notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health, and various countries and trading areas (including the European Union). IHNV is an economically important pathogen causing clinical disease and mortalities in a wide variety of salmonid species, including the main salmonid species produced in aquaculture, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We reviewed the scientific literature on IHNV on a range of topics, including geographic...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 10, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Experimental infection of cows with newly isolated Akabane virus strain (AKAV-7) causing encephalomyelitis
Abstract Akabane virus (AKAV), an arthropod-transmitted bunyavirus, is a major cause of congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis in ruminants. In 2010, there was a major outbreak of encephalomyelitis in Korea and fifteen AKAV strains, including AKAV-7, were isolated from cows. To identify the neuropathogenicity of AKAV-7, we performed experimental infection of cows. Six-month-old female Korean Holstein dairy cattle were inoculated with AKAV-7 by various routes, including intracerebral (IC), intrasubarachnoid space (IS), subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV); a separate group was vaccinated before intraveno...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 10, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Kinetics of the West Nile virus induced transcripts of selected cytokines and Toll-like receptors in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells
This study aimed to elucidate the transcription kinetics of cytokine, Toll-like receptor (TLRs) and TLRs-associated genes following WNV challenge of equine PBMCs. PBMCs were challenged with an Australian strain of WNV (WNVNSW2011) and transcriptomes were quantified at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h post-infection (pi) using qRT-PCR. Type I and II interferons (IFNα, β and γ) mRNA transcription increased following WNV exposure, as did the transcripts for IL1α, IL1β, IL6, IL8, and IL22, but with slightly varying kinetics. TLR1, 3, 5, 7-9 transcripts were also upregulated in equine PBMCsin response to WNV c...
Source: Veterinary Research - June 7, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis secreting detoxified heat labile toxin enhances mucosal immunity and confers protection against wild-type challenge in chickens
In conclusion, we report here that dmLT could be biologically incorporated in the secretion system of a live attenuated Salmonella-based vaccine, and that this construction is safe and could enhance mucosal immunity, and protect immunized birds against wild-type challenge. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - June 4, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Serum-derived exosomes from non-viremic animals previously exposed to the porcine respiratory and reproductive virus contain antigenic viral proteins
Abstract PRRSV is the etiological agent of one of the most important swine diseases with a significant economic burden worldwide and limitations in vaccinology. Exosomes are 30–100 nm vesicles of endocytic origin. Remarkably, immunizations with exosomes containing antigens from tumors or pathogens are capable of eliciting protective immune responses, albeit variably, in cancer and infectious diseases. Here we describe the isolation, molecular composition and immunogenicity of serum-derived exosomes from naïve animals, from PRRSV viremic animals and from animals previously PRRSV infected but alread...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 31, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vivo therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of colistin sulfate in an experimental model of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in weaned pigs
In this study, 96 pigs were divided into two trials based on CS dose (100 000 or 50 000 IU/kg). Fecal shedding of ETEC: F4, total E. coli, and CS-resistant E. coli, diarrhea scores, and weight changes were evaluated. Colistin sulfate plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC–MS/MS. Regardless of the dose, CS treatment resulted in a reduction of fecal ETEC: F4 and total E. coli shedding, and in diarrhea scores but only during the treatment period. However, CS treatment resulted in a slight increase in fecal shedding of CS resistant E. coli and did not prevent weight loss in challenged pigs. In addition, chall...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 27, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Piscine orthoreovirus can infect and shed through the intestine in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)
Abstract Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is a ubiquitous virus in Norwegian salmon farms associated with the disease heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). Experimental challenge has shown that the virus replicates in circulating red blood cells of Atlantic salmon prior to infecting heart myocytes. The infection route from water to blood is however still unknown. The related mammalian orthoreovirus primarily infects the lungs and gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is proposed to spread mainly through the faecal–oral route. To investigate the role of the salmonid GI tract in PRV-infection, o...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 23, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers
In conclusion, these results suggest that S. chromogenes might be better adapted to the mammary gland than S. fleurettii. Furthermore, not all S. chromogenes strains induce the same local host response. (Source: Veterinary Research)
Source: Veterinary Research - May 12, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Induction of mycoplasmal pneumonia in experimentally infected pigs by means of different inoculation routes
Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of three different inoculation routes into mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP) in pigs challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). Thirty six-week-old M. hyopneumoniae seronegative piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: three challenged groups with experimentally inoculated pigs by either the endotracheal (ET; n = 8), intranasal (IN; n = 8) or aerosol (AE; n = 8) routes and one uninfected group (Control; n = 6). Blood samples were collected 1 day before challenge and at necropsy, 28 days p...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Both tumour cells and infiltrating T-cells in equine sarcoids express FOXP3 associated with an immune-supressed cytokine microenvironment
Abstract Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) infections of equine species have a central role in the aetiology of equine sarcoids; a common benign skin tumour of horses, zebras and donkeys. Within the lesions, all of the early papillomavirus genes are expressed and promote the excessive replication of fibroblasts which characterise these tumours. Equine sarcoids differ from BPV induced fibro-papillomas of cattle (the natural host of BPV), in that they do not produce high amounts of virus particles, do not usually regress spontaneously and do not sero-convert to BPV; features which suggest that affected horses lack an eff...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Enhanced replication of avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus in eggs, cell cultures and mice by a two-amino acid insertion in neuraminidase stalk
Abstract Canine influenza virus (CIV) is a newly identified, highly contagious respiratory pathogen in dogs. Recent studies indicate that avian-origin H3N2 CIV are circulating in Chinese dogs. To investigate the effects of a two-amino acid (2-aa) insertion naturally occurring at the distal end of the neuraminidase (NA) stalk found in Chinese isolates since 2010 on virus replication and virulence, we rescued the CIV strain, A/canine/Jiangsu/06/2011(H3N2) and its NA mutant without the 2-aa insertion using reverse genetics. The NA stalk length affected virus growth in cell culture. Compared to the short stalk strain...
Source: Veterinary Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The C-terminal domain of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin as a vaccine candidate against bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis
Abstract Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is caused by Clostridium perfringens and leads to sudden death. Alpha toxin, together with perfringolysin O, has been identified as the principal toxin involved in the pathogenesis. We assessed the potential of alpha toxin as a vaccine antigen. Using an intestinal loop model in calves, we investigated the protection afforded by antisera raised against native alpha toxin or its non-toxic C-terminal fragment against C. perfringens-induced intestinal necrosis. Immunization of calves with either of the vaccine preparations induced a strong antibody response. The resulting an...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 27, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sublethal effects of acaricides and Nosema ceranae infection on immune related gene expression in honeybees
Abstract Nosema ceranae is an obligate intracellular parasite and the etiologic agent of Nosemosis that affects honeybees. Beside the stress caused by this pathogen, honeybee colonies are exposed to pesticides under beekeeper intervention, such as acaricides to control Varroa mites. These compounds can accumulate at high concentrations in apicultural matrices. In this work, the effects of parasitosis/acaricide on genes involved in honeybee immunity and survival were evaluated. Nurse bees were infected with N. ceranae and/or were chronically treated with sublethal doses of coumaphos or tau-fluvalin...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 26, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus equi ssp . zooepidemicus immunogenic GroEL protein involved in biofilm formation
In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to search for immunogenic proteins expressed by biofilm-grown S. equi spp. zooepidemicus. Seventeen immunoreactive proteins were found, of which nine common immunoreactive proteins were identified in planktonic and biofilm-grown bacteria. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the S. equi spp. zooepidemicus immunoreactive GroEL chaperone protein was further investigated in mice. The protein was expressed in vivo and elicited high antibody titers following S. equi spp. zooepidemicus infections of mice. An animal challenge experiment with S. equi spp. zooepidemicus sh...
Source: Veterinary Research - April 18, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research